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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922848/aggressive-behavior-in-silent-subtype-iii-pituitary-adenomas-may-depend-on-suppression-of-local-immune-response-a-whole-transcriptome-analysis
#1
Timothy E Richardson, Zhong-Jian Shen, Mohammed Kanchwala, Chao Xing, Alexander Filatenkov, Ping Shang, Samuel Barnett, Zahidur Abedin, James S Malter, Jack M Raisanen, Dennis K Burns, Charles L White, Kimmo J Hatanpaa
Silent subtype III pituitary adenomas (SS-3) are clinically nonfunctional adenomas that are more aggressive in terms of invasion and risk of recurrence than their conventional null cell counterparts. We previously showed that these tumors can be distinguished by immunohistochemistry based on the identification of a markedly enlarged and fragmented Golgi apparatus. To understand the molecular correlates of differential aggressiveness, we performed whole transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) on 4 SS-3 and 4 conventional null cell adenomas...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921160/gp2013-a-rituximab-biosimilar
#2
Hannah A Blair
GP2013 is the second biosimilar of the reference monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody rituximab to be approved in the EU. It is approved for use in all indications for which reference rituximab is approved, including follicular lymphoma (FL), diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. GP2013 has similar physicochemical and pharmacodynamic properties to those of reference rituximab, and the pharmacokinetic biosimilarity of the agents has been shown in patients with RA...
September 18, 2017: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919998/reciprocal-influence-of-b-cells-and-tumor-macro-and-microenvironments-in-the-apc-min-model-of-colorectal-cancer
#3
Francesca Mion, Stefania Vetrano, Silvia Tonon, Viviana Valeri, Andrea Piontini, Alessia Burocchi, Luciana Petti, Barbara Frossi, Alessandro Gulino, Claudio Tripodo, Mario P Colombo, Carlo E Pucillo
One of the most fascinating aspects of the immune system is its dynamism, meant as the ability to change and readapt according to the organism needs. Following an insult, we assist to the spontaneous organization of different immune cells which cooperate, locally and at distance, to build up an appropriate response. Throughout tumor progression, adaptations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis to distal organs, but also to dramatic changes in the activity and composition of the immune system...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918424/systemic-inflammatory-response-is-a-prognostic-marker-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
David J Pinato, Marco Merli, Alessia Dalla Pria, Shiraz Jamshaid, Kizzy Parker, Nicole Pagani, Hamid Hasson, Caterina Uberti Foppa, Emanuela Messina, Rohini Sharma, Mark Nelson, Mark Bower
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasingly prevalent in people living with HIV. Systemic inflammation is a prognostic factor requiring validation in HIV-associated HCC. AIMS: Using a multi-centre database of consecutive HCC cases, we investigated the prognostic role of a panel of inflammatory markers, including neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), using univariate and multivariate survival analyses. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with HIV-associated HCC secondary to hepatitis C (69%) or B virus infection (32%) were identified...
September 16, 2017: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915679/prognostic-role-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#5
Xiao Zheng, Xing Song, Yingjie Shao, Bin Xu, Lujun Chen, Qi Zhou, Wenwei Hu, Dachuan Zhang, Changping Wu, Min Tao, Yibei Zhu, Jingting Jiang
BACKGROUND: In patients with gastric cancer, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is still controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of TILs in gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identify studies from PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to assess the prognostic effect of TILs in patients with gastric cancer. Fixed-effects models or random-effects models were used estimate the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), which depend on the heterogeneity...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915659/data-driven-analysis-of-immune-infiltrate-in-a-large-cohort-of-breast-cancer-and-its-association-with-disease-progression-er-activity-and-genomic-complexity
#6
Ruth Dannenfelser, Marianne Nome, Andliena Tahiri, Josie Ursini-Siegel, Hans Kristian Moen Vollan, Vilde D Haakensen, Åslaug Helland, Bjørn Naume, Carlos Caldas, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Vessela N Kristensen, Olga G Troyanskaya
The tumor microenvironment is now widely recognized for its role in tumor progression, treatment response, and clinical outcome. The intratumoral immunological landscape, in particular, has been shown to exert both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects. Identifying immunologically active or silent tumors may be an important indication for administration of therapy, and detecting early infiltration patterns may uncover factors that contribute to early risk. Thus far, direct detailed studies of the cell composition of tumor infiltration have been limited; with some studies giving approximate quantifications using immunohistochemistry and other small studies obtaining detailed measurements by isolating cells from excised tumors and sorting them using flow cytometry...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901482/detection-of-rack1-and-ctnnbl1%C3%A2-induced-activation-of-mouse-splenocytes-using-an-immunoprecipitation%C3%A2-based-technique
#7
Bohan Dong, Guangli Dai, Lei Xu, Damin Shi
Tumor cell lysates (TCLs) have been reported to induce antitumor immunity; however, it remains unclear which elements serve a role in this process. The present study identified 768 proteins that were upregulated in TCL prepared from Lewis lung cancer cells compared with the lysate from type II alveolar epithelial cells. Among the proteins that were upregulated in TCL, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) and catenin β‑like 1 (CTNNBL1) are closely associated with cell proliferation and the inhibition of apoptosis...
