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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808784/the-history-of-optic-chiasm-from-antiquity-to-the-twentieth-century
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Florida Costea, Şerban Turliuc, Cătălin Buzdugă, Andrei Ionuţ Cucu, Gabriela Florenţa Dumitrescu, Anca Sava, Mihaela Dana Turliuc
PURPOSE: The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800248/how-phenotypic-screening-influenced-drug-discovery-lessons-from-five-years-of-practice
#2
Dorothea Haasen, Ulrich Schopfer, Christophe Antczak, Chantale Guy, Florian Fuchs, Paul Selzer
Since 2011, phenotypic screening has been a trend in the pharmaceutical industry as well as in academia. This renaissance was triggered by analyses that suggested that phenotypic screening is a superior strategy to discover first-in-class drugs. Despite these promises and considerable investments, pharmaceutical research organizations have encountered considerable challenges with the approach. Few success stories have emerged in the past 5 years and companies are questioning their investment in this area. In this contribution, we outline what we have learned about success factors and challenges of phenotypic screening...
August 11, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789843/the-thirsty-dropsy-early-descriptions-in-medical-and-non-medical-authors-of-thirst-as-symptom-of-chronic-heart-failure
#3
M A Riva, F Cesana, F Achilli, F Scordo, G Cesana
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic heart failure may suffer from severe thirst, even if mechanisms that cause thirst in subjects affected by this condition are not clear. Medical and non-medical authors may have already recognized this symptom during the classical age. METHODS: We analyzed association between thirst and dropsy (an ancient medical term used to indicate different conditions including chronic heart failure) in past medical and non-medical literature...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783220/is-there-a-renaissance-of-glucocorticoids-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#4
J R Kirwan, Wma Gunasekera
The first therapeutic use of glucocorticoids was in a patient with severe rheumatoid arthritis and the symptomatic benefit was astounding. Adverse effects from increasingly large doses led to them being overshadowed, dismissed as inappropriate treatment, and ignored for 20 years - but in the last 2 decades, the accumulating evidence and clinical practice suggest there is a justified renaissance in their use as a first-line treatment.
August 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777508/a-sacra-rappresentazione-of-saint-apollonia-s-martyrdom
#5
Stefano Eramo, Alessio Natali, Monia Bravi, Diana Cella, Egle Milia
The literary sources of Saint Apollonia's martyrdom and the evolution of Medieval and Renaissance religious drama are presented along with the compendium of a "Sacra Rappresentazione" from Italian Renaissance regarding Saint Apollonia's Martyrdom.
July 2017: Journal of the History of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757496/pharmacy-testing-and-the-language-of-truth-in-renaissance-italy
#6
Valentina Pugliano
This article examines the role of testing and innovation in sixteenthcentury Italian pharmacy. I argue that apothecaries were less concerned with testing drugs for efficacy or creating novel products than with reactivating an older Mediterranean pharmacological tradition and studying the materials on which it relied. Their practice was not driven by radical experimentation but by a "culture of tweaking"-of minute operational changes to existing recipes and accommodation of their textual variants-which was rooted in the guild economy fostering incremental over radical innovation and in a humanist reevaluation of past autorities...
2017: Bulletin of the History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741249/ambroise-par%C3%A3-1510-1590-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-shoulder-dislocations
#7
REVIEW
Konstantinos Markatos, Marianna Karamanou, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Georgios Androutsos, Andreas F Mavogenis
AIM OF STUDY: This article aims to summarize the treatment methods for shoulder dislocations supported by Ambroise Paré, and his clinical and academic contribution to this subject. INTRODUCTION: Ambroise Paré (1510-1590) was one of the most prominent surgeons of his time, and one of the most significant innovators of the Renaissance in the fields of military operation, bandages, wound healing, bloodletting, close blood vessels techniques and cesarean section. For many, he is considered "the Father of Modern Surgery"...
