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Davide Lazzeri
Sandro Botticelli was one of the most esteemed painters and draughtsmen among Renaissance artists. Under the patronage of the De' Medici family, he was active in Florence during the flourishing of the Renaissance trend towards the reclamation of lost medical and anatomical knowledge of ancient times through the dissection of corpses. Combining the typical attributes of the elegant courtly style with hallmarks derived from the investigation and analysis of classical templates, he left us immortal masterpieces, the excellence of which incomprehensibly waned and was rediscovered only in the 1890s...
January 16, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Xianjun Lang, Jincai Zhao
Visible light has risen to be a very important facilitator for selective radical reactions enabled by well-cognized photocatalysts. The renaissance of visible light photocatalysis on this matter partly relies on integrating it with other area of catalysis. In parallel, TEMPO, a quintessential persistent radical, has a wide range of uses due to its exceptional redox behavior, giving rise to its latest prominence in catalysis. Therefore, integrating the catalysis of TEMPO with photocatalysis to carry out visible light-induced selective reactions becomes very convenient marriage of merits...
January 16, 2018: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
János Tomcsányi
Interatrial block involves conduction delay between the right and left atria during sinus rhythm. The review describes the classification, pathomechanism and clinical significance of this under-recognised ECG sign, nominated Bayés syndrome. The presented ECGs help to recognise the differentypes of interatrial blocks. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 91-95.
January 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Stefano Paolucci
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the use of the so-called golden ratio (Phi, ϕ), an irrational number with fractal properties, used in artworks since V century BC. and now for modelling complex biological structures and functions. This number, in fact, recursively pops-up in human history, from Ancient Greeks to Renaissance, and to contemporary scientific studies. Nevertheless, recent scientific results often fall between two extremes: those of a priori sceptic researchers accusing the artificial emergence of ϕ in many studies, and those of researchers that find a mystic meaning in the presence of ϕ in human physiology...
January 6, 2018: Bio Systems
Norman D Cook
The author reports that the harmonic "tension" and major/minor "valence" of pitch combinations can be calculated directly from acoustical properties without relying on concepts from traditional harmony theory. The capability to compute the well-known types of harmonic triads means that their perception is not simply a consequence of learning an arbitrary cultural "idiom" handed down from the Italian Renaissance. On the contrary, for typical listeners familiar with diatonic music, attention to certain, definable, acoustical features underlies the perception of the valence (modality) and the inherent tension (instability) of three-tone harmonies...
December 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Xiongyi Huang, John T Groves
As a result of the adaptation of life to an aerobic environment, nature has evolved a panoply of metalloproteins for oxidative metabolism and protection against reactive oxygen species. Despite the diverse structures and functions of these proteins, they share common mechanistic grounds. An open-shell transition metal like iron or copper is employed to interact with O2 and its derived intermediates such as hydrogen peroxide to afford a variety of metal-oxygen intermediates. These reactive intermediates, including metal-superoxo, -(hydro)peroxo, and high-valent metal-oxo species, are the basis for the various biological functions of O2-utilizing metalloproteins...
December 29, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Salah-Eddin Al-Batran, Thorsten O Goetze, Daniel W Mueller, Arndt Vogel, Michael Winkler, Sylvie Lorenzen, Alexander Novotny, Claudia Pauligk, Nils Homann, Thomas Jungbluth, Christoph Reissfelder, Karel Caca, Steffen Retter, Eva Horndasch, Julia Gumpp, Claus Bolling, Karl-Hermann Fuchs, Wolfgang Blau, Winfried Padberg, Michael Pohl, Andreas Wunsch, Patrick Michl, Frank Mannes, Matthias Schwarzbach, Harald Schmalenberg, Michael Hohaus, Christian Scholz, Christoph Benckert, Jorge Riera Knorrenschild, Veit Kanngießer, Thomas Zander, Hakan Alakus, Ralf-Dieter Hofheinz, Claus Roedel, Manish A Shah, Mitsuru Sasako, Dietmar Lorenz, Jakob Izbicki, Wolf O Bechstein, Hauke Lang, Stefan P Moenig
BACKGROUND: Historical data indicate that surgical resection may benefit select patients with metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer. However, randomized clinical trials are lacking. The current RENAISSANCE trial addresses the potential benefits of surgical intervention in gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancer with limited metastases. METHODS: This is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, investigator-initiated phase III trial. Previously untreated patients with limited metastatic stage (retroperitoneal lymph node metastases only or a maximum of one incurable organ site that is potentially resectable or locally controllable with or without retroperitoneal lymph nodes) receive 4 cycles of FLOT chemotherapy alone or with trastuzumab if Her2+...
December 28, 2017: BMC Cancer
Timothy Frankel, Mirna Perusina Lanfranca, Weiping Zou
The field of tumor immunology and immunotherapy has undergone a renaissance in the past decade do in large part to a better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment. After suffering countless successes and setbacks in the twentieth century, immunotherapy has now come to the forefront of cancer research and is recognized as an important tool in the anti-tumor armamentarium. The goal of therapy is to aid the immune system in recognition and destruction of tumor cells by enhancing its ability to react to tumor antigens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Axel Kramer, Joachim Dissemond, Simon Kim, Christian Willy, Dieter Mayer, Roald Papke, Felix Tuchmann, Ojan Assadian
Wound antisepsis has undergone a renaissance due to the introduction of highly effective wound-compatible antimicrobial agents and the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). However, a strict indication must be set for the application of these agents. An infected or critically colonized wound must be treated antiseptically. In addition, systemic antibiotic therapy is required in case the infection spreads. If applied preventively, the Wounds-at-Risk Score allows an assessment of the risk for infection and thus appropriateness of the indication...