September 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890185/stromal-clusterin-expression-predicts-therapeutic-response-to-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#8
Yihong Wang, Alexander S Brodsky, Jinjun Xiong, Mary L Lopresti, Dongfang Yang, Murray B Resnick
BACKGROUND: Expression of clusterin correlates with tumor progression and therapeutic response in several human malignancies, including breast cancer. However, its predictive value in the neoadjuvant setting in breast cancer remains unexplored. The objective of this explorative study was to determine whether clusterin expression in breast cancer correlated with clinical pathologic characteristics and whether its expression was predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We determined the clusterin expression pattern in 72 triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) treated with NAC before surgery...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883079/folate-dietary-insufficiency-and-folic-acid-supplementation-similarly-impair-metabolism-and-compromise-hematopoiesis
#9
Curtis J Henry, Travis Nemkov, Matias Casas-Selves, Ganna Bilousova, Vadym Zaberezhnyy, Kelly C Higa, Natalie J Serkova, Krik C Hansen, Angelo D' Alessandro, James DeGregori
While dietary folate deficiency is associated with increased risk for birth defects and other diseases, evidence suggests that supplementation with folic acid can contribute to predisposition to some diseases, including immune dysfunction and cancer. Here we show that diets supplemented with folic acid both below and above the recommended levels led to significantly altered metabolism in multiple tissues in mice. Surprisingly, both low and excessive dietary folate induced similar metabolic changes, which were particularly evident for nucleotide biosynthetic pathways in B-progenitor cells...
September 7, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880997/the-role-of-the-mir-148-152-family-in-physiology-and-disease
#10
REVIEW
Michael Friedrich, Katharina Pracht, Mir-Farzin Mashreghi, Hans-Martin Jäck, Andreas Radbruch, Barbara Seliger
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously encoded ∼22 nt small non-coding RNAs. They function as key players of many cellular processes by base pairing with target mRNAs and thereby impairing gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent findings demonstrate a critical role of many miRNAs in immune cell differentiation and immune responses, which is also associated with the development and progression of many tumor and non-tumor diseases. Here we review the multifaceted miRNA-148/-152 family members consisting of miR-148a, miR-148b and miR-152...
September 7, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880325/computational-study-on-the-origin-of-the-cancer-immunotherapeutic-potential-of-b-and-t-cell-epitope-peptides
#11
Hao Li, Nalini Schaduangrat, Saw Simeon, Chanin Nantasenamat
Immune therapy is generally seen as the future of cancer treatment. The discovery of tumor-associated antigens and cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope peptides spurned intensive research into effective peptide-based cancer vaccines. One of the major obstacles hindering the development of peptide-based cancer vaccines is the lack of humoral response induction. As of now, very limited work has been performed to identify epitope peptides capable of inducing both cellular and humoral anticancer responses. In addition, no research has been carried out to analyze the structure and properties of peptides responsible for such immunological activities...
September 7, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874354/the-inhibitory-signaling-receptor-protocadherin-18-regulates-tumor-infiltrating-cd8-t-cell-function
#12
Alan B Frey
Cancers are infiltrated with antitumor CD8+ T cells that arise during tumor growth, but are defective in effector phase functions because of the suppressive microenvironment. The reactivation of TILs can result in tumor destruction, showing that lytic dysfunction in CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) permits tumor growth. Like all memory T cells, TILs express inhibitory signaling receptors (aka checkpoint inhibitor molecules) that downregulate TCR-mediated signal transduction upon TIL interaction with cells expressing cognate ligands, thereby restricting cell activation and preventing the effector phase...
September 5, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870777/the-effects-of-late-toxicities-on-outcomes-in-long-term-survivors-of-ex-vivo-cd34-selected-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#13
Michael Scordo, Gunjan L Shah, Satyajit Kosuri, Diego Adrianzen Herrera, Christina Cho, Sean M Devlin, Molly A Maloy, Jimmy Nieves, Taylor Borrill, Scott T Avecilla, Richard C Meagher, Dean C Carlow, Richard J O'Reilly, Esperanza B Papadopoulos, Ann A Jakubowski, Guenther Koehne, Boglarka Gyurkocza, Hugo Castro-Malaspina, Roni Tamari, Miguel-Angel Perales, Sergio A Giralt, Brian C Shaffer
The late adverse events in long-term survivors after myeloablative conditioned allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with ex-vivo CD34+ selection are not well characterized. Using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0, we assessed all grade ≥ 3 toxicities from the start conditioning to date of death, relapse, or last contact in 131 patients that survived > 1-year post-transplantation, identifying 285 individual toxicities among 17 organ-based toxicity groups...