July 24, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735429/history-of-club-foot-treatment-part-ii-tenotomy-in-the-nineteenth-century
#8
REVIEW
Philippe Hernigou, Nicolas Gravina, Damien Potage, Arnaud Dubory
Clubfoot is one of the most common congenital orthopaedic anomalies and was described by Hippocrates in the year 400 BC. From manipulation in antiquity to splint and plaster in the Renaissance the treatment had improved before tenotomy. Tenotomy was tested during the 19th century and will be explained in this manuscript; the introduction of subcutaneous tenotomy of the Achilles tendon had focused the attention of surgeons on the surgical treatment of clubfeet. While this operation was very successful in the correction of equinus deformities due to poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, and old injuries, it was not a panacea for the patient with the congenital clubfoot...
July 22, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732139/advances-in-electrocatalysis-for-energy-conversion-and-synthesis-of-organic-molecules
#9
Yaovi Holade, Karine Servat, Sophie Tingry, Teko W Napporn, Hynd Remita, David Cornu, Kouakou Boniface Kokoh
The ubiquitous electrochemistry is expected to play a major role for reliable energy, and for production of sustainable fuels and chemicals. For organics-based electrocatalysis in an alkaline medium, the fundamental understandings at solid-liquid interfaces involve relatively complex mechanisms and performance descriptors (from the electrolyte and reaction intermediates), which undermine the roads towards advance and breakthroughs. Here, we review and diagnose recently designed strategies for the electrochemical conversion of organics into electricity or high added- value chemicals, and likely both...
July 21, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717316/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-a-headway-in-reprogramming-with-promising-approach-in-regenerative-biology
#10
REVIEW
N Rawat, M K Singh
Since the embryonic stem cells have knocked the doorsteps, they have proved themselves in the field of science, research, and medicines, but the hovered restrictions confine their application in human welfare. Alternate approaches used to reprogram the cells to the pluripotent state were not up to par, but the innovation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) paved a new hope for the researchers. Soon after the discovery, iPSCs technology is undergoing renaissance day by day, i.e., from the use of genetic material to recombinant proteins and now only chemicals are employed to convert somatic cells to iPSCs...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714313/artificial-metalloenzymes-reaction-scope-and-optimization-strategies
#11
Fabian Schwizer, Yasunori Okamoto, Tillmann Heinisch, Yifan Gu, Michela M Pellizzoni, Vincent Lebrun, Raphael Reuter, Valentin Köhler, Jared C Lewis, Thomas R Ward
The incorporation of a synthetic, catalytically competent metallocofactor into a protein scaffold to generate an artificial metalloenzyme (ArM) has been explored since the late 1970's. Progress in the ensuing years was limited by the tools available for both organometallic synthesis and protein engineering. Advances in both of these areas, combined with increased appreciation of the potential benefits of combining attractive features of both homogeneous catalysis and enzymatic catalysis, led to a resurgence of interest in ArMs starting in the early 2000's...
July 17, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707871/a-copernican-renaissance
#12
Robert S Westman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699571/irrational-coefficients-in-renaissance-algebra
#13
Jeffrey A Oaks
Argument From the time of al-Khwārizmī in the ninth century to the beginning of the sixteenth century algebraists did not allow irrational numbers to serve as coefficients. To multiply by x, for instance, the result was expressed as the rhetorical equivalent of . The reason for this practice has to do with the premodern concept of a monomial. The coefficient, or "number," of a term was thought of as how many of that term are present, and not as the scalar multiple that we work with today. Then, in sixteenth-century Europe, a few algebraists began to allow for irrational coefficients in their notation...
