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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636116/curriculum-content-and-assessment-of-pre-clinical-dental-skills-a-survey-of-undergraduate-dental-education-in-europe
#1
J Field, S Stone, C Orsini, A Hussain, S Vital, A Crothers, D Walmsley
INTRODUCTION: Since 1981, the qualifications for various healthcare professionals across the European Union have enjoyed mutual recognition in accordance with the EU Directive 81/1057/EEC. Whilst the directive includes dental practitioners, it is recognised that significant variation exists in curriculum structure, content and scope of practice across institutions. This article aimed to explore pan-European practice in relation to curriculum content, teaching and learning strategies and assessment of pre-clinical dental skills...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635541/association-between-abnormal-brain-functional-connectivity-in-children-and-psychopathology-a-study-based-on-graph-theory-and-machine-learning
#2
João Ricardo Sato, Claudinei Eduardo Biazoli, Giovanni Abrahão Salum, Ary Gadelha, Nicolas Crossley, Gilson Vieira, André Zugman, Felipe Almeida Picon, Pedro Mario Pan, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Edson Amaro, Mauricio Anés, Luciana Monteiro Moura, Marco Antonio Gomes Del'Aquilla, Philip Mcguire, Luis Augusto Rohde, Euripedes Constantino Miguel, Andrea Parolin Jackowski, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan
OBJECTIVES: One of the major challenges facing psychiatry is how to incorporate biological measures in the classification of mental health disorders. Many of these disorders affect brain development and its connectivity. In this study, we propose a novel method for assessing brain networks based on the combination of a graph theory measure (eigenvector centrality) and a one-class support vector machine (OC-SVM). METHODS: We applied this approach to resting-state fMRI data from 622 children and adolescents...
February 8, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635496/internet-based-peer-support-for-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-a-summary-of-web-based-data-collection-impact-evaluation-and-user-evaluation
#3
Ilmari Pyykkő, Vinaya Manchaiah, Hilla Levo, Erna Kentala, Martti Juhola
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a summary of web-based data collection, impact evaluation, and user evaluations of an Internet-based peer support program for Ménière's disease (MD). DESIGN: The program is written in html-form. The data are stored in a MySQL database and uses machine learning in the diagnosis of MD. The program works interactively with the user and assesses the participant's disorder profile in various dimensions (i.e., symptoms, impact, personal traits, and positive attitude)...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635343/primary-psychopathy-and-alcohol-pathology-in-college-students-the-role-of-protective-behavioral-strategies
#4
Matthew P Kramer, Brittany L Stevenson, Robert D Dvorak
OVERVIEW: Though not an official diagnosis, psychopathy has become an important area of research due to the litany of deleterious outcomes associated with this aspect of temperament. Psychopathy is composed of primary and secondary traits. Research consistently links psychopathy to alcohol pathology, though often only via secondary traits which are comprised of intractable aspects of behavior (e.g., poor impulse control). In contrast, primary psychopathy is comprised of behaviors that can be learned and thus may be more malleable (i...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634679/establishment-of-two-forensic-medicine-osce-stations-on-the-subject-of-external-post-mortem-examination
#5
S Heide, R Lessig, V Hachmann, D Stiller, M Rönsch, D Stoevesandt, A Biolik, S Watzke, J Kellner
An improvement in quality of medical external post-mortem examinations among others can be achieved by more intensive training of medical students. Modern learning and teaching methods such as e-learning modules and SkillsLab stations should be used for this. The introduction of corresponding methods of assessment such as the OSCE procedure is necessary to test the success of learning. In Halle (Germany), two OSCE stations on the subject of external post-mortem examinations were introduced in 2016. The 'practical external post-mortem examination' station test skills and abilities students have learned during practical external post-mortem examination in small group classes on a simulation doll...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634444/experience-dependency-of-reliance-on-local-visual-and-idiothetic-cues-for-spatial-representations-created-in-the-absence-of-distal-information
#6