December 21, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
Gianluca Molla
D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of several neutral D-amino acids and is the enzyme mainly responsible (together with serine racemase) for degrading D-serine (D-Ser) in the central nervous system of mammals. This D-amino acid, which binds the coagonist site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, is thus a key neuromodulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Altered D-Ser metabolism results in several pathological conditions (e.g., amylotrophic lateral sclerosis or schizophrenia, SZ) for which effective "broad spectrum" pharmaceutical drugs are not yet available...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
A H M Kerkhoff
In 1670, the Professor of Medicine V.F. Plemp from the Belgian University of Leuven published a book explaining in an entertaining fashion how elderly gentlemen in positions of authority could live for a long time in good health but still have enjoyable lives. In writing this book the author manifested himself as a 17th century forerunner of the modern fitness and wellness movement. Plemp was a humanist who believed in the renaissance of Antiquity, and his medical revelations originate largely from ancient Roman sources...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
David Chelazzi, Rodorico Giorgi, Piero Baglioni
Colloid Science provides fundamental knowledge to fields such as pharmaceutical, detergency, paint and food industry. An exciting application is art conservation, which poses a challenge owing to the complex range of interfacial interactions involved in restoring artefacts. Currently, the majority of the most performing and environmentally safe cleaning and consolidation agents for artworks belong to soft matter and colloids. We report here on the development and application of increasingly complex systems, from microemulsions to semi-interpenetrating hydrogels containing such fluids...
December 7, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Konstantinos Markatos, Anna Tzivra, Spyridon Tsoutsos, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Marianna Karamanou, Georgios Androutsos
The purpose of this study is to summarize the innovations of Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) on the treatment of war wounds and improving amputation technique through ligature in arteries and veins. Ambroise Paré debunked the widely accepted idea that gun powder was poisonous for wounds. He also minimized the use of cautery of wounds by his dressing methods and the application of ligature during amputations. All these innovative rationales revolutionized the practice of war surgery during the Renaissance and paved the way for the introduction of modern surgery...
December 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
Daniel Ricklin, Dimitrios C Mastellos, Edimara S Reis, John D Lambris
The increasing number of clinical conditions that involve a pathological contribution from the complement system - many of which affect the kidneys - has spurred a regained interest in therapeutic options to modulate this host defence pathway. Molecular insight, technological advances, and the first decade of clinical experience with the complement-specific drug eculizumab, have contributed to a growing confidence in therapeutic complement inhibition. More than 20 candidate drugs that target various stages of the complement cascade are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, and additional agents are in preclinical development...
January 2018: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
Alvina G Lai, A Aziz Aboobaker
How do animals regenerate specialised tissues or their entire body after a traumatic injury, how has this ability evolved and what are the genetic and cellular components underpinning this remarkable feat? While some progress has been made in understanding mechanisms, relatively little is known about the evolution of regenerative ability. Which elements of regeneration are due to lineage specific evolutionary novelties or have deeply conserved roots within the Metazoa remains an open question. The renaissance in regeneration research, fuelled by the development of modern functional and comparative genomics, now enable us to gain a detailed understanding of both the mechanisms and evolutionary forces underpinning regeneration in diverse animal phyla...
October 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
Paul Brownbill, Neil Sebire, Erin V McGillick, Stacey Ellery, Padma Murthi
In recent years ex vivo dual perfusion of the human placental lobule is seeing an international renaissance in its application to understanding fetal health and development. Here, we discuss the methods and uses of this technique in the evaluation of (1) vascular function, (2) transplacental clearance, (3) hemodynamic and oxygenation changes associated with pregnancy complications on placental structure and function, and (4) placental toxicology and post-perfusion evaluation of tissue architecture.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tomasz Dymerski
The development of instrumental analytical techniques provided the opportunity for in-depth characterization of many food matrices. In particular, the use of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry gives impressive results in terms of quality and authenticity testing, conducting food freshness evaluations and contamination assessments. A new variant of gas chromatography, namely two-dimensional gas chromatography, and various versions of mass spectrometry have been developed since last 15 years and they still remain at the time of their renaissance...
November 29, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
T C Campbell
The science of nutrition has long been entrapped in reductionist interpretation of details, a source of great confusion. However, if nutrition is defined as the integration of countless nutrient factors, metabolic reactions and outcomes, biologically orchestrated as in symphony, its relevance for personal and public health would be less confusing and more productive. This more wholistic interpretation may be observed at the cellular and physiological levels and may be described, in part, by the concept of pleiotropy (multiple cell-based effects from one nutrient source), together with its more expansive cousin, epitropy (multiple cell-based effects from multiple nutrients)...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Biology
Anne C Conibear, Alanca Schmid, Meder Kamalov, Christian F W Becker, Claudia Bello
Peptide-based pharmaceuticals have recently experienced a renaissance due to their ability to fill the gap between the two main classes of available drugs, small molecules and biologics. Peptides combine the high potency and selectivity typical of large proteins with some of the characteristic advantages of small molecules such as synthetic accessibility, stability and the potential of oral bioavailability. One of the applications in which peptide-based approaches have grown rapidly is cancer therapy, with a focus on new and established targets...
November 23, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
David F Albertini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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