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learning memory

Huixin Chen, Siying Xiang, Ling Huang, Jiajia Lin, Shengquan Hu, Shing-Hung Mak, Chuang Wang, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui, Yifan Han
Tacrine(10)-hupyridone (A10E) was designed as a dual-binding acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor from the modification of tacrine and a fragment of huperzine A. We have found that A10E effectively inhibited AChE in a mixed competitive manner, with an IC50 of 26.4 nM, which is more potent than those of tacrine and huperzine A. Most importantly, we have shown, for the first time that A10E attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments without affecting motor function in mice. A10E effectively attenuated impairments of learning and memory to a similar extent as donepezil, an inhibitor of AChE used for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
March 21, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Liju Luan, Chaoran Ren, Wenyao Wang, Yan Nan, Jie Gao, Mingliang Pu
The amygdala is a limbic structure that is involved in many brain functions, including emotion, learning and memory. It has been reported that melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) innervate the medial amygdala (MeA). However, whether conventional RGCs (cRGCs) project to the MeA remains unknown. The goal of this study was to determine if cRGCs project to the MeA and to determine the morphological properties of MeA-projecting RGCs (MeA-RGCs). Retrogradely labeled RGCs in whole-mount retinas were intracellularly injected to reveal their dendritic morphologies...
March 19, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Alessandra Moletto, Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Piernanda Vigliano
OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term neurocognitive changes of a right-handed girl with intractable epilepsy after late right hemispherectomy and compare them with data in the literature. METHOD: The girl was affected by an epileptic encephalopathy associated with right fronto-temporo-parietal polymicrogyria; she was submitted to right hemispherectomy at the age of 5 and examined with cognitive and neuropsychological tests at the age of 17 years. The girl took advantage of neurocognitive rehabilitation for several years; she is currently seizure-free and off therapy...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
V Priya, B N Srikumar, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Performing multiple tasks either simultaneously, in rapid alternation or in succession, is routine in daily life. Further, testing rodents in a battery of tests is common both in drug discovery and behavioral phenotyping research. However, learning of new tasks can be influenced by prior experience(s). There has been some research on 'switching cost' involved in the transition from one behavior to another. However, there has been no specific assessment of the effect of learning an operant paradigm on performance in a spatial memory task and vice versa...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
José Luis Molinuevo, Carolina Minguillon, Lorena Rami, Juan Domingo Gispert
In the last decades, progress in neuroimaging techniques and cerebrospinal fluid assays has enabled the characterization of several Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers. This knowledge has shifted the conceptualization of AD from a clinical-pathological construct, where its diagnosis required the presence of dementia with distinct pathologic features, toward a clinical-biological one that recognizes AD as a pathological continuum with a clinical picture that ranges from normal cognition to a dementia stage. Specifically, AD is now divided into three stages: preclinical (abnormal biomarkers and no or only subtle cognitive impairment), mild cognitive impairment or prodromal AD (abnormal pathophysiological biomarkers and episodic memory impairment), and dementia (abnormal biomarkers and clear cognitive and functional impairment)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kichang Kwak, Hyuk Jin Yun, Gilsoon Park, Jong-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are age-related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive loss of memory and irreversible cognitive functions. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory processes, is especially susceptible to damage at early stages of AD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop prediction model using a multi-modality sparse representation approach. METHODS: We proposed a sparse representation approach to the hippocampus using structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to distinguish AD/MCI from healthy control subjects (HCs)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Luna Jammal, Ben Whalley, Edi Barkai
Training rats in a complex olfactory discrimination task results in acquisition of 'rule learning' (learning how to learn), a term describing the capability to perform the task superbly. Such rule learning results in strengthening of both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections between neurons in the piriform cortex. Moreover, intrinsic excitability is also enhanced throughout the pyramidal neuron population. Surprisingly, the cortical network retains its stability under these long-term modifications...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Rui Huang, Feng Wu, Jian Zhao, Huai-Bin Li, Jian Ding, Ke-Ren Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with Gastrodin on learning-memory ability and expression of silent information regulator 2 homologous protein 1(SIRT 1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC-1 ɑ) of hippocampal CA 1 region in Alzheimer's disease(AD) rats, so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of AD. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control (normal), sham operation (sham), model, EA, Gastrodin and EA+ Gastrodin groups ( n =10 in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
S Meis, T Endres, T Munsch, V Lessmann
Tonic inhibition mediated by ambient levels of GABA that activate extrasynaptic GABAA receptors emerges as an essential factor that tunes neuronal network excitability in vitro and shapes behavioral responses in vivo. To address the role of neuromodulatory transmitter systems on this type of inhibition, we employed patch clamp recordings in mouse amygdala slice preparations. Our results show that the current amplitude of tonic inhibition (Itonic ) in projection neurons of the basal amygdala (BA) is increased by preincubation with the neurosteroid THDOC, while the benzodiazepine diazepam is ineffective...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jorge A Avila, Roseanna M Zanca, Denis Shor, Nicholas Paleologos, Amber A Alliger, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Peter A Serrano
Methamphetamine (MA) is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw)] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA) based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA...