Fabian Draht, Sijie Zhang, Abdelrahman Rayan, Fabian Schönfeld, Laurenz Wiskott, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Spatial encoding in the hippocampus is based on a range of different input sources. To generate spatial representations, reliable sensory cues from the external environment are integrated with idiothetic cues, derived from self-movement, that enable path integration and directional perception. In this study, we examined to what extent idiothetic cues significantly contribute to spatial representations and navigation: we recorded place cells while rodents navigated towards two visually identical chambers in 180° orientation via two different paths in darkness and in the absence of reliable auditory or olfactory cues...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633170/teaching-primary-care-genetics-a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparison
#8
Deanna Telner, June C Carroll, Glenn Regehr, Diana Tabak, Kara Semotiuk, Risa Freeman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Given the increasing discussions of the impact of genetic medicine within family medicine, it is important to determine the most effective way of teaching this material to family medicine residents (FMRs). The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the impact of three methods of delivering primary care genetic content to FMRs. METHODS: Curriculum materials and assessment tools were created to teach and evaluate knowledge, skills, and attitudes around four core competencies in primary care genetics, with a focus on hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC)...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633060/childhood-adversity-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-major-depression
#9
Katharina Dannehl, Winfried Rief, Frank Euteneuer
OBJECTIVE: Major depression is often accompanied by deficits in cognitive functioning and lowered executive functions. However, not all depressed patients show impairments in these domains. The aim of this study was to examine whether different kinds of childhood adversity might account for cognitive deficits in patients with major depression. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with major depression (DSM-IV) and 40 healthy controls completed a neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, processing speed and executive functions...
June 17, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632779/base-rate-sensitivity-through-implicit-learning
#10
Andrew J Wismer, Corey J Bohil
Two experiments assessed the contributions of implicit and explicit learning to base-rate sensitivity. Using a factorial design that included both implicit and explicit learning disruptions, we tested the hypothesis that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity from experience (and that explicit learning contributes comparatively little). Participants learned to classify two categories of simple stimuli (bar graph heights) presented in a 3:1 base-rate ratio. Participants learned either from "observational" training to disrupt implicit learning or "response" training which supports implicit learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632760/the-development-of-acquired-equivalence-from-childhood-to-adulthood-a-cross-sectional-study-of-265-subjects
#11
Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Őze, Gabriella Eördegh, Anna Pihokker, Petra Rózsa, László Kasik, Szabolcs Kéri, Attila Nagy
Acquired equivalence (AE) is a form of feedback-based associative learning where the subject learns that two or more stimuli are equivalent in terms of being mapped onto the same outcomes or responses. While several studies dealt with how various neurological and psychiatric conditions affect performance on AE tasks (typically with small populations), studies dealing with AE in healthy subjects are rare, and no study has ever made an attempt to plot the development of this form of learning from the childhood through adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632491/lessons-learned-on-health-adaptation-to-climate-variability-and-change-experiences-across-low-and-middle-income-countries
#12
Kristie L Ebi, Mariam Otmani Del Barrio
BACKGROUND: There is limited published evidence of the effectiveness of adaptation in managing the health risks of climate variability and change in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To document lessons learned and good practice examples from health adaptation pilot projects in low- and middle-income countries to facilitate assessing and overcoming barriers to implementation and to scaling up. METHODS: We evaluated project reports and related materials from the first five years of implementation (2008-2013) of multinational health adaptation projects in Albania, Barbados, Bhutan, China, Fiji, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Philippines, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan...
June 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632444/the-structural-consequences-of-big-data-driven-education
#13
Elana Zeide
Educators and commenters who evaluate big data-driven learning environments focus on specific questions: whether automated education platforms improve learning outcomes, invade student privacy, and promote equality. This article puts aside separate unresolved-and perhaps unresolvable-issues regarding the concrete effects of specific technologies. It instead examines how big data-driven tools alter the structure of schools' pedagogical decision-making, and, in doing so, change fundamental aspects of America's education enterprise...
