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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#1
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337646/the-puzzle-of-study-time-allocation-for-the-most-challenging-items
#2
Monika Undorf, Rakefet Ackerman
Learners often allocate more study time to challenging items than to easier ones. Nevertheless, both predicted and actual memory performance are typically worse for difficult than for easier items. The resulting inverse relations between people's predictions of their memory performance (judgments of learning; JOLs) and self-paced study time (ST) are often explained by bottom-up, data-driven ST allocation that is based on fluency. However, we demonstrate robust inverted U-shaped relations between JOLs and ST that cannot be explained by data-driven ST allocation alone...
March 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337475/age-at-injury-is-associated-with-the-long-term-cognitive-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injuries
#3
Wei Li, Shannon L Risacher, Thomas W McAllister, Andrew J Saykin
INTRODUCTION: The association between age at injury (AAI) and long-term cognitive outcome of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) is debatable. METHODS: Eligible participants with a history of TBI from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were divided into a childhood TBI (cTBI) group (the AAI ≤ 21 years old) and an adult TBI (aTBI) group (the AAI > 21 years old). RESULTS: The cTBI group has a higher Everyday Cognition total score than the aTBI group...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337142/icariside-ii-effectively-reduces-spatial-learning-and-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease-model-mice-targeting-beta-amyloid-production
#4
Lingli Yan, Yuanyuan Deng, Jianmei Gao, Yuangui Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Qihai Gong
Icariside II (ICS II) is a broad-spectrum anti-cancer natural compound extracted from Herba Epimedii Maxim. Recently, the role of ICS II has been investigated in central nervous system, especially have a neuroprotective effect in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we attempted to investigate the effects of ICS II, on cognitive deficits and beta-amyloid (Aβ) production in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) double transgenic mice. It was found that chronic ICS II administrated not only effectively ameliorated cognitive function deficits, but also inhibited neuronal degeneration and reduced the formation of plaque burden...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337114/precondition-of-right-frontal-region-with-anodal-tdcs-can-restore-the-fear-memory-impairment-induced-by-acpa-in-male-mice
#5
Fariborz Manteghi, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Fear memory and learning cause behavioural patterns such as fight or flight responses, which increase survival probability, but unfit processing of fear memory and learning can lead to maladaptive behaviours and maladies such as phobias, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and anxiety disorders. The growing prevalence of these maladies shows the need to quest novel methods for their treatment. We used anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the right frontal region as a precondition neuromodulator and arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA), a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist, as a fear memory impairing agent to assess their effects on contextual and auditory fear conditioning (reliable model for fear studies)...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336433/early-stage-reduction-of-the-dendritic-complexity-in-basolateral-amygdala-of-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Congdi Guo, Ben Long, Yarong Hu, Jing Yuan, Hui Gong, Xiangning Li
Alzheimer's disease is a representative age-related neurodegenerative disease that could result in loss of memory and cognitive deficiency. However, the precise onset time of Alzheimer's disease affecting neuronal circuits and the mechanisms underlying the changes are not clearly known. To address the neuroanatomical changes during the early pathologic developing process, we acquired the neuronal morphological characterization of AD in APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice using the Micro-Optical Sectioning Tomography system...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336100/in-vivo-evaluation-of-the-hippocampal-glutamate-gaba-and-the-bdnf-levels-associated-with-spatial-memory-performance-in-a-rodent-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#7
S Saffarpour, M Shaabani, N Naghdi, M Farahmandfar, A Janzadeh, F Nasirinezhad
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic pain usually suffer from learning and memory impairment which may significantly decrease their quality of life. Despite laboratory and clinical studies, the mechanism underlying this memory impairment remains elusive. We evaluated the effect of chronic pain on the glutamate and GABA levels and BDNF expression in the CA1 region of hippocampus as a possible explanation for memory impairment related to neuropathic pain. METHODS: In this respect, 30 male rats were randomly allocated to 3 groups as control, sham and neuropathic...
