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Liver, parasites

Pamela Orjuela-Sanchez, Zaira Hellen Villa, Marta Moreno, Carlos Tong-Rios, Stephan Meister, Gregory M LaMonte, Brice Campo, Joseph M Vinetz, Elizabeth A Winzeler
To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region...
March 15, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
An Yong-de, Zhu Wen-Jun, Guo Ya-Min, Han Xiu-Min
Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the larvae of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multiltilocularis , which mainly violate the liver. And the surgical treatment is an important method to cure the disease at present. However, there are many surgical methods for the treatment of hepatic echinococcosis, and different surgeries with different indications and risks. With the standard of precision surgery and no tumor surgery, the surgical operation is more precise. The innovation of surgical methods makes the operation of curing complex hepatic echinococcosis become true...
February 26, 2018: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Brice Autier, Sarah Dion, Florence Robert-Gangneux
AIM: Toxoplasmosis following liver transplant with donor-recipient mismatch is rare, but is often life-threatening. However, there are no data on the frequency of cyst carriage in the liver, nor consensual chemoprophylaxis guidelines. This study aimed at describing frequency and localisation of Toxoplasma cysts in the liver in a mouse model of chronic infection to predict the risk in liver transplantation. METHODS: Heart, brain and liver lobes of 21 mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma were collected for DNA extraction and amplification of Toxoplasma gondii rep529 sequence by real-time PCR...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Hannah Serna, Ann Pocknell, Anthony W Sainsbury, Gabriela Peniche, Damer P Blake, Katie M Beckmann
Eimeria crecis and Eimeria nenei have been detected in association with enteric disease ('coccidiosis') in the corncrake (Crex crex: Family Rallidae, Order Gruiformes). Both parasite species are common in apparently healthy free-living corncrakes, but captive-bred juvenile birds reared for reintroduction appeared particularly susceptible to clinical coccidiosis. We investigated the occurrence and relative pathogenicity of these Eimeria species in this juvenile corncrake population and developed a diagnostic species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for their identification...
March 13, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Recep Sade, Mecit Kantarci, Berhan Genc, Hayri Ogul, Betul Gundogdu, Omer Yilmaz
Objective: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare life-threatening parasitic infection. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging has the potential to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about the tissue perfusion characteristics. The purpose of this study was the examination of the characteristic features and feasibility of CTP in AE liver lesions. Material and Methods: CTP scanning was performed in 25 patients who had a total of 35 lesions identified as AE of the liver...
February 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Palida Emmanoch, Nanthawat Kosa, Suksiri Vichasri-Grams, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc
Four isoforms of calcium binding proteins containing 2 EF hand motifs and a dynein light chain-like domain in the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini , namely OvCaBP1, 2, 3, and 4, were characterized. They had molecular weights of 22.7, 21.6, 23.7, and 22.5 kDa, respectively and showed 37.2-42.1% sequence identity to CaBP22.8 of O. viverrini . All were detected in 2- and 4-week-old immature and mature parasites. Additionally, OvCaBP4 was found in newly excysted juveniles. Polyclonal antibodies against each isoform were generated to detect the native proteins in parasite extracts by Western blot analysis...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Carolina Agop-Nersesian, Livia Niklaus, Rahel Wacker, Volker Heussler
Recent years have witnessed a great gain in knowledge regarding parasite-host cell interactions during Plasmodium liver stage development. It is now an accepted fact that a large percentage of sporozoite invading a hepatocyte fail to form infectious merozoites. There appears to be a delicate balance between parasite survival and elimination and we now start to understand why this is so. Plasmodium liver stages replicate within the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), formed during invasion by invagination of the host cell plasma membrane...
