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Jade M S Delevaux, Robert Whittier, Kostantinos A Stamoulis, Leah L Bremer, Stacy Jupiter, Alan M Friedlander, Matthew Poti, Greg Guannel, Natalie Kurashima, Kawika B Winter, Robert Toonen, Eric Conklin, Chad Wiggins, Anders Knudby, Whitney Goodell, Kimberly Burnett, Susan Yee, Hla Htun, Kirsten L L Oleson, Tracy Wiegner, Tamara Ticktin
Declining natural resources have led to a cultural renaissance across the Pacific that seeks to revive customary ridge-to-reef management approaches to protect freshwater and restore abundant coral reef fisheries. Effective ridge-to-reef management requires improved understanding of land-sea linkages and decision-support tools to simultaneously evaluate the effects of terrestrial and marine drivers on coral reefs, mediated by anthropogenic activities. Although a few applications have linked the effects of land cover to coral reefs, these are too coarse in resolution to inform watershed-scale management for Pacific Islands...
2018: PloS One
Gal Ofir, Rotem Sorek
Bacteriophages, discovered about a century ago, have been pivotal as models for understanding the fundamental principles of molecular biology. While interest in phage biology declined after the phage "golden era," key recent developments, including advances in phage genomics, microscopy, and the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas anti-phage defense system, have sparked a renaissance in phage research in the past decade. This review highlights recently discovered unexpected complexities in phage biology, describes a new arsenal of phage genes that help them overcome bacterial defenses, and discusses advances toward documentation of the phage biodiversity on a global scale...
March 8, 2018: Cell
Jian Lv, Qi Zhang, Mao Cai, Yanfang Han, Sanzhong Luo
Aromatic aminocatalysis refers to transformations that employ aromatic amines, such as anilines or aminopyridines, as catalysts. Owing to the conjugation of the amine moiety with the aromatic ring, aromatic amines demonstrate distinctive features in aminocatalysis compared with their aliphatic counterparts. For example, aromatic aminocatalysis typically proceeds with slower turnover, but is more active and conformationally rigid as a result of the stabilized aromatic imine or iminium species. In fact, the advent of aromatic aminocatalysis can be traced back to before the renaissance of organocatalysis in the early 2000s...
March 1, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
I Levchenko, S Xu, G Teel, D Mariotti, M L R Walker, M Keidar
Drastic miniaturization of electronics and ingression of next-generation nanomaterials into space technology have provoked a renaissance in interplanetary flights and near-Earth space exploration using small unmanned satellites and systems. As the next stage, the NASA's 2015 Nanotechnology Roadmap initiative called for new design paradigms that integrate nanotechnology and conceptually new materials to build advanced, deep-space-capable, adaptive spacecraft. This review examines the cutting edge and discusses the opportunities for integration of nanomaterials into the most advanced types of electric propulsion devices that take advantage of their unique features and boost their efficiency and service life...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Guoqiang Yang, Wanbin Zhang
Oxazoline-containing ligands have been widely employed in numerous asymmetric catalytic reactions. Pyridine-oxazoline-type ligands, a class of hybrid ligands, were designed earlier than bisoxazoline and phosphine-oxazoline ligands; however, their unique properties have only been discovered recently. Pyridine-oxazoline-type chiral ligands are rapidly becoming popular for use in asymmetric catalysis, especially for several new and efficient asymmetric methodologies. Several types of challenging asymmetric reactions have been discovered recently using pyridine-oxazoline-type ligands showing their special properties and potential for future application in a wide range of new catalytic methodologies...
February 22, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Joseph O Primeau, Gareth P Armanious, M'Lynn E Fisher, Howard S Young
The calcium pump (a.k.a. Ca2+ -ATPase or SERCA) is a membrane transport protein ubiquitously found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells. As a calcium transporter, SERCA maintains the low cytosolic calcium level that enables a vast array of signaling pathways and physiological processes (e.g. synaptic transmission, muscle contraction, fertilization). In muscle cells, SERCA promotes relaxation by pumping calcium ions from the cytosol into the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), the main storage compartment for intracellular calcium...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Antonio Fornaciari, Valentina Giuffra, Emanuele Armocida, Davide Caramella, Frank J Rühli, Francesco Maria Galassi
The article examines the truthfulness of historical accounts claiming that Renaissance Duke Federico of Montefeltro (1422-1482) suffered from gout. By direct paleopathological assessment of the skeletal remains and by the philological investigation of historical and documental sources, primarily a 1461 handwritten letter by the Duke himself to his personal physician, a description of the symptoms and Renaissance therapy is offered and a final diagnosis of gout is formulated. The Duke's handwritten letter offers a rare testimony of ancient clinical self-diagnostics and Renaissance living-experience of gout...
January 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Michael E Wall, Alexander M Wolff, James S Fraser
X-ray crystallography is experiencing a renaissance as a method for probing the protein conformational ensemble. The inherent limitations of Bragg analysis, however, which only reveals the mean structure, have given way to a surge in interest in diffuse scattering, which is caused by structure variations. Diffuse scattering is present in all macromolecular crystallography experiments. Recent studies are shedding light on the origins of diffuse scattering in protein crystallography, and provide clues for leveraging diffuse scattering to model protein motions with atomic detail...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Maximilian H H Wurzenberger, Norbert Szimhardt, Jörg Stierstorfer
A convenient synthetic route toward new copper(II) chlorate complexes with potential use in modern advanced igni-tion or initiation systems is described. Obtained compounds were not only accurately characterized (XRD, IR, UV/Vis EA and DTA) but also investigated for their energetic character (sensitivities, initiation capability and laser ignition). The copper 4-aminotriazolyl chlorate complex showed excellent initiation of PETN, while also being thermally stable and safe to handle. Solid-state UV-Vis measurements were performed to get a possible insight toward the laser initia-tion mechanism...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Dana Lo, Florence Wu, Mark Chan, Rodney Chu, Donald Li
Background: Numerous studies around the world has already suggested that burnout among doctors is a global phenomenon. However, studies for burnout in doctors are relatively limited in Chinese communities when compared to the West. As risk factors, barriers to intervention and strategies combatting burnout in different parts of the world can vary a lot due to different social culture and healthcare system, study with a focus at doctors in China from a cultural perspective is a worthful endeavor...