June 2017: Science in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697018/the-renaissance-man-of-burn-surgery-basil-a-pruitt-jr
#14
Karel D Capek, Guillermo Foncerrada, R Patrick Clayton, Michaela Sljivich, Charles D Voigt, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Craig Porter, Ashley Guillory, David N Herndon
Dr. Basil A. Pruitt Jr., a consummate clinical and translational surgeon-scientist, has been spent over half a century at the forefront of an advancing standard of burn care. Commanding the US Army Institute for Surgical Research in San Antonio, he trained generations of leading burn clinicians and allied scientists. At his direction, there were forged discoveries in resuscitation from shock, treatment of inhalation injury, control of burn-related infections, prevention of iatrogenic complications, and understanding the sympathetic, endocrine, and immune responses to burn injury...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694029/medical-capsule-robots-a-renaissance-for-diagnostics-drug-delivery-and-surgical-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Sanyat S Mapara, Vandana B Patravale
The advancements in electronics and the progress in nanotechnology have resulted in path breaking development that will transform the way diagnosis and treatment are carried out currently. This development is Medical Capsule Robots, which has emerged from the science fiction idea of robots travelling inside the body to diagnose and cure disorders. The first marketed capsule robot was a capsule endoscope developed to capture images of the gastrointestinal tract. Today, varieties of capsule endoscopes are available in the market...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688023/-pet-ct-and-pet-mri-of-the-prostate-from-18-f-fdg-to-68-ga-psma
#16
REVIEW
K Knorr, M Eiber, T Maurer, H-J Wester, K Scheidhauer
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: In the last few years nuclear medical diagnostics have experienced a unprecedented renaissance in the diagnostics of prostate cancer, due to the availability of hybrid imaging with positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT), PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) CT as well as the development of prostate-specific radiopharmaceuticals. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: The use of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which has been successfully implemented for many years in PET diagnostics, is only helpful in dedifferentiated tumors due to the biological characteristics of prostate cancer...
August 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664582/the-macrolide-antibiotic-renaissance
#17
REVIEW
Dinos P George
Macrolides represent a large family of protein synthesis inhibitors with high clinical interest due to their applicability for human medicine. Macrolides are composed of a macrocyclic lactone of different ring sizes, to which one or more deoxy-sugar or amino-sugar residues are attached. Macrolides act as antibiotics by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and interfering with protein synthesis. The high affinity of macrolides for bacterial ribosomes, together with the highly conserved structure of ribosomes across virtually all of the bacterial species, is consistent with their broad-spectrum activity...
June 29, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661004/revisiting-young-children-s-understanding-of-the-psychological-causes-of-behavior
#18
REVIEW
Patricia H Miller, Patricia A Aloise-Young
In 1989, Miller and Aloise challenged the prevailing belief that preschoolers tend to explain others' behavior in terms of external events or a person's physical attributes and have little understanding of psychological causes. That review documented preschoolers' understanding of, and even preference for, psychological causes as part of an emerging renaissance in developmental social-cognitive research. The present, updated review (97 articles, participant ages 3 months to 6 years) suggests the emergence of a transformative new perspective in which social-cognition is balanced between social and cognitive aspects rather than tilted toward cognition...
June 29, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649115/producing-skills-for-an-empire-theory-and-practice-in-the-seville-school-of-gunners-during-the-golden-age-of-the-carrera-de-indias
#19
Brice Cossart
Through the case study of the school of gunners created in Seville in 1576, this article aims to shed light on the emergence of teaching practices which were not only essential to the development of seaborne empires but also allow us to question the relationship between technology and science in the late Renaissance. The Seville school of gunners was established by the Spanish monarchy in the last quarter of the sixteenth century with the purpose of providing the Carrera de Indias-the transatlantic fleets-with technicians capable of using cannons...
2017: Technology and Culture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643697/on-the-relationship-between-topological-and-geometric-defects
#20
Sinéad M Griffin, Nicola A Spaldin
The study of topology in solids is undergoing a renaissance following renewed interest in the properties of ferroic domain walls as well as recent discoveries regarding skyrmionic lattices. Each of these systems possess a property that is 'protected' in a symmetry sense, and is defined rigorously using a branch of mathematics known as topology. In this article we review the formal definition of topological defects as they are classified in terms of homotopy theory, and discuss the precise symmetry-breaking conditions that lead to their formation...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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