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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642498/uptake-and-metabolism-of-arginine-impact-plasmodium-development-in-the-liver
#1
Patrícia Meireles, António M Mendes, Rita I Aroeira, Bryan C Mounce, Marco Vignuzzi, Henry M Staines, Miguel Prudêncio
Prior to infecting erythrocytes and causing malaria symptoms, Plasmodium parasites undergo an obligatory phase of invasion and extensive replication inside their mammalian host's liver cells that depends on the parasite's ability to obtain the nutrients it requires for its intra-hepatic growth and multiplication. Here, we show that L-arginine (Arg) uptake through the host cell's SLC7A2-encoded transporters is essential for the parasite's development and maturation in the liver. Our data suggest that the Arg that is taken up is primarily metabolized by the arginase pathway to produce the polyamines required for Plasmodium growth...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634394/the-roles-of-toll-like-receptor-4-in-the-pathogenesis-of-pathogen-associated-biliary-fibrosis-caused-by-clonorchis-sinensis
#2
Chao Yan, Bo Li, Fang Fan, Ying Du, Rui Ma, Xiao-Dan Cheng, Xiang-Yang Li, Bo Zhang, Qian Yu, Yu-Gang Wang, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng
Pathogen-associated biliary fibrosis (PABF) is a type of liver fibrosis characterized by injuries of cholangiocytes and extra cellular matrix (ECM) deposition around bile ducts caused by various bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites. Recent studies show that TLR4 plays an important role in several other types of liver fibrosis, but the mechanism of TLR4 in PABF is yet really unclear. In the present study, a PABF mouse model was established by a trematode infection-Clonorchis sinensis which dwells in the bile ducts and causes severe biliary fibrosis of mice...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630663/presentation-of-secondary-parasitic-infection-37-years-after-primary-infection
#3
Gary Sharp, David Yeo, Cherry Koh
Echinococcus granulosus (EG) is a neglected pathology that causes cystic echinococcosis and primarily affects the liver and lung. EG infects ~6 million worldwide and mortality is quoted as 2-4% per 100 000 inhabitants. The increase in human traffic from endemic regions demands clinician's awareness. Dogs are the most common definitive host for the EG tapeworm. Human infection requires ingestion of fecal parasitic eggs. Primary infection causes cysts to appear in affected organs, rupture of which leads to secondary infection...
June 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630200/treatment-of-experimental-visceral-leishmaniasis-with-single-dose-liposomal-amphotericin-b-pharmacodynamics-and-biodistribution-at-different-stages-of-disease
#4
Andrew A Voak, Andy Harris, Zeeshan Qaiser, Simon L Croft, Karin Seifert
Visceral leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease, which causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Characterising the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-leishmanial drugs in pre-clinical models is important for drug development and use. Here we investigated the pharmacodynamics and drug distribution of AmBisome® in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice at three different dose levels and two different time points after infection. We additionally compared drug levels in plasma, liver and spleen in infected and uninfected BALB/c mice over time...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628614/lamphimerus-a-novel-lamp-assay-for-detecting-amphimerus-sp-dna-in-human-stool-samples
#5
William Cevallos, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Manuel Calvopiña, Cristina Fontecha-Cuenca, Hiromu Sugiyama, Megumi Sato, Julio López Abán, Belén Vicente, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Amphimeriasis is a fish-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Amphimerus spp. that has recently been reported as endemic in the tropical Pacific side of Ecuador with a high prevalence in humans and domestic animals. The diagnosis is based on the stool examination to identify parasite eggs, but it lacks sensitivity. Additionally, the morphology of the eggs may be confounded with other liver and intestinal flukes. No immunological or molecular methods have been developed to date...