June 2017: Big Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632162/beyond-food-access-the-impact-of-parent-home-and-neighborhood-level-factors-on-children-s-diets
#14
Lauren Futrell Dunaway, Thomas Carton, Ping Ma, Adrienne R Mundorf, Kelsey Keel, Katherine P Theall
Despite the growth in empirical research on neighborhood environmental characteristics and their influence on children's diets, physical activity, and obesity, much remains to be learned, as few have examined the relationship between neighborhood food availability on dietary behavior in children, specifically. This analysis utilized data from a community-based, cross-sectional sample of children (n = 199) that was collected in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 2010. This dataset was linked to food environment data to assess the impact of neighborhood food access as well as household and parent factors on children's diets...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632014/coaching-the-coach-a-program-for-development-of-faculty-portfolio-coaches
#15
Jack Kopechek, Cheryl Bardales, A Todd Lash, Curtis Walker, Sheryl Pfeil, Cynthia H Ledford
PROBLEM: Faculty coaching is recognized as an essential element for effective use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education, yet best practices for training these coaches are uncertain. INTERVENTION: New portfolio coaches participated in a multifaceted training program that included orienting modules, a 7.5-hr training workshop featuring analysis of reflective writing, an Observed Structured Teaching Exercise (OSTE), and subsequent longitudinal coaches' meetings for timely task training...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632013/task-demands-in-osces-influence-learning-strategies
#16
Alexandre Lafleur, Jonathan Laflamme, Jimmie Leppink, Luc Côté
THEORY: Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis")...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632010/designing-a-national-longitudinal-faculty-development-curriculum-focused-on-educational-scholarship-process-outcomes-and-lessons-learned
#17
Latha Chandran, Maryellen E Gusic, J Lindsey Lane, Constance D Baldwin
PROBLEM: Clinical educators at U.S. academic health centers are frequently disadvantaged in the academic promotion system, lacking needed faculty development, mentoring, and networking support. INTERVENTION: In 2006, we implemented the national Educational Scholars Program to offer faculty development in educational scholarship for early career educators in pediatrics. We aimed to provide them with skills, experience, and initial success in educational scholarship and dissemination...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632009/self-observation-and-peer-feedback-as-a-faculty-development-approach-for-problem-based-learning-tutors-a-program-evaluation
#18
Irène Garcia, Richard W James, Paul Bischof, Anne Baroffio
PROBLEM: Good teaching requires spontaneous, immediate, and appropriate action in response to various situations. It is even more crucial in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials, as the tutors, while directing students toward the identification and attainment of learning objectives, must stimulate them to contribute to the process and provide them with constructive feedback. PBL tutors in medicine lack opportunities to receive feedback from their peers on their teaching strategies. Moreover, as tutorials provide little or no time to stop and think, more could be learned by reflecting on the experience than from the experience itself...
March 2, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631992/validity-of-a-verbal-incidental-learning-measure-from-the-wais-iv-in-older-adults
#19
Dustin B Hammers, Amanda M Kucera, Stephanie J Card, Kathryn A Tolle, Taylor J Atkinson, Kevin Duff, Robert J Spencer
Incidental memory may reflect a form of learning in everyday life, although it is not consistently evaluated during standard neuropsychological evaluations. Further validation of a recently created measure of verbal Incidental Learning (IL) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV is necessary to understand the utility of such a measure in clinical settings. Sixty-eight adults aged 50 to 89 were recruited from a Cognitive Disorders Clinic while receiving a standard neuropsychological assessment, along with two additional measures of IL...
March 2, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631988/evidence-of-practice-effect-in-cantab-spatial-working-memory-test-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Federica Cacciamani, Nicola Salvadori, Paolo Eusebi, Viviana Lisetti, Elisa Luchetti, Paolo Calabresi, Lucilla Parnetti
The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) is a system of neuropsychological tests frequently used to track the progression of cognitive deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated test-retest reliability in seven CANTAB tests. Twenty-five MCI patients, with either AD-like or conflicting/normal cerebrospinal fluid profiles underwent three testing sessions at 6-month intervals, including the following tests: Reaction Time and Rapid Visual Information Processing (assessing attention and reaction times); Delayed Matching-to-Sample, Paired Associates Learning, Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory (assessing memory); Spatial Working Memory (assessing executive functions)...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
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