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Human herpesvirus 6

Carlos A Q Santos
Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpes virus (HHV)-6, and HHV-7 are ubiquitous β-herpesviruses that can cause opportunistic infection and disease in kidney transplant recipients. Active CMV infection and disease are associated with acute allograft failure and death, and HHV-6 and HHV-7 replication are associated with CMV disease. CMV prevention strategies are used commonly after kidney transplantation, and include prophylaxis with antiviral medications and preemptive treatment upon the detection of asymptomatic viral replication in blood...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
Joshua C Pritchett, Jaime S Green, Angela M Thomm, Konstance K Knox, Michael R Verneris, Troy C Lund
Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) commonly reactivates after umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) and is associated with delayed engraftment, fever, rash, and CNS dysfunction. Recently CD134 (OX40) has been implicated as a potential viral entry receptor. We evaluated CD4(+)CD134(+)/(neg-lo) and CD8(+) CD134(+)/(neg-lo) cells at day +28 after UCBT in 20 subjects with previously documented HHV-6 reactivation and persistent viremia. Analysis of CD4(+)CD134(+) cells compared to CD4(+)CD134(neg-lo) cells showed 0...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maria-Luisa Del Rio, Ana Maria Bravo Moral, Carlos Fernandez-Renedo, Leo Buhler, Jose-Antonio Perez-Simon, Olivier Chaloin, Rafael Alvarez Nogal, Maximino Fernandez-Caso, Jose-Ignacio Rodriguez-Barbosa
CD160 is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It exhibits a pattern of expression coincident in humans and mice that is mainly restricted to cytotoxic cells and to all intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 interact with cysteine-rich domain 1 of the extracellular region of Herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). CD160 engagement by HVEM can deliver inhibitory signals to a small subset of human CD4 T cells and attenuate its proliferation and cytokine secretion, but can also costimulate natural killer cells or intraepithelial lymphocytes...
September 15, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
D Topalis, S Gillemot, R Snoeck, G Andrei
Emergence of drug-resistance to all FDA-approved antiherpesvirus agents is an increasing concern in immunocompromised patients. Herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DNApol) is currently the target of nucleos(t)ide analogue-based therapy. Mutations in DNApol that confer resistance arose in immunocompromised patients infected with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and to lesser extent in herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). In this review, we present distinct drug-resistant mutational profiles of herpesvirus DNApol...
September 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Alina Sultanova, Maksims Cistjakovs, Sabine Gravelsina, Svetlana Chapenko, Silvija Roga, Egils Cunskis, Zaiga Nora-Krukle, Valerija Groma, Ildze Ventina, Modra Murovska
OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been frequently cited as important environmental factors implicated in the onset of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of HHV-6 infection in the development of autoimmune thyroiditis. METHODS: This study included 45 patients (42 female and 3 male; median age 47.00 IQR: 38.50-57.00) with histologically, laboratory and clinically confirmed autoimmune thyroiditis, as well as 30 autopsied subjects (26 women and 4 men; median age 58...
September 29, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Roberto Crocchiolo, Laura Giordano, Andrea Rimondo, Muriel Bologna, Barbara Sarina, Lucio Morabito, Stefania Bramanti, Luca Castagna, Rossana Mineri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Since HHV-6 reactivation after transplant has been reported to increase the risk of CMV infection, we tested this hypothesis in the HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. STUDY DESIGN: From February 2011 to October 2015, 75 patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using a T-cell replete graft from a HLA-haploidentical donor at our Institution. RESULTS: Interestingly, 87% of HHV-6 reactivations were followed by a CMV reactivation, at a median of 15days between the two viruses...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Ryo Hanajiri, Takeshi Kobayashi, Kosuke Yoshioka, Daisuke Watanabe, Kyoko Watakabe, Yutaka Murata, Takeshi Hagino, Yasushi Seno, Yuho Najima, Aiko Igarashi, Noriko Doki, Kazuhiko Kakihana, Hisashi Sakamaki, Kazuteru Ohashi
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Here, we described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of central nervous system (CNS) infections occurring after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in a single institution over the previous 6 years. METHODS: Charts of 353 consecutive allogeneic transplant recipients were retrospectively reviewed for CNS infection. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of CNS infection were identified at a median of 38 days (range, 10-1028 days) after allo-HSCT...
