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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911910/molecular-markers-of-radiation-induced-attenuation-in-intrahepatic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasites
#1
Miranda S Oakley, Nitin Verma, Hong Zheng, Vivek Anantharaman, Kazuyo Takeda, Yamei Gao, Timothy G Myers, Phuong Thao Pham, Babita Mahajan, Nirbhay Kumar, Davison Sangweme, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, L Aravind, Sanjai Kumar
Experimental immunization with radiation attenuated sporozoites (RAS) and genetically attenuated sporozoites has proved to be a promising approach for malaria vaccine development. However, parasite biomarkers of growth attenuation and enhanced immune protection in response to radiation remain poorly understood. Here, we report on the effect of an attenuating dose of γ-irradiation (15 krad) on the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) ultrastructure by electron microscopy, growth rate of liver stage P. falciparum in liver cell cultures, and genome-wide transcriptional profile of liver stage parasites by microarray...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906979/a-phosphorylcholine-containing-glycolipid-like-antigen-present-on-the-surface-of-infective-stage-larvae-of-ascaris-spp-is-a-major-antibody-target-in-infected-pigs-and-humans
#2
Johnny Vlaminck, Dries Masure, Tao Wang, Peter Nejsum, Cornelis H Hokke, Peter Geldhof
BACKGROUND: The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905625/-epidemiological-description-of-human-and-animal-hydatidosis-in-los-r%C3%A3-os-region-1999-2009
#3
Gerardo Acosta-Jamett, Reinaldo Vargas, Santiago Ernst
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in humans and livestock in the Los Ríos region during the years 1999-2009. METHODS: A retrospective survey of all discharge records of patients undergoing removal of cysts produced by Echinococcus granulosus during the period 1999-2009 in the Hospital Clinico Regional of Valdivia was conducted. With the information provided incidence rate, mortality rate and fatality rate were calculated. Additionally, with the aim of determining prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock (i...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903234/acute-phase-proteins-and-their-potential-role-as-an-indicator-for-fish-health-and-in-diagnosis-of-fish-diseases
#4
Suvra Roy, Vikash Kumar, Vikas Kumar, B K Behera
The acute phase proteins are biochemically and functionally unrelated protein predominantly synthesized in the liver. The local inflammatory cells i.e. macrophages and neutrophils secretes various cytokines like IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 (interleukins) and TNF-α into bloodstream in response to injury and tissue damage, which stimulate hepatocytes to produce protein and release them into the circulation; these proteins are called as acute phase protein (e.g. C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), metal binding protein, lysozyme, lectin, etc...
November 21, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901110/the-rodent-malaria-liver-stage-survives-in-the-rapamycin-induced-autophagosome-of-infected-hepa1-6-cells
#5
Chenghao Zhao, Taiping Liu, Taoli Zhou, Yong Fu, Hong Zheng, Yan Ding, Kun Zhang, Wenyue Xu
It has been reported that non-selective autophagy of infected hepatocytes could facilitate the development of malaria in the liver stage, but the fate of parasites following selective autophagy of infected hepatocytes is still not very clear. Here, we confirmed that sporozoite infection can induce a selective autophagy-like process targeting EEFs (exo-erythrocytic forms) in Hepa1-6. Rapamycin treatment greatly enhanced this process in EEFs and non-selective autophagy of infected Hepa1-6 cells and enhanced the development of the malaria liver stage in vivo...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899329/plasmodium-vivax-vaccine-research-we-ve-only-just-begun
#6
REVIEW
Wai-Hong Tham, James G Beeson, Julian C Rayner
Plasmodium vivax parasites cause the majority of malaria cases outside Africa, and are increasingly being acknowledged as a cause of severe disease. The unique attributes of P. vivax biology, particularly the capacity of the dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, to maintain blood-stage infections even in the absence of active transmission, make blood-stage vaccines particularly attractive for this species. However, P. vivax vaccine development remains resolutely in first gear, with only a single blood-stage candidate having been evaluated in any depth...
November 27, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899092/dysregulation-of-hepatic-microrna-expression-profiles-with-clonorchis-sinensis-infection
#7
Su Han, Qiaoran Tang, Xi Lu, Rui Chen, Yihong Li, Jing Shu, Xiaoli Zhang, Jianping Cao
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis remains an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. The molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered to be key regulators in parasitic diseases. The regulation of miRNAs and host micro-environment may be involved in clonorchiasis, and require further investigation. METHODS: MiRNA microarray technology and bioinformatic analysis were used to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of host miRNA and to compare miRNA expression profiles in the liver tissues of control and Clonorchis sinensis (C...
