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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743056/apigenin-attenuates-isoflurane-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-via-epigenetic-regulation-and-neuroinflammation-in-aged-rats
#1
Lin Chen, Wenji Xie, Wenqin Xie, Weiqiang Zhuang, Changcheng Jiang, Naizhen Liu
PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: Post operational cognitive dysfunction (POCD) occurs in patients after anesthesia and surgery. Abnormal histone acetylation and neuroinflammation are key factors in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Apigenin not only has an anti-inflammatory activity but also modifies histone acetylation. We aimed to investigate whether apigenin can attenuate isoflurane exposure-induced cognitive decline by regulating histone acetylation and inflammatory signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Spatial learning and memory were assessed by Morris water maze test...
July 6, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742479/understanding-and-combating-resistance-to-online-learning
#2
John Vivolo
Resistance to change is an easy thing for human beings to understand. It is at the heart of our desire to find comfort with the familiar such as family, friends and our homes. We create homes that are designed a certain way and usually are slow to change. We make friends for years and keep those memories etched in stone, even though time and age create a romanticised version of the past. Change scares us so much that we reflect on our past, the old days, with such reverence that we paint over the ugly parts...
December 1, 2016: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742159/%C3%AE-adrenergic-signaling-broadly-contributes-to-ltp-induction
#3
Joanna Jȩdrzejewska-Szmek, Vincent Luczak, Ted Abel, Kim T Blackwell
Long-lasting forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) represent one of the major cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. One of the fundamental questions in the field of LTP is why different molecules are critical for long-lasting forms of LTP induced by diverse experimental protocols. Further complexity stems from spatial aspects of signaling networks, such that some molecules function in the dendrite and some are critical in the spine. We investigated whether the diverse experimental evidence can be unified by creating a spatial, mechanistic model of multiple signaling pathways in hippocampal CA1 neurons...
July 24, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740466/a-tyrosine-hydroxylase-characterization-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-the-honey-bee-brain
#4
Stevanus R Tedjakumala, Jacques Rouquette, Marie-Laure Boizeau, Karen A Mesce, Lucie Hotier, Isabelle Massou, Martin Giurfa
Dopamine (DA) plays a fundamental role in insect behavior as it acts both as a general modulator of behavior and as a value system in associative learning where it mediates the reinforcing properties of unconditioned stimuli (US). Here we aimed at characterizing the dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system of the honey bee, an insect that serves as an established model for the study of learning and memory. We used tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (ir) to ensure that the neurons detected synthesize DA endogenously...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740440/haphop-physio-a-computer-game-to-support-cognitive-therapies-in-children
#5
Carolina Rico-Olarte, Diego M López, Santiago Narváez, Charic D Farinango, Peter S Pharow
BACKGROUND: Care and support of children with physical or mental disabilities are accompanied with serious concerns for parents, families, healthcare institutions, schools, and their communities. Recent studies and technological innovations have demonstrated the feasibility of providing therapy and rehabilitation services to children supported by computer games. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to present HapHop-Physio, an innovative computer game that combines exercise with fun and learning, developed to support cognitive therapies in children...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740391/attention-memory-training-yields-behavioral-and-academic-improvements-in-children-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-comorbid-with-a-learning-disorder
#6
Antonio Carlos Farias, Mara L Cordeiro, Erico Pg Felden, Tiago S Bara, Cássia R Benko, Daniele Coutinho, Leandra F Martins, Rosilda Tc Ferreira, James T McCracken
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may benefit from computerized cognitive training. Therapy implementation is especially complicated when ADHD is associated with learning disorders (LDs). This study tested the efficacy of a computer-based cognitive training program, namely, computerized cognitive training (CCT), in children with ADHD comorbid with an LD (ADHD-LD), with or without psychostimulant medication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After diagnostic evaluations, 27 children with ADHD-LD (8 unmedicated and 19 medicated) participated in CCT, which is intended to improve attention, memory, reasoning, visual processing, and executive functioning...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739640/egcg-ameliorates-high-fat-and-high-fructose-induced-cognitive-defects-by-regulating-the-irs-akt-and-erk-creb-bdnf
#7
Yashi Mi, Guoyuan Qi, Rong Fan, Qinglian Qiao, Yali Sun, Yuqi Gao, Xuebo Liu
Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD)...
July 24, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739487/the-ros-mediated-activation-of-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathway-is-involved-in-the-27-hydroxycholesterol-induced-cellular-senescence-in-nerve-cells
#8
Jiao Liu, Yun Liu, Juan Chen, Chunyan Hu, Mengying Teng, Kailin Jiao, Zhaoxia Shen, Dongmei Zhu, Jia Yue, Zhong Li, Yuan Li
The oxysterol 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERMs), which like endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2) induces the proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. Interestingly, the observation that 27HC induces adverse effects in neural system, distinguishing it from E2. It has been suggested that high levels of circulating cholesterol increase the entry of 27HC into the brain, which may induce learning and memory impairment. Based on this evidence, 27HC may be associated with neurodegenerative processes and interrupted cholesterol homeostasis in the brain...
July 21, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739483/structural-modeling-for-the-open-state-of-an-nmda-receptor
#9
Xiaodong Pang, Huan-Xiang Zhou
NMDA receptors are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that are crucial for neurodevelopment and higher order processes such as learning and memory, and have been implicated in numerous neurological disorders. The lack of a structure for the channel open state has greatly hampered the understanding of the normal gating process and mechanisms of disease-associated mutations. Here we report the structural modeling for the open state of an NMDA receptor. Staring from the crystal structure of the closed state, we repacked the pore-lining helices to generate an initial open model...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739376/functional-inactivation-of-dorsal-medial-striatum-alters-behavioral-flexibility-and-recognition-process-in-mice
#10
Yanhua Qiao, Xingyue Wang, Lian Ma, Shengguang Li, Jing Liang
Deficits in behavioral flexibility and recognition memory are commonly observed in mental illnesses and neurodegenerative diseases. Abnormality of the striatum has been implicated in an association with the pathology of these diseases. However, the exact roles of striatal heterogeneous structures in these cognitive functions are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of suppressing neuronal activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMStr) and nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) on reversal learning and novelty recognition in mice...
