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Perinatal hiv

Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Kristina Adachi, Jiahong Xu, Bonnie Ank, D Heather Watts, Margaret Camarca, Lynne M Mofenson, Jose Henrique Pilotto, Esau Joao, Glenda Gray, Gerhard Theron, Breno Santos, Rosana Fonseca, Regis Kreitchmann, Jorge Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Daisy Maria Machado, Mariana Ceriotto, Mariza G Morgado, Yvonne J Bryson, Valdilea G Veloso, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Mark Mirochnick, Jack Moye, Karin Nielsen-Saines
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude, and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS: cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy...
March 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ali Judd, Mary-Ann Davies
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence for health outcomes among adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYLHIV) who have transitioned to adult care/adulthood, views of AYLHIV and providers on the transition process, and the effect of adolescent and youth friendly services (AYFS) on outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 43 studies were identified [n = 13 high-income countries (HICs), n = 30 low-/middle-income countries (LMICs)]. In HICs, around 75% of patients were retained in care at approximately 4 years posttransition...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Stephanie Benson, Katherine S Elkington, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Amelia Bucek, Curtis Dolezal, Patricia Warne, Claude Mellins
As youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection age, there is a need for studies that identify predictors and correlates of sexual risk behaviors. We examined the association between psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) with sexual risk behaviors in youth with perinatally acquired HIV infection and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected youth. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and the Adolescent Sexual Behavior Assessment were administered to assess psychiatric disorders and sexual behaviors, respectively...
February 17, 2018: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Marthe Le Prevost, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Diane Melvin, Francesca Parrott, Caroline Foster, Deborah Ford, Michael Evangeli, Alan Winston, Kate Sturgeon, Katie Rowson, Diana M Gibb, Ali Judd
Adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) may be at higher risk of anxiety and depression than HIV negative young people. We investigated prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in 283 PHIV and 96 HIV-affected (HIV-negative) young people in England recruited into the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort. We used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores and linear regression investigated predictors of higher (worse) scores.115 (41%) and 29 (30%) PHIV and HIV-affected young people were male, median age was 16 [interquartile range 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years and 241 (85%) and 71 (74%) were black African, respectively...
March 4, 2018: AIDS Care
Karl Peltzer, Sibusiso Sifunda, Lissa N Mandell, Violeta J Rodriguez, Tae Kyoung Lee, Ryan Cook, Stephen M Weiss, Deborah L Jones
Introduction: This study aimed to assess fertility intentions (planning to have more children in the future) and associated factors among pregnant and postpartum HIV positive women in rural South Africa. Methods: In a longitudinal study, as part of a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) intervention trial, 699 HIV positive prenatal women, were systematically recruited and followed up at 6 months and 12 months postpartum (retention rate = 59.5%). Results: At baseline, 32...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Emma R Allanson, Robert C Pattison, Nathan A Elizabeth, Jan E Dickinson
OBJECTIVES: To assess umbilical artery lactate levels and perinatal outcomes among women with and without HIV infection. METHODS: The present prospective cohort study recruited women planning to undergo vaginal delivery at Kalafong Hospital, South Africa, between March 3 and November 12, 2014. Umbilical artery lactate levels were measured and perinatal outcome data were recorded. Outcome analyses were stratified by maternal HIV status, and a subgroup analysis was performed where women with a CD4 count below 350×106 cells/L were compared with women without HIV...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Amy L Slogrove, Michael Schomaker, Mary-Ann Davies, Paige Williams, Suna Balkan, Jihane Ben-Farhat, Nancy Calles, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Charlotte Duff, Tanoh François Eboua, Adeodata Kekitiinwa-Rukyalekere, Nicola Maxwell, Jorge Pinto, George Seage, Chloe A Teasdale, Sebastian Wanless, Josiane Warszawski, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Marcel Yotebieng, Venessa Timmerman, Intira J Collins, Ruth Goodall, Colette Smith, Kunjal Patel, Mary Paul, Diana Gibb, Rachel Vreeman, Elaine J Abrams, Rohan Hazra, Russell Van Dyke, Linda-Gail Bekker, Lynne Mofenson, Marissa Vicari, Shaffiq Essajee, Martina Penazzato, Gabriel Anabwani, Edith Q Mohapi, Peter N Kazembe, Makhosazana Hlatshwayo, Mwita Lumumba, Tessa Goetghebuer, Claire Thorne, Luisa Galli, Annemarie van Rossum, Carlo Giaquinto, Magdalena Marczynska, Laura Marques, Filipa Prata, Luminita Ene, Liubov Okhonskaia, Pablo Rojo, Claudia Fortuny, Lars Naver, Christoph Rudin, Sophie Le Coeur, Alla Volokha, Vanessa Rouzier, Regina Succi, Annette Sohn, Azar Kariminia, Andrew Edmonds, Patricia Lelo, Samuel Ayaya, Patricia Ongwen, Laura F Jefferys, Sam Phiri, Mwangelwa Mubiana-Mbewe, Shobna Sawry, Lorna Renner, Mariam Sylla, Mark J Abzug, Myron Levin, James Oleske, Miriam Chernoff, Shirley Traite, Murli Purswani, Ellen G Chadwick, Ali Judd, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: Globally, the population of adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APHs) continues to expand. In this study, we pooled data from observational pediatric HIV cohorts and cohort networks, allowing comparisons of adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV in "real-life" settings across multiple regions. We describe the geographic and temporal characteristics and mortality outcomes of APHs across multiple regions, including South America and the Caribbean, North America, Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and South and Southeast Asia...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Bernadette N Ng'eno, Timothy A Kellogg, Andrea A Kim, Anne Mwangi, Mary Mwangi, Joyce Wamicwe, George W Rutherford
Understanding how HIV is acquired can inform interventions to prevent infection. We constructed a risk profile of 10-24 year olds participating in the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey and classified them as perinatally infected if their biological mother was infected with HIV or had died, or if their father was infected with HIV or had died (for those lacking mother's data). The remaining were classified as sexually infected if they had sex, and the remaining as parenterally infected if they had a blood transfusion...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Claudia Beltrán-Arroyave, Catalina Mesa, Hernán Vásquez, Nayibe Hincapié, Alejandro Díaz-Díaz
Children with perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can present early or late clinical disease. HIV-associated lymphoma is a later manifestation that is associated with advanced immunosuppression (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -AIDS). This is a case of a 9-year-old boy with recent diagnosis of HIV with Burkitt's lymphoma as first clinical manifestation. In children, the frequency of this association is very low and there are few cases reported.