November 30, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898879/genetic-parameters-for-both-a-liver-damage-phenotype-caused-by-and-antibody-response-to-phenotype-in-dairy-and-beef-cattle
#8
A J Twomey, R G Sayers, R I Carroll, N Byrne, E O' Brien, M L Doherty, J C McClure, D A Graham, D P Berry
is a helminth parasite of economic importance to the global cattle industry, with documented high international herd prevalence. The objective of the present study was to generate the first published genetic parameter estimates for liver damage caused by as well as antibody response to in cattle. Abattoir data on the presence of live , or -damaged livers, were available between the years 2012 and 2015, inclusive. A second data set was available on cows from 68 selected dairy herds with a blood ELISA test for antibody response to in autumn 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895891/gene-specific-sex-effects-on-eosinophil-infiltration-in-leishmaniasis
#9
Martina Slapničková, Valeriya Volkova, Marie Čepičková, Tatyana Kobets, Matyáš Šíma, Milena Svobodová, Peter Demant, Marie Lipoldová
BACKGROUND: Sex influences susceptibility to many infectious diseases, including some manifestations of leishmaniasis. The disease is caused by parasites that enter to the skin and can spread to the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, bone marrow, and sometimes lungs. Parasites induce host defenses including cell infiltration, leading to protective or ineffective inflammation. These responses are often influenced by host genotype and sex. We analyzed the role of sex in the impact of specific gene loci on eosinophil infiltration and its functional relevance...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895270/dicrocoelium-dendriticum-an-unusual-parasitological-diagnosis-in-a-reference-international-health-unit
#10
Zaira Moure, Francesc Zarzuela, Mateu Espasa, Diana Pou, Nuria Serre-Delcor, Begoña Treviño, Cristina Bocanegra, Israel Molina, Tomas Pumarola, Elena Sulleiro
Finding Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in human feces is exceptional and there are few prevalence data available. True infection occurs after accidental ingestion of ants containing metacercariae and spurious infection through the consumption of infected animal liver. Differential diagnosis between true and pseudo-infections is performed through stool examination after a diet free of liver. In addition, microscopy can help to differentiate the type of infection. We report six cases, all from sub-Saharan Africa, detection of this fluke at the Tropical Medicine Unit Vall d'Hebron-Drassanes (Barcelona, Spain)...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895022/inhibition-of-plasmodium-liver-infection-by-ivermectin
#11
António M Mendes, Inês S Albuquerque, Marta Machado, Joana Pissarra, Patrícia Meireles, Miguel Prudêncio
Avermectins are powerful endectocides with an established potential to reduce the incidence of vector-borne diseases. Here, we show that several avermectins inhibit the hepatic stage of Plasmodium infection in vitro Notably, ivermectin potently inhibits liver infection in vivo, by impairing parasite development inside hepatocytes. This impairment has a clear impact on the ensuing blood stage parasitemia, reducing disease severity and enhancing host survival. Ivermectin has been proposed as a tool to control malaria transmission due to its effects on the mosquito vector...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893749/differential-protein-expression-in-the-hemolymph-of-bithynia-siamensis-goniomphalos-infected-with-opisthorchis-viverrini
#12
Kulwadee Suwannatrai, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pairat Tabsripair, Jariya Umka Welbat, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Cinzia Cantacessi, Jason Mulvenna, Smarn Tesana, Alex Loukas, Javier Sotillo
Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is a freshwater snail that serves as the first intermediate host of the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. This parasite is a major public health problem in different countries throughout the Greater Mekong sub-region (Thailand, southern Vietnam, Lao PDR and Cambodia). Chronic O. viverrini infection also results in a gradual increase of fibrotic tissues in the biliary tract that are associated with hepatobiliary diseases and contribute to cholangiocarcinoma (a fatal type of bile duct cancer)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892584/a-short-history-of-phototherapy-vitamin-d-and-skin-disease
#13
Paul Jarrett, Robert Scragg
The earliest record between sun exposure and skin disease goes back five millennia to the ancient Egyptians. The modern scientific era of medical light therapy and skin diseases started in 1877 when Downs and Blunt reported that exposure to light inhibited fungal growth in test tubes. Continuing research generated a growing medical interest in the potential the effects of light to treat and cure skin diseases considered as parasitic. This culminated in the awarding of the 1903 Nobel Prize in Medicine to Niels Finsen for his pioneering work showing that light could successfully treat cutaneous mycobacterium tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), a disfiguring disorder common at the time...
