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New onset epilepsy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551500/psychiatric-side-effects-and-antiepileptic-drugs-observations-from-prospective-audits
#1
Linda J Stephen, Abbie Wishart, Martin J Brodie
Psychiatric comorbidities are common in people with epilepsy. A retrospective study of characteristics associated with withdrawal due to psychiatric side effects was undertaken in patients with treated epilepsy participating in prospective audits with new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A total of 1058 treated patients with uncontrolled seizures (942 focal-onset seizures, 116 generalized genetic epilepsies [GGEs]) participated in eight prospective, observational audits from 1996 to 2014. These patients were prescribed adjunctive topiramate (n=170), levetiracetam (n=220), pregabalin (n=135), zonisamide (n=203), lacosamide (n=160), eslicarbazepine acetate (n=52), retigabine (n=64), or perampanel (n=54)...
May 25, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549652/the-fault-in-their-stars-accumulating-astrocytic-inclusions-associated-with-clusters-of-epileptic-spasms-in-children-with-global-developmental-delay
#2
Robyn Whitney, Sameer AlMehmadi, Bláthnaid McCoy, Ivanna Yau, Ayako Ochi, Hiroshi Otsubo, Shelly K Weiss, James Rutka, Lili-Naz Hazrati, O Carter Snead, Cristina Go
BACKGROUND: The presence of cerebral astrocytic inclusions recently has been described in a subset of children with early-onset refractory epilepsy, with or without structural brain malformations, and varying degrees of developmental delay. METHODS: We describe two new individuals with epilepsy with astrocytic inclusions and suggest that in some children this disorder may represent a unique hemispheric epilepsy. We review previously reported individuals with epilepsy with astrocytic inclusions...
April 18, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532713/electroencephalography-after-a-single-unprovoked-seizure
#3
REVIEW
Derek B Debicki
Electroencephalography (EEG) is an essential diagnostic tool in the evaluation of seizure disorders. In particular, EEG is used as an additional investigation for a single unprovoked seizure. Epileptiform abnormalities are related to seizure disorders and have been shown to predict recurrent unprovoked seizures (i.e., a clinical definition of epilepsy). Thus, the identification of epileptiform abnormalities after a single unprovoked seizure can inform treatment options. The current review addresses the relationship between EEG abnormalities and seizure recurrence...
April 25, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532711/psychiatric-comorbidities-in-new-onset-epilepsy-should-they-be-always-investigated
#4
REVIEW
Andres M Kanner
The new definition of epilepsy establishes that epilepsy is not only a disorder presenting with epileptic seizures but it can be often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities. In fact, the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities is relatively high in patients with epilepsy (PWE), as one in three patients will have experienced a psychiatric disorder in the course of their life, with mood and anxiety disorders being the most frequent. Psychiatric comorbidities often precede the onset of the seizure disorder, and affect the life of these patients and the course of the seizure disorder at several levels, including a worse tolerance of pharmacotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), in particular the development of iatrogenic psychiatric symptoms from pharmacologic and surgical treatments, an increased mortality risk, a worse quality of life and higher economic burdens of the patient, family and society as a hole...
April 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510905/zoomed-mri-guided-by-combined-eeg-meg-source-analysis-a-multimodal-approach-for-optimizing-presurgical-epilepsy-work-up-and-its-application-in-a-multi-focal-epilepsy-patient-case-study
#5
Ü Aydin, S Rampp, A Wollbrink, H Kugel, J -H Cho, T R Knösche, C Grova, J Wellmer, C H Wolters
In recent years, the use of source analysis based on electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) has gained considerable attention in presurgical epilepsy diagnosis. However, in many cases the source analysis alone is not used to tailor surgery unless the findings are confirmed by lesions, such as, e.g., cortical malformations in MRI. For many patients, the histology of tissue resected from MRI negative epilepsy shows small lesions, which indicates the need for more sensitive MR sequences...
May 16, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506485/surgery-for-dysembryoplastic-neuroepithelial-tumors-and-gangliogliomas-in-eloquent-areas-functional-results-and-seizure-control
#6
B Devaux, F Chassoux, E Landré, B Turak, A Laurent, M Zanello, C Mellerio, P Varlet
INTRODUCTION: Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and gangliogliomas are developmental glioneuronal tumors usually revealed by partial epilepsy. High epileptogenicity, childhood epilepsy onset, drug-resistance, temporal location, and seizure freedom after complete resection are common characteristics of both tumors. We report the specificity of surgical management, functional results and seizure outcome in cases of a tumor location in eloquent areas. METHODS: Among 150 patients (88 males, 3-55 years) operated on for refractory epilepsy due to a glioneuronal tumor (1990-2015), 30 (20%, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors=21; gangliogliomas=9) had a tumor located in an eloquent cortex (sensory-motor, insular or language areas)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504953/adaptive-seizure-onset-detection-framework-using-a-hybrid-pca-csp-approach
#7
Sina Khanmohammadi, Chun-An Chou
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in the world. Prompt detection of seizure onset from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can improve the treatment of epileptic patients. This paper presents a new adaptive patientspecific seizure onset detection framework that dynamically selects a feature from enhanced EEG signals to discriminate seizures from normal brain activity. The proposed framework employs principle component analysis (PCA) and common spatial patterns (CSP) to enhance the EEG signals and uses the extracted discriminative feature as an input for adaptive distance-based change point detector to identify the seizure onsets...
