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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914102/examining-temporal-effects-on-cancer-risk-in-the-international-nuclear-workers-study-inworks
#1
Robert D Daniels, Stephen J Bertke, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Michael Gillies, Jacqueline A O'Hagan, Richard Haylock, Dominique Laurier, Klervi Leuraud, Monika Moissonnier, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan
The paper continues the series of publications from the International Nuclear Workers Study cohort (INWORKS) that comprises 308,297 workers from France, the United Kingdom and the United States, providing 8.2 million person-years of observation from a combined follow-up period (at earliest 1944 to at latest 2005). These workers' external radiation exposures were primarily to photons, resulting in an estimated average career absorbed dose to the colon of 17.4 milligray. The association between cumulative ionizing radiation dose and cancer mortality was evaluated in general relative risk models that describe modification of the excess relative risk (ERR) per gray (Gy) by time since exposure and age at exposure...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913140/comparative-analysis-of-tcdd-induced-ahr-mediated-gene-expression-in-human-mouse-and-rat-primary-b-cells
#2
Natalia Kovalova, Rance Nault, Robert Crawford, Timothy R Zacharewski, Norbert E Kaminski
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent environmental pollutant that activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) resulting in altered gene expression. In vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo studies have demonstrated that B cells are directly impaired by TCDD, and are a sensitive target as evidenced by suppression of antibody responses. The window of sensitivity to TCDD-induced suppression of IgM secretion among mouse, rat and human B cells is similar. Specifically, TCDD must be present within the initial 12h post B cell stimulation, indicating that TCDD disrupts early signaling network(s) necessary for B lymphocyte activation and differentiation...
November 29, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909873/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-associated-with-prognosis-of-lung-cancer
#3
V Bar-Ad, J Palmer, L Li, Y Lai, B Lu, R E Myers, Z Ye, R Axelrod, J M Johnson, M Werner-Wasik, S W Cowan, N R Evans, B T Hehn, C C Solomides, C Wang
PURPOSE: Many studies recently focus on complicated and expensive genomic tests, but the prognostic values of biochemical markers which are easily obtained in clinics are largely overlooked and without further exploration. This study assesses the association of neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) with prognosis of lung cancer patients. METHODS: In 1032 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer, the association of pretreatment NLR values with overall survival (OS) was evaluated using a Cox proportional hazards model and the temporal relationship of longitudinal NLR was assessed using a mixed effects model...
December 1, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904760/serum-glycoprotein-derived-n-and-o-linked-glycans-as-cancer-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Ying Lan, Cui Hao, Xuan Zeng, Yanli He, Pengjiao Zeng, Zhihua Guo, Lijuan Zhang
Early detection of cancer is the key to improving survival. Since most clinically used serum cancer biomarkers are either glycoproteins or glycan structures that can be recognized by specific monoclonal antibodies, developing glycan structure-based biomarkers from human serum/plasma glycoproteins through mass spectrometry (MS) analysis are active research field during the past decades. Numerous studies have shown that changes in serum/plasma glycan structures occur during cancer initiation, progression, and treatment...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904736/the-biology-behind-b-cell-lymphoma-2-as-a-target-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#5
REVIEW
Valentín Ortíz-Maldonado, Pablo Mozas, Julio Delgado
B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-type proteins are key regulators of the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis. Since escape from apoptosis is one the main 'hallmarks of cancer', BCL2 inhibitors have emerged as promising therapeutic agents for diverse lymphoid malignancies, particularly chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Multiple clinical trials have shown efficacy of these agents in patients with relapsed/refractory disease with a favorable toxicity profile. Moreover, some clinical trials indicate that combination with monoclonal antibodies and other novel agents may enhance their effect...