February 26, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Jack P Carson, Grant A Ramm, Mark W Robinson, Donald P McManus, Geoffrey N Gobert
Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathology in various liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main cell type responsible for collagen deposition and fibrosis formation in the liver. Schistosomiasis is characterised by granulomatous fibrosis around parasite eggs trapped within the liver and other host tissues. This response is facilitated by the recruitment of immune cells and the activation of HSCs. The interactions between HSCs and schistosome eggs are complex and diverse, and a better understanding of these interactions could lead to improved resolution of fibrotic liver disease, including that associated with schistosomiasis...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
Espérance Moine, Nathalie Moiré, Isabelle Dimier-Poisson, Kévin Brunet, William Couet, Cyril Colas, Nathalie Van Langendonck, Cécile Enguehard-Gueiffier, Alain Gueiffier, Bruno Héraut, Caroline Denevault-Sabourin, Françoise Debierre-Grockiego
The current therapeutic arsenal for toxoplasmosis is restricted to drugs non-specific to the parasite which cause important side effects. Development of more efficient and specific anti-Toxoplasma compounds is urgently needed. Imidazo[1,2-b]pyridazines (IPs) designed to inhibit the calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgCDPK1) and effective against tachyzoite growth in vitro at submicromolar ranges were modified into hydrochloride salts to be administered in vivo in a mouse model of acute toxoplasmosis...
March 7, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Gregory F Albery, Fiona Kenyon, Alison Morris, Sean Morris, Daniel H Nussey, Josephine M Pemberton
Parasitism in wild mammals can vary according to myriad intrinsic and extrinsic factors, many of which vary seasonally. However, seasonal variation in parasitism is rarely studied using repeated samples from known individuals. Here we used a wild population of individually recognized red deer (Cervus elaphus) on the Isle of Rum to quantify seasonality and intrinsic factors affecting gastrointestinal helminth parasitism over the course of a year. We collected 1020 non-invasive faecal samples from 328 known individuals which we then analysed for propagules of three helminth taxa: strongyle nematodes, the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and the tissue nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi...
March 9, 2018: Parasitology
Alessandra Regina Dhorm Pimentel de Moraes, Guilherme Diniz Tavares, Francisca Janaina Soares Rocha, Eneida de Paula, Selma Giorgio
Plant products are an important source of bioactive agents against parasitic diseases, including leishmaniasis. Among these products, vegetable oils have gained ground in the pharmaceutical field. Here we report the development of nanoemulsions as a delivery system for copaiba and andiroba oils (nanocopa and nanoandi) in order to test their effects on Leishmania infantum and L. amazonensis. The nanocopa and nanoandi had an average particle size of 76.1 and 88.1, respectively with polydispersity index 0.14 to 0...
March 5, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Shotaro Nakagun, Akira Shiozaki, Mari Ochiai, Ayaka Matsuda, Yuko Tajima, Takashi Matsuishi, Kenichi Watanabe, Noriyuki Horiuchi, Yoshiyasu Kobayashi
Beaked whales are among the least known group of cetaceans, and information regarding their pathology and parasitology is especially scarce. We describe a case of significant parasitism by a trematode found in the liver of an adult male Hubbs' beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi that stranded in Hokkaido, Japan. Post-mortem examinations revealed a localised area of discolouration restricted to the hilar region of the left hepatic lobe, where spindle-shaped trematodes occupied the dilated and hypertrophic bile ducts...
March 5, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Muhammet Arslan, Bozkurt Gulek, Hasan Ulas Ogur, Fulya Adamhasan
Hydatid cyst (echinococcosis) is an endemic parasitic disease, usually encountered in those dealing with agriculture and livestock. The most frequently affected organs are the liver and the lungs. The disease is very rarely encountered in soft tissues. Diagnosing a soft-tissue hydatid cyst may be challenging unless the mass possesses the characteristic features of a hydatid cyst. Soft-tissue hydatid cysts may be treated percutaneously, just like those encountered in the liver. In this case report, we present the radiological findings and modified percutaneous aspiration-injection-reaspiration (PAIR) treatment of a hydatid cyst located in the posterior aspect of the thigh...
March 7, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Ravi Kumar Narayanasamy, Carlos Alberto Castañón-Sanchez, Juan Pedro Luna-Arias, Guillermina García-Rivera, Bartolo Avendaño-Borromeo, María Luisa Labra-Barrios, Jesús Valdés, María Esther Herrera-Aguirre, Esther Orozco
BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite responsible for human amebiasis. It causes up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. This parasite has two closely related basal transcription factors, the TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) and the TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). TBP binds to the canonical TATTTAAA-box, as well as to different TATA variants. TRF1 also binds to the TATTTAAA-box. However, their binding capacity to diverse core promoter elements, including the GAAC-element, and their role in gene regulation in this parasite remains unknown...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Tian-Zhang Song, Ming-Xu Zhang, Yu-Jie Xia, Yu Xiao, Wei Pang, Yong-Tang Zheng
Parasites can increase infection rates and pathogenicity in immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, in vitro studies and epidemiological investigations also suggest that parasites might escape immunocompromised hosts during HIV infection. Due to the lack of direct evidence from animal experiments, the effects of parasitic infections on immunocompromised hosts remain unclear. Here, we detected 14 different parasites in six northern pig-tailed macaques (NPMs) before or at the 50th week of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by ELISA...