May 12, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476758/poststroke-epilepsy-in-long-term-survivors-of-primary-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#8
Anna-Maija Lahti, Pertti Saloheimo, Juha Huhtakangas, Henrik Salminen, Seppo Juvela, Michaela K Bode, Matti Hillbom, Sami Tetri
OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence and predisposing factors for development of poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) during a long-term follow-up. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients who had had their first-ever PICH between January 1993 and January 2008 in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, and who survived for at least 3 months. These patients were followed up for PSE. The associations between PSE occurrence and sex, age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission, hematoma location and volume, early seizures, and other possible risk factors for PSE were assessed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model...
May 5, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436627/-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
Liying Chen, Yi Wang, Zhong Chen
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and severe neurological disorder which is often intractable. It can not only damage the normal structure and function of hippocampus, but also affect the neurogenesis in dentate gyrus (DG). It is well documented from researches on the animal models of TLE that after a latent period of several days, prolonged seizure activity leads to a dramatic increase in mitotic activity in the hippocampal DG. However, cell proliferation returns to baseline levels within 3-4 weeks after status epilepticus (SE)...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428738/improved-localization-of-seizure-onset-zones-using-spatiotemporal-constraints-and-time-varying-source-connectivity
#10
Juan D Martinez-Vargas, Gregor Strobbe, Kristl Vonck, Pieter van Mierlo, German Castellanos-Dominguez
Presurgical evaluation of brain neural activity is commonly carried out in refractory epilepsy patients to delineate as accurately as possible the seizure onset zone (SOZ) before epilepsy surgery. In practice, any subjective interpretation of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings is hindered mainly because of the highly stochastic behavior of the epileptic activity. We propose a new method for dynamic source connectivity analysis that aims to accurately localize the seizure onset zones by explicitly including temporal, spectral, and spatial information of the brain neural activity extracted from EEG recordings...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427143/activity-induced-spontaneous-spikes-in-gabaergic-neurons-suppress-seizure-discharges-an-implication-of-computational-modeling
#11
Wei Lu, Jing Feng, Bo Wen, Kewei Wang, Jin-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, a prevalent neurological disorder, appears self-termination. The endogenous mechanism for seizure self-termination remains to be addressed in order to develop new strategies for epilepsy treatment. We aim to examine the role of activity-induced spontaneous spikes at GABAergic neurons as an endogenous mechanism in the seizure self-termination. METHODS AND RESULTS: Neuronal spikes were induced by depolarization pulses at cortical GABAergic neurons from temporal lobe epilepsy patients and mice, in which some of these neurons fired activity-induced spontaneous spikes...
May 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425015/the-new-classification-of-seizures-by-the-international-league-against-epilepsy-2017
#12
REVIEW
Robert S Fisher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review presents the newly developed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) 2017 classification of seizure types. RECENT FINDINGS: The fundamental distinction is between seizures that begin focally in one hemisphere of the brain, generalized onset seizures that apparently originate in both hemispheres, and seizures of unknown onset. Focal seizures optionally can be subclassified according to whether awareness (a surrogate marker for consciousness) is intact or impaired...
June 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420301/seizures-in-pediatric-patients-with-liver-transplant-and-efficacy-of-levetiracetam
#13
Betül Kılıç, Serdal Güngör, Müjgan Arslan, Mukadder Ayşe Selimoğlu, Sezai Yılmaz
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors, clinical implications, and prognosis of new-onset seizures that occurred after pediatric liver transplantation, and to assess the efficacy of levetiracetam treatment. The clinical and laboratory data of liver transplanted 28 children who had seizures after liver transplantation and specifically of 18 children who received levetiracetam were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients (88.9%) remained seizure-free and in 2 (11.1%), more than 50% reduction in seizures were detected with levetiracetam treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416780/new-onset-epilepsy-in-the-elderly-clinical-radiological-and-electroencephalographic-features-and-treatment-responses
#14
Erum M Shariff, Fahd A AlKhamis
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate new onset epilepsy characteristics, etiology, radiological and electroencephalographic features and to document treatment response in the elderly. METHODS: This was a retrospective study carried out in King Fahd Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from 2010 to 2013. Medical records were searched to recruit patients. Hundred and nineteen patients were enrolled who fulfill the inclusion criteria. Clinical data with respect to seizure semiology, etiology, electroencephalographic findings, radiological findings, co-morbidities, and anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy were assessed...
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412310/increased-seizure-susceptibility-and-other-toxicity-symptoms-following-acute-sulforaphane-treatment-in-mice
#15
Katarzyna Socała, Dorota Nieoczym, Edyta Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Elżbieta Wyska, Piotr Wlaź
Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice...
