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Rachel Johnson, Shaun Rawson, Martin McPhillie, Colin Fishwick, Stephen Muench
Parasitic diseases are a huge burden on human health causing significant morbidity and mortality. However, parasitic structure based drug discovery programmes have been hindered by a lack of high resolution structural information from parasitic derived proteins and have largely relied upon homology models from mammalian systems. The recent renaissance in electron microscopy (EM) has caused a dramatic rise in the number of structures being determined at high resolution and subsequently enabled it to be thought of as a tool in drug discovery...
November 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Nicolas Dufour, Raphaëlle Delattre, Laurent Debarbieux
At the dawn of the renaissance of bacteriophage therapy, the full acceptation of bacteriophages as anti-bacterial agents requires the determination of their basic pharmacokinetic parameters. Such data, known for all conventional drugs used in human and veterinary medicine, allow optimizing dose regimens, efficacy, and help to limit toxicity. Here, we describe basic methods to experimentally obtain pharmacokinetic data and give also examples of data calculation to determine key parameters related to the biodistribution and elimination of bacteriophages in vivo...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Gianluca Nazzaro, Stefano Veraldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Li Heng Liang, Nada Tomic, Te Vuong, Saad Aldelaijan, Hamed Bekerat, Francois DeBlois, Jan Seuntjens, Slobodan Devic
PURPOSE: The Papillon technique using 50-kVp soft X-rays to treat rectal adenocarcinomas was developed and clinically implemented in the 1960s. We describe differences between accurate dosimetry and clinical implementation of this technique that is extending from its very inception to date. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A renaissance of the Papillon technique occurred with two recently introduced 50-kVp systems: Papillon+ by Ariane and a custom-made rectal applicator (consisting of a surface applicator inserted into a proctoscope) by iCAD's Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy (eBT) System (iCad, Inc...
November 1, 2017: Brachytherapy
T Schmidt, S P Mönig
The therapeutic approach to patients with oligometastatic gastric cancer and esophageal cancer is currently undergoing a shift towards a more aggressive therapy including surgical resection. In the current German S3 guidelines surgical treatment of metastatic disease is not recommended; however, nowadays interdisciplinary tumor boards have to evaluate such patients increasingly more often. On an individual basis a radical surgical resection of the primary tumor and the metastases is considered and performed in patients who respond well to multimodal chemotherapy concepts...
November 2, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
Alexander M van der Bliek, Margaret M Sedensky, Phil G Morgan
Mitochondria are best known for harboring pathways involved in ATP synthesis through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Major advances in understanding these roles were made with Caenorhabditiselegans mutants affecting key components of the metabolic pathways. These mutants have not only helped elucidate some of the intricacies of metabolism pathways, but they have also served as jumping off points for pharmacology, toxicology, and aging studies. The field of mitochondria research has also undergone a renaissance, with the increased appreciation of the role of mitochondria in cell processes other than energy production...
November 2017: Genetics
Linda H Kim, Sandeep Sharma, Simon A Sharples, Kyle A Mayr, Charlie H T Kwok, Patrick J Whelan
Over the past decade there has been a renaissance in our understanding of spinal cord circuits; new technologies are beginning to provide key insights into descending circuits which project onto spinal cord central pattern generators. By integrating work from both the locomotor and animal behavioral fields, we can now examine context-specific control of locomotion, with an emphasis on descending modulation arising from various regions of the brainstem. Here we examine approach and avoidance behaviors and the circuits that lead to the production and arrest of locomotion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kenneth R Kaufman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Fahima I M Idiris, Christopher R Jones
Aryne chemistry has experienced a remarkable renaissance in recent years, with a significant increase in the synthetic applications reported for these highly valuable reactive intermediates. This resurgence of interest is in part due to the introduction of ortho-silylaryl triflates as precursors which can be activated under mild conditions using fluoride. Alternative fluoride-free strategies have received interest in the last decade, with a number of precursors to arynes and their activators reported. These approaches offer alternative modes of reactivity which prove, in some cases, to be orthogonal to those of ortho-silylaryl triflates...
November 7, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Marianna Karamanou, Gregory Tsoucalas, Marios Themistocleous, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, George Stranjalis, George Androutsos
Epilepsy has been known since antiquity and trepanation has been documented as a therapeutic option. The Greek born physician Aretaeus of Cappadocia (2nd century BC) was the first to recommend trepanation for the treatment of refractory epilepsy to drugs, pointing out the efficacy of the method. Trepanation was practiced throughout the Middle Ages, as it is proved by the book of "Quattuor Magistri" and during Renaissance as well. In 19th century, Sir Victor Alexander Horsley (1857-1916), combining analysis of clinical presentation with cortical stimulation, performed a series of craniotomies for the treatment of epilepsy...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Leif D Nelson, Joseph Simmons, Uri Simonsohn
In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced...
