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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777747/social-environment-as-a-factor-affecting-exploration-and-learning-in-pre-juvenile-rats
#1
Klaudia Modlinska, Rafał Stryjek, Anna Chrzanowska, Wojciech Pisula
Stress associated with social isolation in early life can lead to disturbances in the emotional regulation in adult rats. However, there are no reports on the impact of isolation from the mother while providing contact with peers. Under such conditions, young individuals have the opportunity to interact with others, are able to develop social behaviour, etc. Yet, there is no stimulation and care provided by the mother. We examined the relative impact of maternal contact and sibling contact in the rarely studied pre-juvenile (3rd and 4th week post birth) period on subsequent development...
May 16, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777741/effect-of-exposure-to-similar-flavours-in-sensory-specific-satiety-implications-for-eating-behaviour
#2
Ana González, Sergio Andrés Recio, Jesús Sánchez, Marta Gil, Isabel de Brugada
Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) refers to a decline in pleasantness of eaten foods in comparison to other non-ingested meals. Although SSS is specific to the eaten food, it can also generalize to other meals that share similar properties to the satiated food. It is possible that this phenomenon could become more specific after extensive experience, as repeated exposure to an assortment of similar food could cause perceptual learning (i.e. an increase in the distinctiveness of each specific item). This in turn would reduce generalization from the consumed food to other similar products, so they will be more readily consumed...
May 16, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777650/modeling-dengue-vector-population-using-remotely-sensed-data-and-machine-learning
#3
Juan M Scavuzzo, Francisco Trucco, Manuel Espinosa, Carolina B Tauro, Marcelo Abril, Carlos M Scavuzzo, Alejandro C Frery
Mosquitoes are vectors of many human diseases. In particular, Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus) is the main vector for Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses in Latin America and it represents a global threat. Public health policies that aim at combating this vector require dependable and timely information, which is usually expensive to obtain with field campaigns. For this reason, several efforts have been done to use remote sensing due to its reduced cost. The present work includes the temporal modeling of the oviposition activity (measured weekly on 50 ovitraps in a north Argentinean city) of Aedes ægypti (Linnaeus), based on time series of data extracted from operational earth observation satellite images...
May 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777463/considerations-that-will-determine-if-competency-based-assessment-is-a-sustainable-innovation
#4
W Dale Dauphinee, John R Boulet, John J Norcini
Educational assessment for the health professions has seen a major attempt to introduce competency based frameworks. As high level policy developments, the changes were intended to improve outcomes by supporting learning and skills development. However, we argue that previous experiences with major innovations in assessment offer an important road map for developing and refining assessment innovations, including careful piloting and analyses of their measurement qualities and impacts. Based on the literature, numerous assessment workshops, personal interactions with potential users, and our 40 years of experience in implementing assessment change, we lament the lack of a coordinated approach to clarify and improve measurement qualities and functionality of competency based assessment (CBA)...
May 18, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777356/visuospatial-abilities-and-fine-motor-experiences-influence-acquisition-and-maintenance-of-fundamentals-of-laparoscopic-surgery-fls-task-performance
#5
Cuan M Harrington, Patrick Dicker, Oscar Traynor, Dara O Kavanagh
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgery poses a unique learning curve due to the requirement for non-intuitive psychomotor skills. The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) program trains and certifies residents in such skills. However, innate predictors of FLS performance and maintenance remain to be described. This single-centre observational study aimed to assess for candidate factors influencing the acquisition and maintenance of FLS performance amongst a surgically naïve cohort...