December 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902485/impacts-of-cigarette-smoking-on-immune-responsiveness-up-and-down-or-upside-down
#6
REVIEW
Feifei Qiu, Chun-Ling Liang, Huazhen Liu, Yu-Qun Zeng, Shaozhen Hou, Song Huang, Xiaoping Lai, Zhenhua Dai
Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895917/validation-of-biomarkers-to-predict-response-to-immunotherapy-in-cancer-volume-i-pre-analytical-and-analytical-validation
#7
REVIEW
Giuseppe V Masucci, Alessandra Cesano, Rachael Hawtin, Sylvia Janetzki, Jenny Zhang, Ilan Kirsch, Kevin K Dobbin, John Alvarez, Paul B Robbins, Senthamil R Selvan, Howard Z Streicher, Lisa H Butterfield, Magdalena Thurin
Immunotherapies have emerged as one of the most promising approaches to treat patients with cancer. Recently, there have been many clinical successes using checkpoint receptor blockade, including T cell inhibitory receptors such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). Despite demonstrated successes in a variety of malignancies, responses only typically occur in a minority of patients in any given histology. Additionally, treatment is associated with inflammatory toxicity and high cost...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894680/frequency-of-micronuclei-and-other-biomarkers-of-dna-damage-in-populations-exposed-to-dusts-asbestos-and-other-fibers-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Stefano Bonassi, Mirta Milić, Monica Neri
Airborne particles are small, solid particles projected into the air either by natural forces, or by mechanical or man-made processes, and include fibers and dusts. Their toxicity is usually subsequent to inhalation and can lead to pulmonary dysfunctions and diseases, including cancer. Cytochalasin B blocked micronucleus assay in lymphocytes (L-CBMN) has been shown as a sensitive and reliable technique in assessing genotoxic exposure, An extensive search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases allowed retrieval of 18 articles on occupational or environmental exposure evaluating L-CBMN in subjects exposed to fibers or dusts (asbestos, silica, rockwool, beryllium, tobacco, and wood)...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891480/traumatic-ulcerative-granuloma-with-stromal-eosinophila-a-case-report-and-review-of-pathogenesis
#9
Bhushan Sharma, George Koshy, Shekhar Kapoor
Traumatic Ulcerative Granuloma with Stromal Eosinophilia (TUGSE) is an uncommon condition considered to be a, reactive benign lesion of the oral mucosa, usually affecting the tongue. Its aetiopathogenesis is still uncertain. However, trauma has been found to be a contributing factor in a majority of the cases. Clinically, it often presents as an isolated ulcer or an indurated submucosal mass. Microscopically, it is characterized by a diffuse polymorphic cell infiltrate composed predominantly of eosinophils, B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, and large atypical cells involving the superficial mucosa and extending deep into the submucosa causing degeneration of the underlying muscle...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886799/igg4-related-disease-advances-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Pilar Brito-Zerón, Xavier Bosch, Manuel Ramos-Casals, John H Stone
IgG4-related disease is a rare immune-mediated systemic disease with the capability of involving essentially any organ. Although the presenting clinical features vary substantially according to the speciality to which patients present first, perhaps the most common clinical presentation is that of single or multiple organ enlargement, arousing suspicion of cancer. The disease is frequently diagnosed unexpectedly in pathological specimens or on imaging studies. The diagnostic approach is complex and includes not only IgG4-related tests (serum levels, circulating plasmablasts, and specific immunohistochemical studies), but also clinical, laboratory, and imaging tests as well as the typical histopathological features (lymphocytic infiltration, storiform fibrosis, eosinophilic infiltration, and obliterative phlebitis)...