March 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335872/cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Liana R Elias, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Antônio M O Vale, Cristiano A Köhler, Hanne L Kjærstad, Brendon Stubbs, Lars V Kessing, Eduard Vieta, Michael Maes, Benjamin I Goldstein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inception up until March 23, 2016, for original peer-reviewed articles that investigated neurocognition in euthymic youths with BD compared to HCs. Effect sizes (ES) for individual tests were extracted...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334644/low-level-inorganic-arsenic-exposure-and-neuropsychological-functioning-in-american-indian-elders
#9
Clint R Carroll, Carolyn Noonan, Eva M Garroutte, Ana Navas-Acien, Steven P Verney, Dedra Buchwald
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic at high and prolonged doses is highly neurotoxic. Few studies have evaluated whether long-term, low-level arsenic exposure is associated with neuropsychological functioning in adults. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between long-term, low-level inorganic arsenic exposure and neuropsychological functioning among American Indians aged 64-95. METHODS: We assessed 928 participants in the Strong Heart Study by using data on arsenic species in urine samples collected at baseline (1989-1991) and results of standardized tests of global cognition, executive functioning, verbal learning and memory, fine motor functioning, and speed of mental processing administered during comprehensive follow-up evaluations in 2009-2013...
March 18, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334611/somatosensory-cortex-plays-an-essential-role-in-forelimb-motor-adaptation-in-mice
#10
Mackenzie Weygandt Mathis, Alexander Mathis, Naoshige Uchida
Our motor outputs are constantly re-calibrated to adapt to systematic perturbations. This motor adaptation is thought to depend on the ability to form a memory of a systematic perturbation, often called an internal model. However, the mechanisms underlying the formation, storage, and expression of such models remain unknown. Here, we developed a mouse model to study forelimb adaptation to force field perturbations. We found that temporally precise photoinhibition of somatosensory cortex (S1) applied concurrently with the force field abolished the ability to update subsequent motor commands needed to reduce motor errors...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334345/effects-of-age-and-gender-on-recall-and-recognition-discriminability
#11
Lisa V Graves, Charles C Moreno, Michelle Seewald, Heather M Holden, Emily J Van Etten, Vedang Uttarwar, Carrie R McDonald, Lisa Delano-Wood, Mark W Bondi, Steven Paul Woods, Dean C Delis, Paul E Gilbert
Objective: Recall and recognition memory abilities are known to decline with increasing age, yet much of the evidence stems from studies that used simple measures of total target recall or recognition. The California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) includes a new measure of recall discriminability that is analogous to recognition discriminability. These discriminability measures yield more thorough assessments of recall and recognition by accounting for intrusion and false positive errors, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333901/influence-of-the-recurrent-syncope-episodes-on-neurocognitive-functions-in-patients-with-vasovagal-syncope
#12
Joanna Jędrzejczyk-Spaho, Artur Z Pietrucha, Agnieszka Borowiec, Irena Bzukała, Mateusz Wnuk, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler
The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. AIM: The aim of study was to evaluate an influence of recurrent syncope episodes on the neurocognitive functions (NCF) in patients with suspected VVS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study population: 24 pts. (16 women) aged 17-70 yrs (mean age 40 years), with suspected VVS, referred to HUTT (head-up tilt test). All pts. underwent initial evaluation regarding to the number and circumstances of the syncopal and/or presyncopal spells...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333646/recurrent-neural-networks-with-auxiliary-memory-units
#13
Jianyong Wang, Lei Zhang, Quan Guo, Zhang Yi
Memory is one of the most important mechanisms in recurrent neural networks (RNNs) learning. It plays a crucial role in practical applications, such as sequence learning. With a good memory mechanism, long term history can be fused with current information, and can thus improve RNNs learning. Developing a suitable memory mechanism is always desirable in the field of RNNs. This paper proposes a novel memory mechanism for RNNs. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) an auxiliary memory unit (AMU) is proposed, which results in a new special RNN model (AMU-RNN), separating the memory and output explicitly and 2) an efficient learning algorithm is developed by employing the technique of error flow truncation...