October 25, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
Hendrik Frisch, David Marschner, Anja Goldmann, Christopher Barner-Kowollik
Precise control of chemical reactions constitutes the foundation of synthesis. Classically, judicious functional group choice as well as external factors such as temperature and catalysts are used to exert control, yet the recent renaissance of light as a medium to direct chemical synthesis points to the advent of a new era in enabling chemical selectivity. Light-guided reactions not only offer precise temporal and spatial control, yet critically allow to selectively address highly specific reaction channels gated by wavelength and intensity, resulting in a unique level of reaction control via covalent bonds that can be made and unmade by finely regulated photonic fields...
October 24, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Matthew Pelowski, Gernot Gerger, Yasmine Chetouani, Patrick S Markey, Helmut Leder
When an individual participates in empirical studies involving the visual arts, they most often are presented with a stream of images, shown on a computer, depicting reproductions of artworks by respected artists but which are often not known to the viewer. While art can of course be shown in presentia actuale-e.g., in the museum-this laboratory paradigm has become our go-to basis for assessing interaction, and, often in conjunction with some means of rating, for assessing evaluative, emotional, cognitive, and even neurophysiological response...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Tianyi Tee Zhang, Naidong Weng, Mike Lee
Renaissance Shanghai Pudong Hotel, Shanghai, China, 12-14 April 2017 The 8th Annual Shanghai Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA): Clinical and Pharmaceutical Success from Discovery to Regulatory Approval: Biomarkers, Modeling and Analytical Technologies (CPSA Shanghai 2017) was held on 12-14 April 2017 in Shanghai, China. The meeting was featured with highly interactive events including diversified symposia, workshops, roundtable discussions, conference awards and poster sessions...
October 21, 2017: Bioanalysis
Mihaela Dana Turliuc, Serban Turliuc, Andrei Ionut Cucu, Camelia Tamas, Alexandru Carauleanu, Catalin Buzduga, Anca Sava, Gabriela Florenta Dumitrescu, Claudia Florida Costea
Since ancient times, the physicians of Antiquity noted the occurrence of priapism in some spinal cord injuries. Although priests saw it as a consequence of curses and witchcraft, after clinical observations of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, first medical hypotheses emerged in the 17(th)-19(th) centuries completed and argued by neuroscience and neurology developed in the European laboratories and hospitals. This study aims to present a short overview of the history of clinical observations of posttraumatic male priapism after spinal cord injuries since Antiquity until the beginning of the 20(th) century...
October 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
Ian Goldin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2017: Nature
Myriam M Ouberai, Ana L Gomes Dos Santos, Sonja Kinna, Shimona Madalli, David C Hornigold, David Baker, Jacqueline Naylor, Laura Sheldrake, Dominic J Corkill, John Hood, Paolo Vicini, Shahid Uddin, Steven Bishop, Paul G Varley, Mark E Welland
The use of peptides as therapeutic agents is undergoing a renaissance with the expectation of new drugs with enhanced levels of efficacy and safety. Their clinical potential will be only fully realised once their physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties have been precisely controlled. Here we demonstrate a reversible peptide self-assembly strategy to control and prolong the bioactivity of a native peptide hormone in vivo. We show that oxyntomodulin, a peptide with potential to treat obesity and diabetes, self-assembles into a stable nanofibril formulation which subsequently dissociates to release active peptide and produces a pharmacological effect in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Nature Communications
Yuting Ma, Jonathan M Pitt, Qingqing Li, Heng Yang
Cancer therapies can temporarily reduce tumor burdens by inducing malignant cell death. However, cancer cure is still far from realization because tumors often gain resistance to current treatment and eventually relapse. Accumulating evidence suggests that successful cancer interventions require anti-tumor immunity. Therapy-induced cell stress responses ultimately result in one or more cell death modalities, including apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. These irreversible dying processes are accompanied by active or passive release of cell death-associated molecular patterns (CDAMPs), which can be sensed by corresponding pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on tumor-infiltrating immune cells...
November 2017: Immunological Reviews
Puspa Raj Khanal, Deepa Satyal, Anjeela Bhetwal, Anjila Maharjan, Shreena Shakya, Snehika Tandukar, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica is a life-threatening systemic illness of gastrointestinal tract especially in tropical countries. Antimicrobial therapy is generally indicated but resistance towards commonly used antibiotics has limited their therapeutic usefulness. Therefore, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by minimum inhibitory concentration method of common therapeutic regimens against Salmonella enterica from enteric fever clinical cases. Salmonella enterica clinical isolates recovered from the patients with suspected enteric fever whose blood samples were submitted to microbiology laboratory of Manmohan Memorial Community Hospital, Kathmandu, from March 2016 to August 2016, were studied...
2017: BioMed Research International
Ming Yan, Yu Kawamata, Phil S Baran
Electrochemistry represents one of the most intimate ways of interacting with molecules. This review discusses advances in synthetic organic electrochemistry since 2000. Enabling methods and synthetic applications are analyzed alongside innate advantages as well as future challenges of electroorganic chemistry.
November 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
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