September 1, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861871/combinatorial-therapies-in-melanoma-mapk-inhibitors-and-beyond
#14
REVIEW
Alice Y Zhou, Douglas B Johnson
Melanoma is the most aggressive of the skin cancers, with historically high rates of morbidity and mortality due to its resistance to traditional cytotoxic therapies. Recently, however, breakthroughs in new therapies have dramatically changed clinical outcomes of this disease. These advances emerged from an improved understanding of tumor oncogenesis and the interacting tumor microenvironment. Small molecules that target the oncogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, specifically the tyrosine kinase BRAF and its downstream signaling partner MEK, have demonstrated an improved overall survival and progression-free survival for BRAF-mutant melanoma...
August 31, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861359/intraocular-lymphoma
#15
REVIEW
Li-Juan Tang, Chang-Lin Gu, Ping Zhang
Intraocular lymphoma (IOL) is a rare lymphocytic malignancy which contains two main distinct forms. Primary intraocular lymphoma (PIOL) is mainly a sub-type of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Alternatively, IOL can originate from outside the central nervous system (CNS) by metastasizing to the eye. These tumors are known as secondary intraocular lymphoma (SIOL). The IOL can arise in the retina, uvea, vitreous, Bruch's membrane and optic nerve. There are predominantly of B-cell origin; however there are also rare T-cell variants...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855352/low-dose-cyclophosphamide-induces-anti-tumor-t-cell-responses-which-associate-with-survival-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#16
Martin J Scurr, Tom Pembroke, Anja Bloom, David J Roberts, Amanda Thomson, Kathryn Smart, Hayley Bridgeman, Richard A Adams, Alison E Brewster, Robert Jones, Sarah Gwynne, Daniel Blount, Richard Harrop, Robert Hills, Awen Gallimore, Andrew Godkin
PURPOSE: Anti-cancer T-cell responses can control tumors, but immune-suppressive mechanisms in vivo prevent their function. The role of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is unclear. We have previously shown depletion of Tregs enhances CRC-specific effector T-cell responses. Low dose cyclophosphamide (CPM) targets Tregs in animal models and some human studies, however the effect of CPM in mCRC is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifty-five mCRC patients were enrolled onto a phase I/II trial and randomized to receive two week-long courses of low-dose (50mg twice-a-day) CPM or not...
August 29, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851760/tumor-lysis-syndrome-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-with-novel-targeted-agents
#17
Bruce D Cheson, Sari Heitner Enschede, Elisa Cerri, Monali Desai, Jalaja Potluri, Nicole Lamanna, Constantine Tam
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication associated with the treatment of some cancers. If left untreated, TLS may result in acute renal failure, cardiac dysrhythmia, neurologic complications, seizures, or death. Tumor lysis syndrome is most commonly observed in patients with hematologic malignancies with a high proliferation rate undergoing treatment with very effective therapies. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), historically, TLS has been observed less often, owing to a low proliferation rate and slow response to chemotherapy...
August 29, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851404/computer-assisted-stereology-and-automated-image-analysis-for-quantification-of-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-colon-cancer
#18
Ann C Eriksen, Johnnie B Andersen, Martin Kristensson, René dePont Christensen, Torben F Hansen, Sanne Kjær-Frifeldt, Flemming B Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Precise prognostic and predictive variables allowing improved post-operative treatment stratification are missing in patients treated for stage II colon cancer (CC). Investigation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) may be rewarding, but the lack of a standardized analytic technique is a major concern. Manual stereological counting is considered the gold standard, but digital pathology with image analysis is preferred due to time efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare manual stereological estimates of TILs with automatic counts obtained by image analysis, and at the same time investigate the heterogeneity of TILs...
August 29, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845940/-high-oncogenic-risk-human-papillomavirus-and-urinary-bladder-cancer
#19
O B Loran, L A Sinyakova, L V Gundorova, V A Kosov, I V Kosova, I E Pogodina, D N Kolbasov
AIM: To determine the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) of high oncogenic risk in the development of urinary bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 100 patients (72 men and 28 women) aged 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10 years) diagnosed with bladder cancer were examined and underwent treatment. Clinical assessment was complemented by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for the presence of antiviral antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), urethra scraping for detecting high oncogenic risk HPV...
July 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840016/lung-adenocarcinoma-from-molecular-basis-to-genome-guided-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Roberto Chalela, Víctor Curull, César Enríquez, Lara Pijuan, Beatriz Bellosillo, Joaquim Gea
Although adenocarcinoma (ADC) is the most frequent lung cancer, its diagnosis is often late, when the local invasion is important and/or the metastases have already appeared. Therefore, the mortality at 5 years is still very high, ranging from 51% to 99%, depending on the stage. The implementation of different molecular techniques has allowed genomic studies even in relatively small histological samples such as obtained with non-invasive or minimally invasive techniques, facilitating a better phenotyping of lung ADC...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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