May 18, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777175/artificial-intelligence-in-radiology
#6
REVIEW
Ahmed Hosny, Chintan Parmar, John Quackenbush, Lawrence H Schwartz, Hugo J W L Aerts
Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, particularly deep learning, have demonstrated remarkable progress in image-recognition tasks. Methods ranging from convolutional neural networks to variational autoencoders have found myriad applications in the medical image analysis field, propelling it forward at a rapid pace. Historically, in radiology practice, trained physicians visually assessed medical images for the detection, characterization and monitoring of diseases. AI methods excel at automatically recognizing complex patterns in imaging data and providing quantitative, rather than qualitative, assessments of radiographic characteristics...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777110/using-network-analysis-for-the-prediction-of-treatment-dropout-in-patients-with-mood-and-anxiety-disorders-a-methodological-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Wolfgang Lutz, Brian Schwartz, Stefan G Hofmann, Aaron J Fisher, Kristin Husen, Julian A Rubel
There are large health, societal, and economic costs associated with attrition from psychological services. The recently emerged, innovative statistical tool of complex network analysis was used in the present proof-of-concept study to improve the prediction of attrition. Fifty-eight patients undergoing psychological treatment for mood or anxiety disorders were assessed using Ecological Momentary Assessments four times a day for two weeks before treatment (3,248 measurements). Multilevel vector autoregressive models were employed to compute dynamic symptom networks...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776817/investigation-of-the-prevalence-of-pressure-ulcers-and-patient-related-risk-factors-in-hospitals-in-the-province-of-erzurum-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Mağfiret Kaşıkçı, Meyreme Aksoy, Emrah Ay
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are a significant health care problem all across the world due to their associated high mortality and morbidity rates and high health care costs. The prevalence of pressure ulcers serves as one of the most important indicators of the quality of nursing care. STUDY AIM: This study aims to determine the prevalence of pressure ulcers and patient-related risk factors in inpatients receiving treatment in the province of Erzurum, located in the eastern part of Turkey...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776428/evidence-of-the-impact-of-systemic-inflammation-on-neuroinflammation-from-a-non-bacterial-endotoxin-animal-model
#9
Chunxia Huang, Michael Garnet Irwin, Gordon Tin Chun Wong, Raymond Chuen Chung Chang
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation induces neuroinflammation and cellular changes such as tau phosphorylation to impair cognitive function, including learning and memory. This study uses a single model, laparotomy without any pathogen, to characterize these changes and their responses to anti-inflammatory treatment in the intermediate term. METHODS: In a two-part experiment, wild-type C57BL/6N mice (male, 3 month old, 25 ± 2 g) were subjected to sevoflurane anesthesia alone or to a laparotomy...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775924/public-project-success-as-seen-in-a-broad-perspective-lessons-from-a-meta-evaluation-of-20-infrastructure-projects-in-norway
#10
Gro Holst Volden
Infrastructure projects in developed countries are rarely evaluated ex-post. Despite their number and scope, our knowledge about their various impacts is surprisingly limited. The paper argues that such projects must be assessed in a broad perspective that includes both operational, tactical and strategic aspects, and unintended as well as intended effects. A generic six-criteria evaluation framework is suggested, inspired by a framework frequently used to evaluate development assistance projects. It is tested on 20 Norwegian projects from various sectors (transport, defence, ICT, buildings)...
April 30, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775838/deconstructing-skill-learning-and-its-physiological-mechanisms
#11
Danny Spampinato, Pablo Celnik
Acquiring complex motor skills involves learning a number of distinct motor components. Two fundamental elements that constitute a skill are the internal representation (i.e., the calibration of a sensorimotor map) and the sequence of movements needed to execute the task. Learning each of these likely rely on different neural substrates such as the cerebellum and primary motor cortex (M1), and physiological mechanisms. However, the specific neurophysiological processes underlying the acquisition of these components remains poorly understood...
March 27, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775800/insertion-and-presence-of-fine-wire-intramuscular-electrodes-to-the-lumbar-paraspinal-muscles-do-not-affect-muscle-performance-and-activation-during-high-exertion-spinal-extension-activities
#12
Szu-Ping Lee, Jo Armour Smith, Matthew Kimber, Kelsey Houk
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is commonly associated with paraspinal muscle dysfunctions. A method to study deep lumbar paraspinal (i.e. multifidus) muscle function and neuromuscular activation pattern is intramuscular electromyography (EMG). Previous studies have shown that the procedure does not significantly impact muscle function during activities involving low-level muscle contractions. However, it is currently unknown how muscular function and activation are affected during high-exertion contractions...
May 15, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775510/educational-intervention-on-delirium-assessment-using-confusion-assessment-method-icu-cam-icu-in-a-general-intensive-care-unit
#13
Vimala Ramoo, Harlinna Abu, Vineya Rai, Surindar Kaur Surat Singh, Ayuni Asma' Baharudin, Mahmoud Danaee, Raveena Rajalachimi R Thinagaran
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess intensive care unit nurses' knowledge of intensive care unit delirium and delirium assessment before and after an educational intervention. In addition, nurses' perception on the usefulness of a delirium assessment tool and barriers against delirium assessment were assessed as secondary objectives. BACKGROUND: Early identification of delirium in intensive care units is crucial for patient care. Hence, nurses require adequate knowledge to enable appropriate evaluation of delirium using standardised practice and assessment tools...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774809/robotic-partial-nephrectomy-for-a-peripheral-renal-tumor
#14
Caleb A Cooper, Cheuk Fan Shum, Chandru P Sundaram
Partial nephrectomy (PN) is the preferred surgical treatment for T1 renal tumors whenever technically feasible. When properly performed, it allows preservation of nephron mass without compromising oncologic outcomes. This reduces the postoperative risk of renal insufficiency, which translates into better overall survival for the patients. PN can be technically challenging, because it requires the surgeon to complete the tasks of tumor excision, hemostasis and renorrhaphy, all within an ischemic time of preferably below 30 minutes...
