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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156410/how-do-we-learn-to-kill-in-volleyball-the-role-of-working-memory-capacity-and-expertise-in-volleyball-motor-learning
#1
Elisa Bisagno, Sergio Morra
This study examines young volleyball players' learning of increasingly complex attack gestures. The main purpose of the study was to examine the predictive role of a cognitive variable, working memory capacity (or "M capacity"), in the acquisition and development of motor skills in a structured sport. Pascual-Leone's theory of constructive operators (TCO) was used as a framework; it defines working memory capacity as the maximum number of schemes that can be simultaneously activated by attentional resources...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156156/effects-of-arachidonic-acid-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-brain-development-using-artificial-rearing-of-delta-6-desaturase-knockout-mice
#2
Akiko Harauma, Erisa Hatanaka, Hidemi Yasuda, Manabu T Nakamura, Norman Salem, Toru Moriguchi
This study focused on the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) during the lactation period of delta-6-desaturase knockout (D6D-KO) mice using an artificial rearing method. Newborn pups of D6D-KO male mice were separated from their dams within 48h and were fed artificial milk. Six formulations of milk were used: Control (Cont) milk (3.9% α-linolenic acid and 18% linoleic acid), + 1.3% arachidonic acid (ARA), + 1.2% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), + 1.3% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), + 1.1% ARA + 1.3% DHA, and + 1...
December 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155349/endogenous-sulfur-dioxide-regulates-hippocampal-neuron-apoptosis-in-developing-epileptic-rats-and-is-associated-with-the-perk-signaling-pathway
#3
Manman Niu, Ying Han, Qinrui Li, Jing Zhang
Epilepsy is among the most common neurological diseases in children. Recurrent seizures can result in hippocampal damage and seriously impair learning and memory functions in children. However, the mechanisms underlying epilepsy-related brain injury are unclear. Neuronal apoptosis is among the most common neuropathological manifestations of brain injury. Endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been shown to be involved in seizures and related neuron apoptosis. However, the role of endogenous SO2 in epilepsy remains unclear...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155302/repeated-exposure-to-sevoflurane-impairs-the-learning-and-memory-of-older-male-rats
#4
Shanbin Guo, Lidan Liu, Cong Wang, Qian Jiang, Yunxia Dong, Yue Tian
AIMS: Critically ill old patients sometimes require repeated surgical interventions, and thus it is important to determine the influence of repeated exposure to anesthetics on learning and memory. Sevoflurane, a widely used inhalation anesthetic, has few neurological adverse effects and offers a rapid return to consciousness. But the long-term influence of sevoflurane exposure and the effect of repeated sevoflurane exposure on cognition have rarely been reported, and available studies are contradictory...
November 16, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155095/behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms-by-which-prior-experience-impacts-subsequent-learning
#5
Ryan G Parsons
Memory is often thought about in terms of its ability to recollect and store information about the past, but its function likely rests with the fact that it permits adaptation to ongoing and future experience. Thus, the brain circuitry that encodes memory must act as if stored information is likely to be modified by subsequent experience. Considerable progress has been made in identifying the behavioral and neural mechanisms supporting the acquisition and consolidation of memories, but this knowledge comes largely from studies in laboratory animals in which the training experience is presented in isolation from prior experimentally-controlled events...
November 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154858/visuospatial-function-predicts-one-week-motor-skill-retention-in-cognitively-intact-older-adults
#6
Jennapher Lingo VanGilder, Caitlin Rose Hengge, Kevin Duff, Sydney Yoshie Schaefer
Motor learning declines with aging, such that older adults retain less motor skill after practice compared to younger adults. However, it remains unclear if these motor learning declines are related to normal cognitive changes associated with aging. The purpose of this study was to examine which cognitive domains would best predict the amount of retention on a motor task one week after training in cognitively intact older adults. Twenty-one adults ages 65 to 84 years old were assessed with Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, which assesses five cognitive domains (immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, and attention)...