July 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396650/new-onset-refractory-status-epilepticus-with-claustrum-damage-definition-of-the-clinical-and-neuroimaging-features
#16
Stefano Meletti, Giada Giovannini, Giuseppe d'Orsi, Lisa Toran, Giulia Monti, Rahul Guha, Andreas Kiryttopoulos, Maria Grazia Pascarella, Tommaso Martino, Haris Alexopoulos, Martha Spilioti, Jana Slonkova
New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a rare but challenging condition occurring in a previously healthy patient, often with no identifiable cause. We describe the electro-clinical features and outcomes in a group of patients with NORSE who all demonstrated a typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sign characterized by bilateral lesions of the claustrum. The group includes 31 patients (12 personal and 19 previously published cases; 17 females; mean age of 25 years). Fever preceded status epilepticus (SE) in 28 patients, by a mean of 6 days...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396294/chronic-ambulatory-electrocorticography-from-human-speech-cortex
#17
Vikram R Rao, Matthew K Leonard, Jonathan K Kleen, Ben A Lucas, Emily A Mirro, Edward F Chang
Direct intracranial recording of human brain activity is an important approach for deciphering neural mechanisms of cognition. Such recordings, usually made in patients with epilepsy undergoing inpatient monitoring for seizure localization, are limited in duration and depend on patients' tolerance for the challenges associated with recovering from brain surgery. Thus, typical intracranial recordings, similar to most non-invasive approaches in humans, provide snapshots of brain activity in acute, highly constrained settings, limiting opportunities to understand long timescale and natural, real-world phenomena...
April 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389307/de-novo-grin1-mutations-an-emerging-cause-of-severe-early-infantile-encephalopathy
#18
Yoav Zehavi, Hanna Mandel, Arie Zehavi, Muhammad Abu Rashid, Rachel Straussberg, Banan Jabur, Avraham Shaag, Orly Elpeleg, Ronen Spiegel
De novo GRIN1 mutations have recently been shown to cause severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, hyperkinetic and stereotyped movements, and epilepsy. We report two new cases of severe early onset encephalopathy associated with hyperkinetic and oculogyric-like movements, caused by mutations in the GRIN1 gene; both were identified by whole exome sequencing. One of the patients harbored the novel mutation p.Ser688Tyr and the other patient harbored the p.Gly827Arg mutation, which was previously reported in three patients...
June 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384730/intractable-epilepsy-and-progressive-cognitive-decline-in-a-young-man
#19
Alexander L Cohen, Lyell K Jones, Joseph E Parisi, James P Klaas
A young man with normal neurodevelopment presented with 3 years of medically refractory, progressive epilepsy and myoclonus. Initial examination included neuroimaging, electroencephalography, and biochemical analyses, all of which were unremarkable except for mildly enlarged ventricles. Over the following year, the patient experienced rapid cognitive decline with new-onset recurrent visual hallucinations and progressive lethargy. Results of subsequent electroencephalography and brain imaging were unchanged, and a fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomographic scan was normal...
April 3, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379373/genetic-and-phenotypic-heterogeneity-suggest-therapeutic-implications-in-scn2a-related-disorders
#20
Markus Wolff, Katrine M Johannesen, Ulrike B S Hedrich, Silvia Masnada, Guido Rubboli, Elena Gardella, Gaetan Lesca, Dorothée Ville, Mathieu Milh, Laurent Villard, Alexandra Afenjar, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, Cyril Mignot, Caroline Lardennois, Caroline Nava, Niklas Schwarz, Marion Gérard, Laurence Perrin, Diane Doummar, Stéphane Auvin, Maria J Miranda, Maja Hempel, Eva Brilstra, Nine Knoers, Nienke Verbeek, Marjan van Kempen, Kees P Braun, Grazia Mancini, Saskia Biskup, Konstanze Hörtnagel, Miriam Döcker, Thomas Bast, Tobias Loddenkemper, Lily Wong-Kisiel, Friedrich M Baumeister, Walid Fazeli, Pasquale Striano, Robertino Dilena, Elena Fontana, Federico Zara, Gerhard Kurlemann, Joerg Klepper, Jess G Thoene, Daniel H Arndt, Nicolas Deconinck, Thomas Schmitt-Mechelke, Oliver Maier, Hiltrud Muhle, Beverly Wical, Claudio Finetti, Reinhard Brückner, Joachim Pietz, Günther Golla, Dinesh Jillella, Karen M Linnet, Perrine Charles, Ute Moog, Eve Õiglane-Shlik, John F Mantovani, Kristen Park, Marie Deprez, Damien Lederer, Sandrine Mary, Emmanuel Scalais, Laila Selim, Rudy Van Coster, Lieven Lagae, Marina Nikanorova, Helle Hjalgrim, G Christoph Korenke, Marina Trivisano, Nicola Specchio, Berten Ceulemans, Thomas Dorn, Katherine L Helbig, Katia Hardies, Hannah Stamberger, Peter de Jonghe, Sarah Weckhuysen, Johannes R Lemke, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Ingo Helbig, Gerhard Kluger, Holger Lerche, Rikke S Møller
Mutations in SCN2A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p...
March 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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