2018: Asia Pacific Family Medicine
Louisa Gilbert, Timothy Hunt, Sholpan Primbetova, Assel Terlikbayeva, Mingway Chang, Elwin Wu, Tara McCrimmon, Nabila El-Bassel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a couple-based integrated HIV/HCV and overdose prevention intervention on non-fatal and fatal overdose and overdose prevention behaviors among people who use heroin or other opioids in Almaty, Kazakhstan. METHODS: We selected 479 participants who reported lifetime heroin or opioid use from a sample of 600 participants (300 couples) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted between May 2009 and February 2013...
January 27, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Joseph L Laratta, Jamal N Shillingford, Joseph M Lombardi, Rami G Alrabaa, Barlas Benkli, Charla Fischer, Lawrence G Lenke, Ronald A Lehman
STUDY DESIGN: Case series. OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety and feasibility of S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw placement under robotic guidance. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Similar to standard iliac fixation, S2AI screws aid in achieving fixation across the sacropelvic junction and decreasing S1 screw strain. Fortunately, the S2AI technique minimizes prominent instrumentation and the need for offset connectors to the fusion construct. Herein, we present an analysis of the largest series of robotic-guided S2AI screws in the literature without any significant author conflicts of interest with the robotics industry...
March 2018: Spine Deformity
Raffaella Bianucci, Antonio Perciaccante, Philippe Charlier, Otto Appenzeller, Donatella Lippi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Lancet Oncology
Paulo Nuno Martins
This article discusses the relationship between health and disease, considering the mind/body dichotomy that has occurred in the history of medicine, both in Western and Eastern cultures. The author begins by referring to the magical concept of disease, passing through the classical Greek period, and the medieval and Renaissance vision, to the evolution of modern concepts proposed by psychoanalysis. The author references some practical examples about the importance of the mind-body relationship, such as the psychological steps experienced by the oncological patient, as well as the psychiatric disorder...
January 2018: Advances in Mind-body Medicine
Paul Kubes
The neutrophil appears to be undergoing a renaissance of sorts. While it was for many years thought to be a killing machine brought into tissues to eradicate pathogens, it is now being implicated in many other processes, ranging from acute injury and repair, chronic inflammatory processes, cancer and auto-immunity. Not only is it an effector of the innate immune response, it appears to also potentially contribute to adaptive immunity, implicated in either contributing to the development of specific adaptive immune responses or perhaps even instructing and directing certain adaptive immune responses...
February 5, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Alessandro Raffi, Anna Siri, Cristina Tornali, Mariano Martini
Human urine is currently the subject of biomedical investigations as a potential therapeutic resource and it continues to be used in remedies in different cultures and societies, including the Spanish culture. In this study we gather etnomedical knowledge about urotherapy and determine their associated symbolisms in Spain. A literature overview and a case study were carried out to compile urine-based remedies and as a direct analysis of symbolic systems. Urotherapy is widespread in Spanish folk medicine. Among the 204 collected remedies, those related to treatment of diseases or skin conditions predominate (63%)...
December 2017: Acta Medico-historica Adriatica: AMHA
Zachary Coker, Maria Troyanova-Wood, Andrew J Traverso, Talgat Yakupov, Zhandos N Utegulov, Vladislav V Yakovlev
Brillouin spectroscopy and imaging has experienced a renaissance in recent years seeing vast improvements in methodology and increasing number of applications. With this resurgence has come the development of new spontaneous Brillouin instruments that often tout superior performance compared to established conventional systems such as tandem Fabry-Perot interferometers (TFPI). The performance of these new systems cannot always be thoroughly examined beyond the scope of the intended application, as applications often take precedence in reports...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Stephen J Vincent
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Stefan Elfwing, Eiji Uchibe, Kenji Doya
In recent years, neural networks have enjoyed a renaissance as function approximators in reinforcement learning. Two decades after Tesauro's TD-Gammon achieved near top-level human performance in backgammon, the deep reinforcement learning algorithm DQN achieved human-level performance in many Atari 2600 games. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, we propose two activation functions for neural network function approximation in reinforcement learning: the sigmoid-weighted linear unit (SiLU) and its derivative function (dSiLU)...
January 11, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Erli Lu, Jiaxiang Chu, Yaofeng Chen
Research into transition metal complexes bearing multiply bonded main-group ligands has developed into a thriving and fruitful field over the past half century. These complexes, featuring terminal M═E/M≡E (M = transition metal; E = main-group element) multiple bonds, exhibit unique structural properties as well as rich reactivity, which render them attractive targets for inorganic/organometallic chemists as well as indispensable tools for organic/catalytic chemists. This fact has been highlighted by their widespread applications in organic synthesis, for example, as olefin metathesis catalysts...
January 30, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
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