June 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627493/parasitic-infections-in-the-east-asian-finless-porpoise-neophocaena-asiaeorientalis-sunameri-living-off-the-chinese-yellow-bohai-sea-coast
#6
X L Wan, J S Zheng, W X Li, X Y Zeng, J W Yang, Y J Hao, D Wang
Parasitic disease is among the major causes of health problems in marine mammals. However, little information on parasitic species composition and infection levels in finless porpoises (Neophocaena spp.) is available. In this study, we report the first systematic survey on parasitic infections in the East Asian finless porpoise N. asiaeorientalis sunameri (EAFP) living off the Chinese Yellow/Bohai Sea coast. Using both morphological and molecular methods, 5 parasitic helminths were identified: Campula oblonga in the liver and pancreas; Synthesium seymouri in the pyloric stomach and duodenum ampulla; Anisakis pegreffii in the forestomach, main stomach, and esophagus; Halocercus sp...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623940/clonorchis-sinensis-lysophospholipase-a-upregulates-il-25-expression-in-macrophages-as-a-potential-pathway-to-liver-fibrosis
#7
Lina Zhou, Mengchen Shi, Lu Zhao, Zhipeng Lin, Zeli Tang, Hengchang Sun, Tingjin Chen, Zhiyue Lv, Jin Xu, Yan Huang, Xinbing Yu
BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is an excessive wound-healing reaction that requires the participation of inflammatory cells and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). The pathogenesis of liver fibrosis caused by viruses and alcohol has been well characterized, but the molecular mechanisms underlying liver fibrosis induced by the liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis are poorly understood. Lysophospholipase A (LysoPLA), which deacylates lysophospholipids, plays a critical role in mediating the virulence and pathogenesis of parasites and fungi; however, the roles of C...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620583/engineering-of-genetically-arrested-parasites-gaps-for-a-precision-malaria-vaccine
#8
REVIEW
Oriana Kreutzfeld, Katja Müller, Kai Matuschewski
Continuous stage conversion and swift changes in the antigenic repertoire in response to acquired immunity are hallmarks of complex eukaryotic pathogens, including Plasmodium species, the causative agents of malaria. Efficient elimination of Plasmodium liver stages prior to blood infection is one of the most promising malaria vaccine strategies. Here, we describe different genetically arrested parasites (GAPs) that have been engineered in Plasmodium berghei, P. yoelii and P. falciparum and compare their vaccine potential...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617870/a-novel-genetic-technique-in-plasmodium-berghei-allows-liver-stage-analysis-of-genes-required-for-mosquito-stage-development-and-demonstrates-that-de-novo-heme-synthesis-is-essential-for-liver-stage-development-in-the-malaria-parasite
#9
Upeksha L Rathnapala, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
The combination of drug resistance, lack of an effective vaccine, and ongoing conflict and poverty means that malaria remains a major global health crisis. Understanding metabolic pathways at all parasite life stages is important in prioritising and targeting novel anti-parasitic compounds. The unusual heme synthesis pathway of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, requires eight enzymes distributed across the mitochondrion, apicoplast and cytoplasm. Deletion of the ferrochelatase (FC) gene, the final enzyme in the pathway, confirms that heme synthesis is not essential in the red blood cell stages of the life cycle but is required to complete oocyst development in mosquitoes...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615853/genotoxic-potential-of-fasciolagigantica-infection-in-experimentally-infected-rabbits
#10
M A Hannan Khan, P A A Shareef, Abdur Rehman, Rizwan Ullah, Lubna Rehman, S M A Abidi
A number of parasitic platyhelminthes are known to cause genotoxicity in humans and animals. However no such information is available on tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica, which incurs huge economic losses worldwide. In the present study the genotoxic potential of F. gigantica infection in rabbits, experimentally infected with the metacercarial cysts of this parasite, has been investigated using the standard comet assay and micronucleus (MNi) test on the isolated hepatocytes and the whole blood from the infected rabbits...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615839/epidemiological-and-clinical-aspects-of-patients-with-hydatid-cyst-in-iran
#11
Mahmood Moosazadeh, Ghasem Abedi, Seif Ali Mahdavi, Jalil Shojaee, Ali Charkame, Mahdi Afshari
Hydatid cyst is one of the most common Zoonotic diseases occurs due to infection with larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus parasite. Based on epidemiological reasons, World Health Organization has introduced Iran as a hyperendemic region. This study aims to investigate the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients with hydatid cyst in Iran. We used information registered in the surveillance system of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education attributed to Mazandaran province. Data were entered into SPSS software V...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615831/species-diversity-of-the-genus-thelohanellus-kudo-1933-myxozoa-bivalvulida-parasitizing-fishes-in-indian-subcontinent
#12
REVIEW
Harpreet Kaur, Ranjeet Singh, Anu Katoch, Rajni Attri, Shoaib Ali Dar, Aditya Gupta
A synopsis of 52 nominal species of the genus Thelohanellus Kudo, 1933 reported to infect freshwater fishes in India is presented. These species infect various organs such as gills, fins, scales, skin, muscles, gall bladder, kidney etc. The diagnostic features of the genus include tear-shaped myxospores with smooth shell valves and single polar capsule. The members are histozoic in their nature of parasitism infecting fresh water fishes. The present manuscript is aimed to compile the list of reported species in India along with essential information on morphometrics of vegetative stage, host, organ preference and pathogenic effects if any...
June 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614050/cracking-ali-baba-s-code
#13
Oliver Billker
A protein called P36 holds the key to how different species of malaria parasite invade liver cells.
June 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599669/characterization-of-schistosoma-japonicum-tetraspanning-orphan-receptor-and-its-role-in-binding-to-complement-c2-and-immunoprotection-against-murine-schistosomiasis
#14
Shuai Ma, Jinli Zai, Yanhui Han, Yang Hong, Min Zhang, Xiaodan Cao, Qian Han, Ke Lu, Zhixin Zhao, Jiaojiao Lin, Zhiqiang Fu
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis remains an important global public health problem, as millions of people are at risk of acquiring infection. An ideal method for sustainable control of schistosomiasis would be to develop an efficient vaccine. Schistosomes can survive in the host vascular system by immune evasion, regulating the host complement cascade. Schistosoma japonicum tetraspanning orphan receptor (SjTOR) is a complement regulator, which is a tegument membrane protein. To date there is no experimental evidence to explain the function of SjTOR...