November 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154736/lactobacilli-fermented-cow-s-milk-attenuated-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-and-memory-impairment-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Nurul Huda Musa, Vasudevan Mani, Siong Meng Lim, Sharmili Vidyadaran, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Kalavathy Ramasamy
Nutritional interventions are now recommended as strategies to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effect (anti-inflammation) of lactic acid bacteria (either Lactobacillus fermentum LAB9 or L. casei LABPC) fermented cow's milk (CM) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglial BV2 cells in vitro. The ability of CM-LAB in attenuating memory deficit in LPS-induced mice was also investigated. ICR mice were orally administered with CM-LAB for 28 d before induction of neuroinflammation by LPS...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154491/does-differential-visual-exploration-contribute-to-visual-memory-impairments-in-22q11-2-microdeletion-syndrome
#8
M Bostelmann, B Glaser, A Zaharia, S Eliez, M Schneider
BACKGROUND: Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a genetic syndrome characterised by a unique cognitive profile. Individuals with the syndrome present several non-verbal deficits, including visual memory impairments and atypical exploration of visual information. In this study, we seek to understand how visual attention may contribute to memory difficulties in 22q11.2DS by tracking eye movements during the encoding phase of a visual short-term memory task. METHOD: Eye movements were recorded during a computerised version of the multiple-choice Benton Visual Retention Test, which consisted of exploring and then recognising complex visual stimuli...
December 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154439/verbal-short-term-memory-shows-a-specific-association-with-receptive-but-not-productive-vocabulary-measures-in-down-syndrome
#9
S Majerus, K Barisnikov
BACKGROUND: Verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity has been considered to support vocabulary learning in typical children and adults, but evidence for this link is inconsistent for studies in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was explore the role of processing demands on the association between verbal STM and vocabulary measures in DS, by comparing receptive vocabulary measures with high STM processing demands to productive vocabulary measures with low STM processing demands...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154366/generalization-of-conditioned-auditory-fear-is-regulated-by-maternal-effects-on-ventral-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#10
Huy-Bin Nguyen, Carine Parent, Yiu Chung Tse, Tak Pan Wong, Michael J Meaney
Maternal care shapes individual differences in fear-associated neural circuitry. In rats, maternal licking and grooming (LG) in early life regulates ventral hippocampal (VH) function and plasticity in adulthood, but its consequent effect on the regulation of fear memories remains unknown. We report an effect of maternal care on generalization of learned fear, such that offspring of high LG mothers express generalized fear responses when confronted with neutral stimuli following auditory fear conditioning. These animals simultaneously display a reduction in the magnitude of VH-LTP expressed and reduced input-output transformation in Schaffer Collateral synapses...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154281/gradual-cerebral-hypoperfusion-impairs-fear-conditioning-and-object-recognition-learning-and-memory-in-mice-potential-roles-of-neurodegeneration-and-cholinergic-dysfunction
#11
Jogender Mehla, Sean Lacoursiere, Emily Stuart, Robert J McDonald, Majid H Mohajerani
In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to gradual cerebral hypoperfusion by implanting an ameroid constrictor (AC) on the left common carotid artery (CCA) and a stenosis on the right CCA. In the sham group, all surgical procedures were kept the same except no AC was implanted and stenosis was not performed. One month following the surgical procedures, fear conditioning and object recognition tests were conducted to evaluate learning and memory functions and motor functions were assessed using a balance beam test...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154280/sisyphus-in-neverland
#12
Isidro Ferrer
The study of life and living organisms and the way in which these interact and organize to form social communities have been central to my career. I have been fascinated by biology, neurology, and neuropathology, but also by history, sociology, and art. Certain current historical, political, and social events, some occurring proximally but others affecting people in apparently distant places, have had an impact on me. Epicurus, Seneca, and Camus shared their philosophical positions which I learned from. Many scientists from various disciplines have been exciting sources of knowledge as well...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153770/rats-exposed-to-2-45ghz-of-non-ionizing-radiation-exhibit-behavioral-changes-with-increased-brain-expression-of-apoptotic-caspase-3
#13
Rini Varghese, Anuradha Majumdar, Girish Kumar, Amit Shukla
In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2...