November 28, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890720/the-lawa-model-a-sustainable-integrated-opisthorchiasis-control-program-using-the-ecohealth-approach-in-the-lawa-lake-region-of-thailand
#14
Banchob Sripa, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Thinnakorn Sangnikul
Opisthorchiasis caused by the carcinogenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini is a major foodborne parasitic zoonotic disease in Thailand and neighboring Mekong countries. The infection is associated with several hepatobiliary diseases including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The rates of CCA in regions where the parasite is endemic are unprecedented. Extensive research on various aspects of opisthorchiasis has been conducted in recent decades. However, the current status of O. viverrini infection in the country is approaching 85% prevalence in certain endemic areas even after more than 30years of control programs in Thailand...
November 24, 2016: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890084/comparison-of-molecular-and-conventional-methods-for-the-diagnosis-of-fasciola-hepatica-infection-in-the-field
#15
Maria Immaculata Arifin, Johan Höglund, Adam Novobilský
The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is one of the major parasite threats to livestock industries world-wide. In sheep and cattle, F. hepatica infection is commonly diagnosed using a range of methods. Aside from conventional coprological and serological diagnostic methods, there are also several molecular methods available based on the detection of liver fluke DNA in faeces. In this study, the outcomes of faecal egg count (FEC), serology and coproantigen ELISA (cELISA) were compared with the performance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in diagnosis of F...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890078/animal-fascioliasis-perspectives-from-high-altitudinal-regions
#16
Damanbha Lyngdoh, Sunil Sharma, Bishnupada Roy, Veena Tandon
The parasitic flukes of the genus Fasciola (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) cause fascioliasis or liver-rot disease in ruminant livestock in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Classically, two species of Fasciola- F. hepatica and F. gigantica, are universally recognized as taxonomically valid species. Our survey studies on ovid and bovid animals including yak and mithun from high altitudinal mountainous regions in Northeast India revealed the occurrence of Fasciola gigantica and also Fasciola sp...
December 15, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890039/genetic-diversity-of-infective-larvae-of-gnathostoma-spinigerum-nematoda-gnathostomatidae-in-freshwater-swamp-eels-from-thailand
#17
P Eamsobhana, D Wanachiwanawin, K Roongruangchai, S L Song, H S Yong
Human gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by a tissue nematode of the genus Gnathostoma. The disease is highly endemic in Asia, including Thailand. The freshwater swamp eel (Monopterus albus), the second intermediate host of the gnathostome nematode, has an important role in transmitting the infection in Thailand. Surveys on the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum based on morphological features in freshwater swamp eels have been performed continuously and reported in Thailand. However, there is still limited molecular data on intra-species variations of the parasite...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887695/reprint-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-s-s-from-the-critically-endangered-antelope-addax-nasomaculatus-in-tunisia
#18
Belgees Boufana, Yousra Saïd, Mokhtar Dhibi, Philip S Craig, Samia Lahmar
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884436/distribution-of-foxp3-t-cells-in-the-liver-and-hepatic-lymph-nodes-of-goats-and-sheep-experimentally-infected-with-fasciola-hepatica
#19
A Escamilla, R Zafra, J Pérez, T N McNeilly, I L Pacheco, L Buffoni, F J Martínez-Moreno, V Molina-Hernández, A Martínez-Moreno
Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) are now considered to play a key role in modulation of immune responses during parasitic helminth infections. Immunomodulation is a key factor in Fasciola hepatica infection; however, the distribution and role of Foxp3(+) Tregs cells have not been investigated in F. hepatica infected ruminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Foxp3(+) Tregs in the liver and hepatic lymph nodes from experimentally infected sheep and goats during acute and chronic stages of infection...
October 30, 2016: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881488/an-opsonic-phagocytosis-assay-for-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites
#20
Ryan W J Steel, Brandon K Sack, Moriya Tsuji, Stefan H I Kappe
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains the deadliest parasitic disease worldwide. Vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic sporozoite and liver stages have the potential to entirely prevent blood stage infection and disease, as well as onward transmission. Sporozoite surface and secreted proteins are leading candidates for inclusion in a pre-erythrocytic, antibody-based vaccine. Preclinical functional assays to identify humoral correlates of protection in vitro, and to validate novel sporozoite protein targets for inclusion in multi-subunit vaccines currently do not consider the interaction of sporozoite-targeting antibodies with other components of the immune system...
November 23, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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