May 2018: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774597/assessment-of-the-generalization-of-learned-image-reconstruction-and-the-potential-for-transfer-learning
#15
Florian Knoll, Kerstin Hammernik, Erich Kobler, Thomas Pock, Michael P Recht, Daniel K Sodickson
PURPOSE: Although deep learning has shown great promise for MR image reconstruction, an open question regarding the success of this approach is the robustness in the case of deviations between training and test data. The goal of this study is to assess the influence of image contrast, SNR, and image content on the generalization of learned image reconstruction, and to demonstrate the potential for transfer learning. METHODS: Reconstructions were trained from undersampled data using data sets with varying SNR, sampling pattern, image contrast, and synthetic data generated from a public image database...
May 17, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774485/educational-impact-of-trainee-facilitated-head-and-neck-radiology-pathology-correlation-conferences
#16
Daniel Thomas Ginat, Nicole A Cipriani, Gregory Christoforidis
The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefits of resident and fellow-facilitated radiology-pathology head and neck conferences. A total of seven resident-facilitated and six fellow-facilitated head and neck radiology-pathology cases were presented as part of the radiology department conference series. The radiology residents were surveyed regarding the perceived quality and effectiveness of the fellow-facilitated sessions. The number of publications yielded from all the cases presented was tracked. Overall, the residents assessed the quality of the fellow-facilitated conferences with an average score of 3...
May 17, 2018: Head and Neck Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774435/neophobia-does-not-account-for-motoric-self-regulation-performance-as-measured-during-the-detour-reaching-cylinder-task
#17
M K Stow, A Vernouillet, D M Kelly
The ability to restrain a prepotent response in favor of a more adaptive behavior, or to exert inhibitory control, has been used as a measure of a species' cognitive abilities. Inhibitory control defines a spectrum of behaviors varying in complexity, ranging from self-control to motoric self-regulation. Several factors underlying inhibitory control have been identified, however, the influence of neophobia (i.e., aversion to novelty) on inhibitory control has not received much attention. Neophobia is known to affect complex cognitive abilities, but whether neophobia also influences more basic cognitive abilities, such as motoric self-regulation, has received less attention...
May 17, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773978/effects-of-sevoflurane-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-on-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-rats-beneficial-effects-of-maternal-exercise
#18
Ziyi Wu, Xingyue Li, Yi Zhang, Dongyi Tong, Lili Wang, Ping Zhao
Fetal exposure to general anesthetics may pose significant neurocognitive risks but methods to mitigate against these detrimental effects are still to be determined. We set out, therefore, to assess whether single or repeated in utero exposure to sevoflurane triggers long-term cognitive impairments in rat offspring. Since maternal exercise during pregnancy has been shown to improve cognition in offspring, we hypothesized that maternal treadmill exercise during pregnancy would protect against sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773778/a-collaboration-to-teach-us-mph-students-about-cuba-s-health-care-system
#19
Joan O'Connell, Ana María Gálvez-González, Jean Scandlyn, María R Sala-Adam, Xiomara Martín-Linares
In 2011, the US Department of the Treasury changed its regulations to allow US students to participate in short-term education programs in Cuba. Beginning in 2012, and each year thereafter, Cuba's National School of Public Health and the Colorado School of Public Health have jointly taught a class on the Cuban public health system. The program goals are to provide US students with an opportunity to learn about the Cuban national health system's focus on 1) prevention and primary health care services; 2) financial and geographic access to services and health equity; 3) continuum of care across the home, family doctor-and-nurse offices, polyclinics and hospitals; 4) data collection at all levels to understand health risks, including outbreaks, and to guide resource allocation; 5) assessing patients' health and risks using a comprehensive definition of health; 6) multisectoral collaborations between the Ministry of Public Health and other Cuban agencies and organizations to address population health risks; 7) disaster preparedness, response and recovery; and 8) provision of international health assistance...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773528/a-digital-app-to-aid-detection-monitoring-and-management-of-dyslexia-in-young-children-dimmand-protocol-for-a-digital-health-and-education-solution
#20
Mariam R Sood, Annet Toornstra, Martin I Sereno, Mark Boland, Daniele Filaretti, Anuj Sood
BACKGROUND: Dyslexia, a specific learning difficulty and a disability as defined in the Equality Act 2010, is a lifelong condition that affects a child from the start of education. Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in language processing (reading, spelling, and writing) which do not correspond with the child's general intellectual abilities. Although dyslexia cannot be cured, there is a consensus that interventions are more effective and have greater impact the earlier they are administered...
May 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
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