November 14, 2017: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153754/effects-of-combined-physical-and-cognitive-exercises-on-cognition-and-mobility-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a%C3%A2-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hyuma Makizako, Takehiko Doi, Hyuntae Park, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Joe Verghese, Takao Suzuki
IMPORTANCE: Although participation in physical and cognitive activities is encouraged to reduce the risk of dementia, the preventive efficacy of these activities for patients with mild cognitive impairment is unestablished. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cognitive and mobility effects of a 40-week program of combined cognitive and physical activity with those of a health education program. DESIGN: A randomized, parallel, single-blind controlled trial...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152944/combined-oral-supplementation-of-chromium-picolinate-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-boron-enhances-neuroprotection-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Cemal Orhan, Nurhan Şahin, Zeynep Tuzcu, James R. Komorowski, Kazım Şahin
Background/aim: A novel complex of a nutritional supplement (CDB) contains chromium picolinate (CrPic), phosphatidylserine (PS), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and boron (B). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CDB on the metabolic profile and memory acquisition in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups and received either a regular diet or HFD supplemented with or without different levels of CDB (0, 11, or 22 mg/kg BW). Results: Rats fed the HFD had greater glucose, insulin, lipid profile, and serum malondialdehyde concentrations, but lower serotonin and tryptophan in the serum and brain and lower Cr concentrations in serum, kidney, brain, and liver (P < 0...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152674/progress-and-promise-for-the-mdma-drug-development-program
#16
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Julie Holland, Michael C Mithoefer
Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy...
November 20, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152258/in-vitro-screening-of-neuroprotective-activity-of-indian-medicinal-plant-withania-somnifera
#17
Manjeet Singh, Charles Ramassamy
Canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative condition characterised by changes in decline in learning and memory patterns. The neurodegenerative features of CCD in ageing dogs and cats are similar to human ageing and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Discovering neuroprotective disease-modifying therapies against CCD and AD is a major challenge. Strong evidence supports the role of amyloid β peptide deposition and oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of CCD and AD. In both the human and canine brain, oxidative damage progressively increases with age...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151803/cognitive-consequences-of-trilingualism
#18
Scott R Schroeder, Viorica Marian
Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the present research were to examine the cognitive consequences of trilingualism and explain them relative to the cognitive consequences of bilingualism. Approach: A comparison of cognitive abilities in trilinguals and bilinguals was conducted. In addition, we proposed a cognitive plasticity framework to account for cognitive differences and similarities between trilinguals and bilinguals. Data and Analysis: Three aspects of cognition were analyzed: (1) cognitive reserve in older adults, as measured by age of onset of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment; (2) inhibitory control in children and younger adults, as measured by response times on behavioral Simon and flanker tasks; and (3) memory generalization in infants and toddlers, as measured by accuracy on behavioral deferred imitation tasks...
2017: International Journal of Bilingualism: Cross-disciplinary, Cross-linguistic Studies of Language Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151273/post-treatment-with-methylene-blue-is-effective-against-delayed-encephalopathy-after-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#19
Ningjun Zhao, Pengchong Liang, Xiaoying Zhuo, Chenglei Su, Xuemei Zong, Bingnan Guo, Han Dong, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Quanguang Zhang, Xu Tie
Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) is the most severe and clinically intractable complication that occurs following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Unfortunately, the mechanism of DEACMP is still vague. Growing evidence indicates that delayed cerebral damage following CO poisoning is related to oxidative stress, abnormal neuro-inflammation, apoptosis and immune-mediated injury. Our recent report indicated that methylene blue (MB) may be a promising therapeutic agent in the prevention of neuronal cell death and cognitive deficits following transient global cerebral ischaemia (GCI)...
November 19, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150595/notch1-signaling-activation-contributes-to-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Ming Tu, Penglei Zhu, Shaobo Hu, Wei Wang, Zhipeng Su, Jiaqing Guan, Chongran Sun, Weiming Zheng
BACKGROUND Neural stem cells are reported to exist in the hippocampus of adult mammals and are important sources of neurons for repair. The Notch1 signaling pathway is considered as one of the important regulators of neural stem cells, but its role in adult brains is unclear. We aimed to describe the role of Notch1 signaling in the adult rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS The model rats were randomly divided into 4 groups as follows: sham, sham-TBI, sham-Ad-TBI, and NICD-Ad-TBI...
November 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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