July 21, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739248/the-protective-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-on-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-induced-memory-deficits-in-rats
#11
Seyed Asaad Karimi, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Mohammad Sayyah, Razieh Hajisoltani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), as an expanding public health epidemic, is a common cause of death among youth. TBI is associated with cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized as an important neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. In the present study the potential neuroprotective role of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor on TBI induced memory deficit in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was investigated...
July 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737723/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-structural-plasticity-and-cognitive-function
#12
REVIEW
Crystal C Y Leung, Yung H Wong
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737698/platycodon-grandiflorus-root-extract-improves-learning-and-memory-by-enhancing-synaptogenesis-in-mice-hippocampus
#13
Jin-Il Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Kyoung Ah Kim, Jwa-Jin Kim, Eun Ji Song, Yukyoung Jeon, Eunbin Kim, Kyung Bok Lee, Jong Hwan Kwak, Minho Moon
Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A.DC. (PG) has long been used as an ingredient of foods and is known to have beneficial effects on cognitive functions as well. The present study examined the effect of each PG extract (PGE) from root, aerial part, and seeds on cognitive functions in mice. Changes in spatial learning and memory using a Y-maze test, and markers of adult hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis were examined. Moreover, changes in neuritogenesis and activation of the ERK1/2 pathway were investigated...
July 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736170/overlap-among-spatial-memories-triggers-repulsion-of-hippocampal-representations
#14
Avi J H Chanales, Ashima Oza, Serra E Favila, Brice A Kuhl
Across the domains of spatial navigation and episodic memory, the hippocampus is thought to play a critical role in disambiguating (pattern separating) representations of overlapping events. However, it is not fully understood how and why hippocampal patterns become separated. Here, we test the idea that event overlap triggers a "repulsion" among hippocampal representations that develops over the course of learning. Using a naturalistic route-learning paradigm and spatiotemporal pattern analysis of human fMRI data, we found that hippocampal representations of overlapping routes gradually diverged with learning to the point that they became less similar than representations of non-overlapping events...
July 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736135/theta-neurofeedback-effects-on-motor-memory-consolidation-and-performance-accuracy-an-apparent-paradox
#15
Miriam Reiner, Dror D Lev, Amit Rosen
Previous studies have shown that theta neurofeedback enhances motor memory consolidation on an easy-to-learn finger tapping task. However, the simplicity of the finger tapping task precludes evaluating the putative effects of elevated theta on performance accuracy. Mastering a motor sequence is classically assumed to entail faster performance with fewer errors. The speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) principle states thatas action speed increases, motor performance accuracy decreases. The current study investigated whether theta neurofeedback could improve both performance speed and performance accuracy, or would only enhance performance speed at the cost of reduced accuracy...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735366/further-validation-of-the-affective-bias-test-for-predicting-antidepressant-and-pro-depressant-risk-effects-of-pharmacological-and-social-manipulations-in-male-and-female-rats
#16
Justyna K Hinchcliffe, Sarah A Stuart, Michael Mendl, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Affective biases are hypothesised to contribute to the cause and treatment of mood disorders. We have previously found that affective biases, associated with learning and memory, are observed following acute treatments with a range of antidepressant and pro-depressant manipulations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test if similar biases are observed in male and female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. We also test whether the stress hormone, corticosterone, induces a negative bias in the affective bias test (ABT) consistent with its putative role in the development of depression...
July 22, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735144/entorhinal-tau-pathology-disrupts-hippocampal-prefrontal-oscillatory-coupling-during-associative-learning
#17
Stephanie E Tanninen, Bardia Nouriziabari, Mark D Morrissey, Rami Bakir, Robert D Dayton, Ronald L Klein, Kaori Takehara-Nishiuchi
A neural signature of asymptomatic preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) is disrupted connectivity between brain regions; however, its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we tested whether a preclinical pathologic feature, tau aggregation in the entorhinal cortex (EC) is sufficient to disrupt the coordination of local field potentials (LFPs) between its efferent regions. P301L-mutant human tau or green fluorescent protein (GFP) was virally overexpressed in the EC of adult rats. LFPs were recorded from the dorsal hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex while the rats underwent trace eyeblink conditioning where they learned to associate 2 stimuli separated by a short time interval...
July 6, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#18
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734741/beneficial-effects-of-tqrf-and-tq-nano-and-conventional-emulsions-on-memory-deficit-lipid-peroxidation-total-antioxidant-status-antioxidants-genes-expression-and-soluble-a%C3%AE-levels-in-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-induced-rats
#19
Norsharina Ismail, Maznah Ismail, Nur Hanisah Azmi, Muhammad Firdaus Abu Bakar, Zhang Yida, Johnson Stanslas, Dahiru Sani, Hamidon Basri, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah
The study determined the effect of thymoquinone rich fraction (TQRF) and thymoquinone (TQ) in the forms of nano- and conventional emulsions on learning and memory, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant status, antioxidants genes expression and soluble β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rats fed with a high fat-cholesterol diet (HFCD). The TQRF was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds using a supercritical fluid extraction system and prepared into nanoemulsion, which later named as TQRF nanoemulsion (TQRFNE). Meanwhile, TQ was acquired commercially and prepared into thymoquinone nanoemulsion (TQNE)...
July 19, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#20
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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