February 2018: Heliyon
Tenpei Akita, Kazushi Aoto, Mitsuhiro Kato, Masaaki Shiina, Hiroki Mutoh, Mitsuko Nakashima, Ichiro Kuki, Shin Okazaki, Shinichi Magara, Takashi Shiihara, Kenji Yokochi, Kaori Aiba, Jun Tohyama, Chihiro Ohba, Satoko Miyatake, Noriko Miyake, Kazuhiro Ogata, Atsuo Fukuda, Naomichi Matsumoto, Hirotomo Saitsu
Objective: α ( CAMK2A ) and β ( CAMK2B ) isoforms of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) play a pivotal role in neuronal plasticity and in learning and memory processes in the brain. Here, we explore the possible involvement of α - and β -CaMKII variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed for 976 individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and epilepsy. The effect of CAMK2A and CAMK2B variants on CaMKII structure and firing of neurons was evaluated by computational structural analysis, immunoblotting, and electrophysiological analysis...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Geor Bakker, Claudia Vingerhoets, Daphne Boucherie, Matthan Caan, Oswald Bloemen, Jos Eersels, Jan Booij, Thérèse van Amelsvoort
Background: It is still unclear which underlying mechanisms are involved in cognitive deficits of psychotic disorders. Pro-cognitive effects of muscarinic M1 receptor agonists suggest alterations in M1 receptor functioning may modulate these symptoms. Post mortem studies in patients with schizophrenia have shown significantly reduced M1 receptor expression rates in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to controls. To date no in-vivo examinations of M1 receptor binding in relation to cognitive impairments have been done...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Xian-Qin Luo, Ao Li, Xue Yang, Xiao Xiao, Rong Hu, Tian-Wen Wang, Xiao-Yun Dou, Da-Jian Yang, Zhi Dong
Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2 R) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CB2 R agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model...
2018: Chinese Medicine
Lucas Pinto, Sue A Koay, Ben Engelhard, Alice M Yoon, Ben Deverett, Stephan Y Thiberge, Ilana B Witten, David W Tank, Carlos D Brody
The gradual accumulation of sensory evidence is a crucial component of perceptual decision making, but its neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. Given the wide availability of genetic and optical tools for mice, they can be useful model organisms for the study of these phenomena; however, behavioral tools are largely lacking. Here, we describe a new evidence-accumulation task for head-fixed mice navigating in a virtual reality (VR) environment. As they navigate down the stem of a virtual T-maze, they see brief pulses of visual evidence on either side, and retrieve a reward on the arm with the highest number of pulses...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory has been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals can hardly be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of that, different efforts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performances remain considerably poorer than those obtained in free-flying animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nathanael J Yates, Dijana Tesic, Kirk W Feindel, Jeremy T Smith, Michael W Clarke, Celeste Wale, Rachael C Crew, Michaela D Wharfe, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Caitlin S Wyrwoll
Early life vitamin D plays a prominent role in neurodevelopment and subsequent brain function, including schizophrenic-like outcomes and increasing evidence for an association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we investigate how early life vitamin D deficiency during rat pregnancy and lactation alters maternal care and influences neurodevelopment and affective, cognitive and social behaviours in male adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on either a vitamin D control (2195 IU/kg) or deficient diet (0 IU/kg) for five weeks before timed mating, and diet exposure was maintained until weaning of offspring on postnatal day (PND) 23...
May 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Karem H Alzoubi, Omar F Khabour, Mohammad Ahmad
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling prevalent and difficult-to-treat psychiatric disorder, which can develop after the exposure to severe traumatic events such as those occurring during wars and natural disasters. Pentoxifylline (PTX) is a potent antioxidant, which has an important role in prevention of cognitive dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of PTX on memory impairment induced by PTSD was investigated using the rat animal model. PTSD-like behavior was induced in animals using a single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of PTSD (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, 1-2 min diethyl ether exposure)...
March 17, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Ozge Selin Cevik, Leyla Sahin, Lulufer Tamer
AIM: The type and duration of exposure to stress is an important influence on emotional and cognitive functions. Learning is the adaptive response of the central nervous system that occurs in hippocampus which affects from environmental factors like exercise. In this study, we investigated effects of long term treadmill exercise on learning and behavior on chronic social isolated rat. MAIN METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 32) randomly assigned into four groups: control, exercised, social isolation, social isolation + exercise during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34...
March 17, 2018: Life Sciences
Deyu Zhou, Lei Miao, Yulan He
OBJECTIVE: A drug-drug interaction (DDI) is a situation in which a drug affects the activity of another drug synergistically or antagonistically when being administered together. The information of DDIs is crucial for healthcare professionals to prevent adverse drug events. Although some known DDIs can be found in purposely-built databases such as DrugBank, most information is still buried in scientific publications. Therefore, automatically extracting DDIs from biomedical texts is sorely needed...
March 17, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
Yaniv Mama, Leah Fostick, Michal Icht
The presence of background noise has been previously shown to disrupt cognitive performance, especially memory. The amount of interference is derived from the acoustic characteristics of the noise; energetic vs. informational, steady-state vs. fluctuating. However, the literature is inconsistent concerning the effects of different types of noise on long-term memory free recall. In the present study, we tested the impact of different noises on recall of items that were learned under two conditions - silent or aloud reading, a Production Effect (PE) paradigm...
March 17, 2018: Acta Psychologica
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