March 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333507/the-sequence-of-study-changes-what-information-is-attended-to-encoded-and-remembered-during-category-learning
#14
Paulo F Carvalho, Robert L Goldstone
The sequence of study influences how we learn. Previous research has identified different sequences as potentially beneficial for learning in different contexts and with different materials. Here we investigate the mechanisms involved in inductive category learning that give rise to these sequencing effects. Across 3 experiments we show evidence that the sequence of study changes what information learners attend to during learning, what is encoded from the materials studied and, consequently, what is remembered from study...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332914/effects-of-a-working-memory-training-program-in-preschoolers-with-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Agnese Capodieci, Maria Laura Gola, Cesare Cornoldi, Anna Maria Re
INTRODUCTION: Preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to exhibit impairments on neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). As WM is an important predictor of future learning abilities, early intervention could help to prevent severe problems. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the efficacy of an intervention for training WM in 5-year-old children with symptoms of ADHD. METHOD: Thirty-four children with symptoms of ADHD were randomly divided into two groups: One was assigned to the WM training condition, and the other continued normal class activities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331639/emerging-synaptic-molecules-as-candidates-in-the-etiology-of-neurological-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Viviana I Torres, Daniela Vallejo, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Synapses are complex structures that allow communication between neurons in the central nervous system. Studies conducted in vertebrate and invertebrate models have contributed to the knowledge of the function of synaptic proteins. The functional synapse requires numerous protein complexes with specialized functions that are regulated in space and time to allow synaptic plasticity. However, their interplay during neuronal development, learning, and memory is poorly understood. Accumulating evidence links synapse proteins to neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331016/brain-wide-maps-of-fos-expression-during-fear-learning-and-recall
#17
Jin-Hyung Cho, Sam D Rendall, Jesse M Gray
Fos induction during learning labels neuronal ensembles in the hippocampus that encode a specific physical environment, revealing a memory trace. In the cortex and other regions, the extent to which Fos induction during learning reveals specific sensory representations is unknown. Here we generate high-quality brain-wide maps of Fos mRNA expression during auditory fear conditioning and recall in the setting of the home cage. These maps reveal a brain-wide pattern of Fos induction that is remarkably similar among fear conditioning, shock-only, tone-only, and fear recall conditions, casting doubt on the idea that Fos reveals auditory-specific sensory representations...
April 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330743/temporal-dynamics-of-immediate-early-gene-expression-during-cellular-consolidation-of-spatial-memory
#18
Daniel N Barry, Sean Commins
The consolidation of newly acquired memories on a cellular level is thought to take place in the first few hours following learning. This process is dependent on de novo protein synthesis during this time, which ultimately leads to long-term structural and functional neuronal changes and the stabilisation of a memory trace. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are rapidly expressed in neurons following learning, and previous research has suggested more than one wave of IEG expression facilitates consolidation in the hours following learning...
March 19, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329896/characterizing-literacy-and-cognitive-function-during-pregnancy-and-postpartum
#19
Lynn M Yee, Leslie A Kamel, Zara Quader, Priya V Rajan, Shaneah M Taylor, Rachel O'Conor, Michael S Wolf, Melissa A Simon
Objective The objective of this study was to characterize health literacy and cognitive function in a diverse cohort of pregnant women. Methods Pregnant and postpartum women underwent in-depth assessments of health literacy/numeracy and the cognitive domains of verbal ability, working memory, long-term memory, processing speed, and inductive reasoning. Differences by demographic characteristics and gestational age were assessed using chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results In this cohort of pregnant (N = 77) or postpartum (N = 24) women, 41...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329757/neural-ensemble-dynamics-underlying-a-long-term-associative-memory
#20
Benjamin F Grewe, Jan Gründemann, Lacey J Kitch, Jerome A Lecoq, Jones G Parker, Jesse D Marshall, Margaret C Larkin, Pablo E Jercog, Francois Grenier, Jin Zhong Li, Andreas Lüthi, Mark J Schnitzer
The brain's ability to associate different stimuli is vital for long-term memory, but how neural ensembles encode associative memories is unknown. Here we studied how cell ensembles in the basal and lateral amygdala encode associations between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (CS and US, respectively). Using a miniature fluorescence microscope, we tracked the Ca(2+) dynamics of ensembles of amygdalar neurons during fear learning and extinction over 6 days in behaving mice. Fear conditioning induced both up- and down-regulation of individual cells' CS-evoked responses...
March 22, 2017: Nature
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