April 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885078/the-international-nuclear-workers-study-inworks-a-collaborative-epidemiological-study-to-improve-knowledge-about-health-effects-of-protracted-low-dose-exposure
#11
Dominique Laurier, David B Richardson, Elisabeth Cardis, Robert D Daniels, Michael Gillies, Jackie O'Hagan, Ghassan B Hamra, Richard Haylock, Klervi Leuraud, Monika Moissonnier, Mary K Schubauer-Berigan, Isabelle Thierry-Chef, Ausrele Kesminiene
INWORKS is a multinational cohort study, gathering 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry in France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America, with detailed individual monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation. Over a mean duration of follow-up of 27 y, the number of observed deaths was 66 632, including 17 957 deaths due to solid cancers, 1791 deaths due to haematological cancers and 27 848 deaths due to cardiovascular diseases. Mean individual cumulative external dose over the period 1945-2005 was 25 mSv...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883081/v-d-j-recombination-process-and-the-pre-b-to-immature-b-cells-transition-are-altered-in-fanca-mice
#12
Thuy Vy Nguyen, Patrycja Pawlikowska, Virginie Firlej, Filippo Rosselli, Saïd Aoufouchi
B-lymphocytes in the bone marrow (BM) must generate a functional B-cell receptor and overcome the negative selection induced by reactivity with autoantigens. Two rounds of DNA recombination are required for the production of functional immunoglobulin heavy (Ig-HCs) and light (LCs) chains necessary for the continuation of B-lymphocyte development in the BM. Both rounds depend on the joint action of recombination activating gene-1 (RAG-1) and RAG-2 endonucleases with the DNA non-homologous end-joining pathway...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881983/high-endothelial-venules-and-lymphatic-vessels-in-tertiary-lymphoid-organs-characteristics-functions-and-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Nancy H Ruddle
High endothelial venules (HEVs) and lymphatic vessels (LVs) are essential for the function of the immune system, by providing communication between the body and lymph nodes (LNs), specialized sites of antigen presentation and recognition. HEVs bring in naïve and central memory cells and LVs transport antigen, antigen-presenting cells, and lymphocytes in and out of LNs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are accumulations of lymphoid and stromal cells that arise and organize at ectopic sites in response to chronic inflammation in autoimmunity, microbial infection, graft rejection, and cancer...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880732/ceramide-activates-lysosomal-cathepsin-b-and-cathepsin-d-to-attenuate-autophagy-and-induces-er-stress-to-suppress-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells
#14
Feiyan Liu, Xia Li, Chunwan Lu, Aiping Bai, Jacek Bielawski, Alicja Bielawska, Brendan Marshall, Patricia V Schoenlein, Iryna O Lebedyeva, Kebin Liu
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immune suppressive cells that are hallmarks of human cancer. MDSCs inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cell functions to promote tumor immune escape and progression, and therefore are considered key targets in cancer immunotherapy. Recent studies determined a key role of the apoptosis pathways in tumor-induced MDSC homeostasis and it is known that ceramide plays a key role in regulation of mammalian cell apoptosis. In this study, we aimed to determine the efficacy and underlying molecular mechanism of ceramide in suppression of MDSCs...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878772/chronic-lymphocytic-thyroiditis-does-not-influence-the-risk-of-recurrence-in-patients-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-and-excellent-response-to-initial-therapy
#15
Marina S Carvalho, Pedro W Rosario, Gabriela F Mourão, Maria R Calsolari
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and an excellent response to initial therapy, comparing those with and without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. METHODS: This was a prospective study. Patients who met the following criteria were selected: diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer; submitted to total thyroidectomy followed or not by ablation with (131)I; and neck ultrasonography without abnormalities, nonstimulated thyroglobulina (Tg) ≤0...
November 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875673/recent-advances-in-engineered-t-cell-therapies-targeting-b-cell-malignancies
#16
Nathan Singh
Immunotherapy using engineered autologous T cells has been attempted for decades, but clinical trials have only recently demonstrated efficacy. The combination of enhanced manufacturing techniques, highly efficient engineering, appropriate target selection and synthetic receptors with potent T cell activating domains has led to the development of highly-active cellular therapy products. B-cell malignancies have served as the paradigmatic diseases to initially evaluate and subsequently hone engineered T cells targeting cancer...
