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Fernando Pastor
The renaissance of cancer immunotherapy is, nowadays, a reality. In the near future, it will be very likely among the first-line treatments for cancer patients. There are several different approaches to modulate the immune system to fight against tumor maladies but, so far, monoclonal antibodies may currently be the most successful immuno-tools used to that end. The number of ongoing clinical trials with monoclonal antibodies has been increasing exponentially over the last few years upon the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies...
October 24, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
Carlo Setacci, Gianmarco de Donato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
D Digles, B Zdrazil, J-M Neefs, H Van Vlijmen, C Herhaus, A Caracoti, J Brea, B Roibás, M I Loza, N Queralt-Rosinach, L I Furlong, A Gaulton, L Bartek, S Senger, C Chichester, O Engkvist, C T Evelo, N I Franklin, D Marren, G F Ecker, E Jacoby
Phenotypic screening is in a renaissance phase and is expected by many academic and industry leaders to accelerate the discovery of new drugs for new biology. Given that phenotypic screening is per definition target agnostic, the emphasis of in silico and in vitro follow-up work is on the exploration of possible molecular mechanisms and efficacy targets underlying the biological processes interrogated by the phenotypic screening experiments. Herein, we present six exemplar computational protocols for the interpretation of cellular phenotypic screens based on the integration of compound, target, pathway, and disease data established by the IMI Open PHACTS project...
June 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Suhas Ramesh, Marcelo Grijalva, Alexis Debut, Beatriz G de la Torre, Fernando Albericio, Luis H Cumbal
Nanotechnology is gaining impetus in the present century and particularly the use of nanoparticles (NPs), whose properties are significantly different from the larger matter. These have found wider and potential applications in the fields of medicine, energy, cosmetics, environment and biomedicine. Among the NPs, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of particular interest for scientists and technologists due to their unique physico-chemical and biological properties. Besides, AgNPs by themselves also possess broad-spectrum microbial activity, which has further expanded their application in both academia and industries...
October 17, 2016: Biomaterials Science
Meng Ju, Cheng Lu, Yau-Yuen Yeung, Xiaoyu Kuang, Jingjing Wang, Yongsheng Zhu
The recent renaissance of the use of rare-earth doped yttrium orthoaluminate as an ideal laser material has generated significant interest; however, the unique structural features underlying many of its outstanding optical properties still require elucidation. To solve this intriguing problem, we performed a systematic first-principles study; the results of the study reveal a new stable phase for Tm(3+) doped YAlO3 (YAP), of monoclinic Pm symmetry, with an 80-atom per unit cell. An unbiased CALYPSO structure search indicates that the Tm(3+) impurity ion tends to substitute the position of Y(3+) in the YAP crystal lattice...
October 13, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
Jung Hoon Kim, Bum Jun Kim, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Han Kim
Cancer immunotherapy is at dawn of the Renaissance after the Medieval Dark Ages. Recent advances of understanding tumor immunology and molecular drug development are leading us to the epoch of cancer immunotherapy. Some types of immunotherapy have shown to provide survival benefit for patients with solid tumors such as malignant melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, or non-small cell lung cancer. Several studies have suggested that immune checkpoint inhibition might be effective in some patients with gastrointestinal cancers...
2016: Journal of Cancer
Jonathan Hoffman, C Philip Gabel
Background: Over recent decades, mind-body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind-body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind-body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris...
November 2, 2015: Physical Therapy Reviews: PTR
Jing Liu, Stephen J Blake, Michelle C R Yong, Heidi Harjunpaa, Shin Foong Ngiow, Kazuyoshi Takeda, Arabella Young, Jake S O'Donnell, Stacey Allen, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
Immunotherapy has recently entered a renaissance phase with the approval of multiple agents for the treatment of cancer. Immunotherapy stands ready to join traditional modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and hormone therapy, as a pillar of cancer treatment. Although immunotherapy has begun to have success in advanced cancer treatment, its scheduling and efficacy with surgery to treat earlier stages of cancer and prevent distant metastases has not been systematically examined. Here, we have used two models of spontaneously metastatic breast cancers in mice, to illustrate the significantly greater therapeutic power of neoadjuvant, compared with adjuvant immunotherapies in the context of primary tumor resection...
September 23, 2016: Cancer Discovery
Musheer Hussain, Edward Fisher, Robin Youngs, Jonathan Fishman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Bob Goldstein, Nicole King
Most current research in cell biology uses just a handful of model systems including yeast, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, zebrafish, mouse, and cultured mammalian cells. And for good reason - for many biological questions, the best system for the question is likely to be found among these models. However, in some cases, and particularly as the questions that engage scientists broaden, the best system for a question may be a little-studied organism. Modern research tools are facilitating a renaissance for unusual and interesting organisms as emerging model systems...
September 14, 2016: Trends in Cell Biology
Daniel H Chitwood, Vivian F Irish
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2016: Developmental Biology
Ema Hrešanová
This paper explores the history of the 'psychoprophylactic method of painless childbirth' in socialist Czechoslovakia, in particular, in the Czech and Moravian regions of the country, showing that it substantially differs from the course that the method took in other countries. This non-pharmacological method of pain relief originated in the USSR and became well known as the Lamaze method in western English-speaking countries. Use of the method in Czechoslovakia, however, followed a very different path from both the West, where its use was refined mainly outside the biomedical frame, and the USSR, where it ceased to be pursued as a scientific method in the 1950s after Stalin's death...
October 2016: Medical History
Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Lilian Skytte, Paolo D'imporzano, Per Orla Thomsen, Morten Søvsø, Jesper Lier Boldsen
BACKGROUND: The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Gianmarco De Donato, Giulia Mazzitelli, Umberto Ruzzi, Mariagnese Mele, Marco Tadiello, Giovanni Giannace, Francesco Setacci, Giuseppe Galzerano, Carlo Setacci
Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrated significant differences between carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in terms of early neurological outcomes (from 0 to 30 days), although mid- and long-term neurological results are indistinguishable. CAS in symptomatic standard risk patients is coupled with a higher risk of any stroke, and death or any stroke at 30 days, while the rates of disabling or major stroke do not vary remarkably between treatments. Since the micro-embolization through the stent struts is the primary suspected cause of suspected early postoperative neurological complications (i...
December 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Tianyi Tee Zhang, Li Wang, Naidong Weng, Kelly Dong, Gary Valaskovic, Mike Lee
7th Annual Symposium on Clinical & Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, Renaissance Shanghai Pudong Hotel, Shanghai, China, 20-23 April 2016 The 7th Annual Shanghai Symposium on Innovative Approaches to Reduce Attrition and Predict Clinical Outcomes (CPSA Shanghai 2016) was held on 20-23 April 2016 in Renaissance Shanghai Pudong Hotel, Shanghai, China. The meeting was featured with highly interactive events including diversified symposia, round table discussions, workshops, poster sessions and conference awards...
October 2016: Bioanalysis
Tamma A Carleton, Solomon M Hsiang
For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact...
September 9, 2016: Science
Eric Smalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Gangjian Tan, Li-Dong Zhao, Mercouri G Kanatzidis
There has been a renaissance of interest in exploring highly efficient thermoelectric materials as a possible route to address the worldwide energy generation, utilization, and management. This review describes the recent advances in designing high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials. We begin with the fundamental stratagem of achieving the greatest thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of a given material by carrier concentration engineering, including Fermi level regulation and optimum carrier density stabilization...
October 12, 2016: Chemical Reviews
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