January 18, 2018: Zoological Research
Qinghua Zhao, Jin Luo, Qin Zhang, Tianyan Leng, Lihua Yang
RATIONALE: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by echinococcus larvae. Manifestations of the disease include a severe damage to the liver and lung. Damages to the mesentery, omentum, spleen, brain, heart, bone, thyroid, kidney, and uterus are rarely observed. Moreover, primary ovarian and retroperitoneal hydatid disease is extremely rare, and is easily ignored or misdiagnosed. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of CE in a 34-year-old female who presented with an adnexal mass detected by B-ultrasound...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brandon Haugen, Shannon E Karinshak, Victoria H Mann, Anastas Popratiloff, Alex Loukas, Paul J Brindley, Michael J Smout
The liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a food-borne, zoonotic pathogen endemic to Thailand and adjacent countries in Southeast Asia. The adult developmental stage of the O. viverrini parasite excretes and secretes numerous proteins within the biliary tract including the gall bladder. Lesions caused by the feeding activities of the liver fluke represent wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing and re-injury during chronic infection, which can last for decades. Components of the excretory/secretory (ES) complement released by the worms capably drive proliferation of bile duct epithelial cells and are implicated in establishing the oncogenic milieu that leads to bile duct cancer, cholangiocarcinoma...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Rita Capela, Joana Magalhães, Daniela Miranda, Marta Machado, Margarida Sanches-Vaz, Inês S Albuquerque, Moni Sharma, Jiri Gut, Philip J Rosenthal, Raquel Frade, Maria J Perry, Rui Moreira, Miguel Prudêncio, Francisca Lopes
Hybrid compounds may play a critical role in the context of the malaria eradication agenda, which will benefit from therapeutic tools active against the symptomatic erythrocytic stage of Plasmodium infection, and also capable of eliminating liver stage parasites. To address the need for efficient multistage antiplasmodial compounds, a small library of 1,2,4,5-tetraoxane-8- aminoquinoline hybrids, with the metabolically labile C-5 position of the 8-aminoquinoline moiety blocked with aryl groups, was synthesized and screened for antiplasmodial activity and metabolic stability...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Maftuch Maftuch, Ellana Sanoesi, Ichfat Farichin, Bagus Amin Saputra, Luqman Ramdhani, Sarifa Hidayati, Nurul Fitriyah, Asep A Prihanto
This research aims to investigate the clinical symptoms of Myxobolus sp.-infected Koi carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) and to observe fish histopathology including histological alteration in the intestine, kidney, and liver organs. Descriptive method was employed in this research. The fish sample was obtained from Fish Farmer Group at Nglegok Village in Blitar City. The main observed parameters were the alteration of intestine, kidney, and liver of Koi infected with Myxobolus sp. parasite. The observation result of the histopathology of the parasite-infected fish indicated that necrosis and cyst occurred in the intestine...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Samia E Etewa, Dalia A Abo El-Maaty, Rania S Hamza, Ashraf S Metwaly, Mohamed H Sarhan, Sara A Abdel-Rahman, Ghada M Fathy, Mahmoud A El-Shafey
Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease with worldwide distribution. Chitosan is a natural polymer which is commonly used in the production of nanomedicines. It is known to enable higher drug permeation, being biocompatible and has very low toxicity, besides its antimicrobial effects. Our study aimed to assess the effect of spiramycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (SLCNs) in treatment of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in mice. 200 male Swiss albino mice were included in our study, divided to two main groups; Toxoplasma gondii RH strain infected group and ME49 strain infected group, each main group was subdivided into four subgroups; subgroup I: infected control, subgroup II: infected and received chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs); 20 µg of CS NPs in 100 µl of PBS/mouse/dose, subgroup III: infected and treated with spiramycin (Rovamycin); 100 mg/kg/day, subgroup IV: infected and treated with 100 mg/kg/day spiramycin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles...
March 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
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