September 17, 2016: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
Priscila H Goncalves, Joseph Ziegelbauer, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the pathogenesis and recent advances in the management of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: KSHV, a gammaherpesvirus, causes several tumors and related diseases, including Kaposi sarcoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (KSHV-MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma. These most often develop in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) is a newly described syndrome with high mortality that has inflammatory symptoms-like MCD but not the pathologic lymph node findings...
September 22, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Yuki Miyazaki, Hikaru Namba, Sadayoshi Torigoe, Masahiro Watanabe, Nobuko Yamashita, Hirohito Ogawa, Tsuneo Morishima, Masao Yamada
The amounts of the DNAs of human herpesviruses-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) in saliva samples were monitored during the acute and convalescent phases of exanthem subitum (ES) to elucidate the kinetics of virus shedding after ES. A total of 247 saliva samples were collected from 17 children (5 males and 12 females: 8-31 months old at onset). The monitoring period ranged from 152 to 721 days after onset, and in 15 children it was longer than 1 year. Among the 17 cases, 16 were attributed to HHV-6B, while a single case was attributed to HHV-7...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Jun-Ichi Kawada, Yusuke Okuno, Yuka Torii, Ryo Okada, Satoshi Hayano, Shotaro Ando, Yasuko Kamiya, Seiji Kojima, Yoshinori Ito
Acute encephalitis/encephalopathy is a severe neurological syndrome that is occasionally associated with viral infection. Comprehensive virus detection assays are desirable because viral pathogens have not been identified in many cases. We evaluated the utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for detecting viruses in clinical samples of encephalitis/encephalopathy patients. We first determined the sensitivity and quantitative performance of NGS by comparing the NGS-determined number of sequences of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) in clinical serum samples with the HHV-6 load measured using real-time PCR...
2016: Scientific Reports
Seth J Kligerman, Aaron Auerbach, Teri J Franks, Jeffrey R Galvin
Castleman disease is a complex lymphoproliferative disease pathologically divided into two subtypes, the hyaline vascular variant (HVV) and the plasma cell variant (PCV). The HVV is the most common, is thought to represent a benign neoplasm of lymph node stromal cells, and is treated with surgical resection. It is most commonly found in the mediastinum, where it classically appears as a unicentric, avidly enhancing mass at computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. This appearance can mimic other avidly enhancing mediastinal masses, and location, clinical history, laboratory data, and nuclear medicine single photon emission CT (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies can help narrow the differential diagnosis...
September 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Rucha Shah, Dhoom Singh Mehta
BACKGROUND: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level...
May 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
G Bogdanovic, C Pou, M Barrientos-Somarribas, A Bjerkner, E Honkaniemi, T Allander, B Andersson, B Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Some childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (ALL) can be traced back to a prenatal origin, where a virus infection could be involved in the first pre-leukaemic clone development. The DNA virome of 95 children who later developed ALL was characterised from neonatal blood spots (NBS) using unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS) and compared with the virome of 95 non-ALL controls. METHODS: DNA was individually extracted from the ALL-patients and controls, pooled, randomly amplified and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Sequencing System...