June 9, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587832/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-three-xcr1-like-receptors-from-epinephelus-coioides-after-cryptocaryon-irritans-infection
#15
Lu-Yun Ni, Ling Zhou, Hai-Qing Wang, Xiao-Chun Luo, Xue-Ming Dan, Yan-Wei Li
The unique receptor XCR1 of the XC subfamily of chemokines is specially expressed in CD8α-like dendritic cells. This receptor has one ligand in mice (XCL1) and two ligands in humans (XCL1 and XCL2). In mammals, the XCR1-XCL1 complex performs a vital role in regulating the localization and function of T cells, dendritic cells, and other cell types. In this study, three XCR1-like receptors (EcXCR1, EcXCR1L, and EcCCR12) were identified from a transcriptome database of orange-spotted grouper. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcXCR1, EcXCR1L, and EcCCR12 predictably encode 337, 348, and 358 amino acids, respectively...
June 3, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586473/exome-sequencing-identifies-two-variants-of-the-alkylglycerol-monooxygenase-gene-agmo-as-a-cause-of-relapses-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-children-in-sudan
#16
Sandrine Marquet, Bruno Bucheton, Camille Reymond, Laurent Argiro, Sayda Hassan El-Safi, Musa Mohamed Kheir, Jean-Pierre Desvignes, Christophe Béroud, Adil Mergani, Awad Hammad, Alain J Dessein
Background.: Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar, KA) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis, characterized by fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. During an outbreak of KA in Babar El Fugara (Sudan), 5.7% of cured patients displayed relapses, with familial clustering in half of the cases. Methods.: We performed whole-exome sequencing on 10 relapsing individuals and 11 controls from five nuclear families. Results.: Rare homozygous and compound-heterozygous nonsense (c...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585078/associations-between-fasciolosis-and-milk-production-and-the-impact-of-anthelmintic-treatment-in-dairy-herds
#17
Kerstin Köstenberger, Alexander Tichy, Karl Bauer, Peter Pless, Thomas Wittek
Liver fluke is a ubiquitous parasite that causes extensive production losses in cattle and is a zoonosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis in 178 dairy cattle herds in Styria (federal state of Austria) and its influence on production, to detect the risk factors for infection, and to explore effective strategies in management and control. A questionnaire on farm management, prophylaxis, and therapy was developed and applied. Furthermore, production parameters (milk yield, milk protein content, butter fat content, non-return rate 90, calving to conception interval, service period) were recorded for 2014 and 2015, and a commercial ELISA for detection of Fasciola hepatica antibodies was applied in bulk tank milk in March 2014 and March 2015...
July 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584157/menoctone-resistance-in-malaria-parasites-is-conferred-by-m133i-mutations-in-cytochrome-b-that-are-transmissible-through-mosquitos
#18
Lynn D Blake, Myles E Johnson, Sasha V Siegel, Adonis McQueen, Iredia D Iyamu, Abdul Kadar Shaikh, Michael W Shultis, Roman Manetsch, Dennis E Kyle
Malaria related mortality has slowly decreased over the past decade; however, eradication of malaria requires the development of new antimalarial chemotherapies that target liver stages and combat the emergence of drug resistance. The diminishing arsenal of anti-liver stage compounds sparked our interest in reviving the old and previously abandoned compound menoctone. In support of these studies we developed a new convergent synthesis method that was facile, required fewer steps, produced better yields, and utilized less expensive reagents than the previously published method...
June 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583212/lineage-specific-expansion-and-loss-of-tyrosinase-genes-across-platyhelminths-and-their-induction-profiles-in-the-carcinogenic-oriental-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis
#19
Seon-Hee Kim, Young-An Bae
Tyrosinase provides an essential activity during egg production in diverse platyhelminths by mediating sclerotization of eggshells. In this study, we investigated the genomic and evolutionary features of tyrosinases in parasitic platyhelminths whose genomic information is available. A pair of paralogous tyrosinases was detected in most trematodes, whereas they were lost in cyclophyllidean cestodes. A pseudophyllidean cestode displaying egg biology similar to that of trematodes possessed an orthologous gene...
June 6, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573462/mast-cell-activator-compound-48-40-is-not-an-effective-adjuvant-for-uv-attenuated-toxoplasma-gondii-vaccine
#20
Xi Li, Shengjie Chen, Shiguang Huang, Fangli Lu
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii, Tg) is a globally distributed parasitic protozoan causing different forms of toxoplasmosis in humans. Mast cells (MCs) play a role during T. gondii infection. Several studies suggest that MC activator compound 48/80 (C48/80) may be an effective vaccine adjuvant resulting in a potent and protective antigen-specific immune response against bacteria or virus infections. The present study was performed to determine whether C48/80 had adjuvant activity for ultraviolet (UV)-attenuated T...
June 1, 2017: Parasitology Research
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