October 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Eighty percent of adolescents living with perinatally and behaviourally acquired HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), a continent with marked economic inequality. As part of our global project describing adolescents living with perinatally acquired HIV (APH), we aimed to assess whether inequality in outcomes exists by country income group (CIG) for APH within SSA. METHODS: Through the CIPHER cohort collaboration, individual retrospective data from 7 networks and 25 countries in SSA were included...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Tanvi S Sharma, Gabriel Somarriba, Kristopher L Arheart, Daniela Neri, M Sunil Mathew, Patricia L Graham, Gwendolyn B Scott, Tracie L Miller
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has allowed youth with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV+) to live into adulthood, but many youth may experience metabolic and body composition changes that predispose to greater cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. This longitudinal study evaluated changes in body composition measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cohort of PHIV+ youth compared to HIV- controls over a 7-year period. METHODS: PHIV+ youth and HIV- controls were prospectively enrolled in a single-site study to assess nutrition and CVD risk...
February 22, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Katrina M Pollock, Hannah Pintilie, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved survival into adulthood for young people with perinatally acquired HIV-1 (yp-PaHIV), but long-term prognosis remains unclear. We hypothesized that on-going immune activation, reflected in the failure of CD4:CD8 ratio normalization would be observed in yp-PaHIV, despite ART.A cross-sectional study of routinely collected clinical data from a cohort of yp-PaHIV (≥16 years).Data were collected from records of individuals attending a specialist clinic for yp-PaHIV transitioning to adult care...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pamela Musoke, Abigail Hatcher, Anna Joy Rogers, Lillian Achiro, Elizabeth Bukusi, Lynae Darbes, Zachary Kwena, Patrick Oyaro, Elly Weke, Janet M Turan
Male involvement in antenatal care has been shown to improve health outcomes for women and infants. However, little is known about how best to encourage male partners to support essential perinatal health activities. We explored men's perceptions of facilitators and barriers to involvement in antenatal care and HIV prevention including fears, hopes and challenges. Forty in-depth interviews were conducted with the male partners of HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in southwest Kenya. Most male partners believed engaging in pregnancy health-related activities was beneficial for keeping families healthy...
February 21, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Lisa Hamzah, Elizabeth Hamlyn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize data in the last 18 months on the sexual and reproductive health of perinatally and horizontally infected adolescents and young people living with HIV (age 13-25 years) and to highlight some key issues faced by this group of adolescents as they reach puberty and sexual debut. RECENT FINDINGS: Adolescents and young people living with HIV are a growing cohort worldwide and a significant proportion engage in high-risk sexual activity, pose risk of onward HIV transmission, yet have poor access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services and lack the knowledge and support to advocate for their needs...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Désiré Dahourou, Jean-Philippe Raynaud, Valériane Leroy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Improved access to antiretroviral therapy has resulted in an emerging population of adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Full disclosure of an HIV diagnosis includes naming HIV/AIDS and is an important step in coping with HIV. We reviewed the recent trends in the rates of children/adolescents who have been informed of their HIV infection according to age groups, the barriers and the evaluated interventions aimed at improving the HIV disclosure process to ALHIV in sub-Saharan Africa...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Nicholas Tarantino, Larry K Brown, Laura Whiteley, M Isabel Fernández, Sharon L Nichols, Gary Harper
Youth living with HIV (YLH) have significant problems with attending their medical appointments. Poor attendance, consequently, predicts viral non-suppression and other negative health outcomes. To identity targets of intervention, this cross-sectional study examined correlates of past-year missed clinic visits among YLH (N = 2125) attending HIV clinics in the United States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-six percent of YLH missed two or more visits in the past year. Several factors were associated with missed visits in our regression model...
February 17, 2018: AIDS Care
Matthew A Budd, Kristina Calli, Lindy Samson, Jennifer Bowes, Anthony Y Y Hsieh, John C Forbes, Ari Bitnun, Joel Singer, Fatima Kakkar, Ariane Alimenti, Evelyn J Maan, M E Suzanne Lewis, Carole Gentile, Hélène C F Côté, Jason C Brophy
Long-term outcomes of perinatal exposure to maternal antiretroviral therapy in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children are unknown. However, both HIV antiretroviral therapy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been associated with mitochondrial alterations. Leukocyte mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content can serve as a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction. In this cross-sectional, nested case-control study, HEU children with ASD were matched approximately 1:3 on age, sex, and ethnicity to HEU children without ASD, HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) controls, and HUU children with ASD...
February 11, 2018: Viruses
Lynn M Yee, Donna V McGregor, Sarah H Sutton, Patricia M Garcia, Emily S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether maternal disclosure of HIV serostatus is associated with uptake of perinatal HIV transmission prevention interventions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of women living with HIV enrolled in a perinatal HIV clinic. Women who disclosed their HIV serostatus to sexual partner(s) prior to delivery were compared to non-disclosers. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. RESULTS: Of 209 women, 71.3% (N = 149) disclosed...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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