October 11, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Elena Ramírez, Nicolás Medrano-Casique, Hoi Y Tong, Teresa Bellón, Rosario Cabañas, Ana Fiandor, Jessica González-Ramos, Pedro Herranz, Elena Trigo, Mario Muñoz, Alberto M Borobia, Antonio J Carcas, Jesús Frías
AIM: We conducted a prospective evaluation of all eosinophilic drug reactions (EDRs) through the Prospective Pharmacovigilance Program from Laboratory Signals at Hospital to find out the incidence and distribution of these entities in our hospital, their causative drugs, and predictors. METHODS: All peripheral eosinophilia >700 × 10(6)  cells l(-1) detected at admission or during hospitalisation, were prospectively monitored over 42 months. The spectrum of the localised or systemic manifestation of EDR, the incidence, the distribution of causative drugs, and the predictors were analysed...
August 20, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Joseph Ongrádi, Dharam V Ablashi, Tetsushi Yoshikawa, Balázs Stercz, Masao Ogata
The roseoloviruses, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, can cause severe encephalitis or encephalopathy. In immunocompetent children, primary HHV-6B infection is occasionally accompanied by diverse clinical forms of encephalitis. Roseolovirus coinfections with heterologous viruses and delayed primary HHV-7 infection in immunocompetent adults result in very severe neurological and generalized symptoms. Recovery from neurological sequelae is slow and sometimes incomplete. In immunocompromised patients with underlying hematological malignancies and transplantation, frequent single or simultaneous reactivation of roseoloviruses elicit severe, lethal organ dysfunctions, including damages in the limbic system, brain stem, and hippocampus...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Dominik Schmiedel, Julie Tai, Francesca Levi-Schaffer, Sarah Dovrat, Ofer Mandelboim
: The Herpesviridae family consists of eight viruses, most of which infect a majority of the human population. One of the less-studied members is human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) (Roseolovirus), which causes a mild, well-characterized childhood disease. Primary HHV-6 infection is followed by lifelong latency. Reactivation frequently occurs in immunocompromised patients, such as those suffering from HIV infection or cancer or following transplantation, and causes potentially life-threatening complications...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ruth F Itzhaki
The last 8 or so years have seen a large increase in the number of studies supporting the concept of a major role for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main advances have been made through studies in humans and in mice, investigating the likelihood of reactivation of the latent virus in brain. Others have aimed to explain the mechanisms in cells whereby the increase in amyloid-beta (Aβ) production on HSV1 infection of cells and mouse brains occurs, and the reason that infected cells make this increase...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Gail E Reid, Joseph P Lynch, Samuel Weigt, David Sayah, John A Belperio, Shellee A Grim, Nina M Clark
Among immunocompromised individuals, members of the human Herpesviridae family are frequently encountered pathogens. Cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpesvirus-6, -7, and -8 all establish latency after infection and can reactivate during periods of immunosuppression, leading to both direct and indirect adverse effects on the host including severe organ dysfunction as well as allograft rejection and loss after transplantation. While not all herpesviruses are primary respiratory pathogens, many of their manifestations include involvement of the respiratory tract...
August 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sajad Varmazyar, Zabihollah Shoja, Rezvan Kakavand-Ghalehnoei, Shohreh Shahmahmoodi, Sayed Mahdi Marashi, Somayeh Jalilvand
It is still unclear whether different HHV-8 genotypes may have different pathogenic and tumorigenic properties associated with a diverse rate of disease progression. In some areas where genotype C was found to be prominent among classic KS patients, genotype A was shown to be more frequent among AIDS-associated KS patients. Genotype C was previously reported to be widespread in Iran, with genotype A being less frequent among patients with classic KS although no data are available with regards to the HHV-8 genotyping among Iranian HIV-infected patients...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Cheng-Te Major Lin, Emily C Leibovitch, M Isabel Almira-Suarez, Steven Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal CNS malignancy, representing 50 % of all gliomas with approximately 12-18 months survival time after initial diagnosis. Recently, the human herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been suggested to have an oncogenic role, yet this association remains controversial. In addition, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have also been associated with low-grade gliomas, but few studies have examined HHV-6 and EBV in glioblastomas. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a highly precise diagnostic tool that enables the absolute quantification of target DNA...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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