October 2016: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873460/sortase-a-generated-highly-potent-anti-cd20-mmae-conjugates-for-efficient-elimination-of-b-lineage-lymphomas
#17
Liqiang Pan, Wenbin Zhao, Jun Lai, Ding Ding, Qian Zhang, Xiaoyue Yang, Minmin Huang, Shijie Jin, Yingchun Xu, Su Zeng, James J Chou, Shuqing Chen
Antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting antigens expressed on the surface of tumor cells are an effective approach for delivering drugs into the cells via antigen-mediated endocytosis. One of the well-known tumor antigens, the CD20 of B-lymphocyte, has long been suggested to be noninternalizing epitope, and is thus not considered a desirable target for ADCs. Here, sortase A (srtA)-mediated transpeptidation is used to specifically conjugate triple glycine-modified monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), a highly toxic antimitotic agent, to anti-CD20 ofatumumab (OFA) equipped with a short C-terminal LPETG (5 amino acids) tag at heavy chain (HL), which generates ADCs that show extremely strong potency in killing CD20 positive cancer cells...
November 22, 2016: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866680/arlts1-potential-candidate-gene-in-familial-aggregation-of-hematological-malignancies
#18
Walid Sabri Hamadou, Sawsen Besbes, Rahma Mani, Violaine Bourdon, Yosra Ben Youssef, Béchir Achour, Haifa Regaieg, François Eisinger, Véronique Mari, Paul Gesta, Hélène Dreyfus, Valérie Bonadona, Catherine Dugast, Hélène Zattara, Laurence Faivre, Testsuro Noguchi, Abderrahim Khélif, Hagay Sobol, Zohra Soua
INTRODUCTION: Genetic predisposition to familial hematological malignancies was previously described through several epidemiological analyses, but the genetic basis remains unclear. The tumor-suppressor ARLTS1 gene was previously described in sporadic hematological malignancies and familial cancer context. METHODS: In this study, we sequence the ARLTS1 gene in 100 patients belonging to 88 independent Tunisian and French families. RESULTS: After gene sequencing, we report 8 genetic variations, most of which were previously reported in several cancer forms...
November 17, 2016: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865134/polychromatic-light-480-3400nm-similar-to-the-terrestrial-solar-spectrum-without-its-uv-component-in-post-surgical-immunorehabilitation-of-breast-cancer-patients
#19
Natalia A Zhevago, Alexander A Zimin, Tatyana V Glazanova, Natalia I Davydova, Natalia V Bychkova, Zhanna V Chubukina, Anna I Buinyakova, Marina F Ballyuzek, Kira A Samoilova
To this day, two methods of phototherapy (PT) have been successfully used in post-surgical immunorehabilitation of patients with breast cancer (BC): intravenous laser irradiation of the patients' blood and reinfusion of lympholeukosuspension of BC patients after single irradiation with HeNe laser. The objective of this pilot experimental study was to verify the effectiveness of the percutaneous use of polychromatic visible light combined with polychromatic infrared (pVIS+pIR) radiation similar to the major components of natural solar spectrum in post-surgical management of BC patients...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864219/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-nact-increases-immune-infiltration-and-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expression-in-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-eoc
#20
S J L Mesnage, A Auguste, C Genestie, A Dunant, E Pain, F Drusch, S Gouy, P Morice, E Bentivegna, C Lhomme, P Pautier, J Michels, A Le Formal, B Cheaib, J Adam, A F Leary
BACKGROUND: Lymphocytic infiltration at diagnosis is prognostic in EOC, however the impact of NACT on tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or PD-L1 expression remains poorly described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with EOC and sequential samples (pre-NACT, post-NACT or relapse) were retrospectively identified. TILs were evaluated on whole sections; stromal TILs (sTILs) scored as percentage of stromal area with high sTILs defined as ≥50%; intra-epithelial TILs (ieTILs) scored semi-quantitatively (0-3) with high ieTILs ≥2...
November 17, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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