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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454130/abscess-within-a-glioblastoma-mimicking-a-matryoshka-doll
#1
Kislay Kishore, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Dwarkanath Srinivas, Sampath Somanna
BACKGROUND: Abscess co-existing within a brain tumor is a rare entity. Case reports in literature primarily consist of sellar pathology and parenchymal lesions including meningioma, glioma, and metastases. We report a case of glioblastoma with an intra-tumoral abscess in a middle-aged lady with no prior invasive procedure or systemic focus of infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year old lady presented with new onset generalized seizures and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444764/clinical-radiological-pathological-correlation-in-an-unusual-case-of-refractory-epilepsy-a-two-year-journey-of-whodunit
#2
Deepak Menon, Ramshekhar N Menon, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Anita Mahadevan, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Sudheeran Kannoth, Pradeep P Nair, Mathew Abraham, Bejoy Thomas, Sanjeev V Thomas
New-onset refractory focal epilepsy poses significant challenges to the clinician in the absence of specific diagnostic biomarkers. Differential diagnoses based on imaging may be expanded by a veritable spectrum of peri-ictal imaging findings that may mask the underlying substrate. We report a 13-year-old girl who presented with refractory focal seizures of left parieto-occipital origin with cytotoxic gyral oedema noted over the same region on imaging. Despite an initial negative autoantibody profile, the patient was treated with immunosuppression, followed by serial relapses requiring immune-modulation...
February 14, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436790/cromakalim-a-potassium-channel-opener-ameliorates-the-organophosphate-and-carbamate-induced-seizure-in-mice
#3
Sattar Ostadhadi, Abouzar Moradi, Samira Zolfaghari, Vahid Nikoui, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEIs), which can cause seizure and lethality. Anticonvulsant properties of potassium channel openers including cromakalim have been determined in previous studies. In the present experiment, the possible effect of cromakalim on the convulsion and death induced by OPs and carbamates was studied in mice. Dichlorvos (an OP, 50 mg/kg) and physostigmine (a carbamate, 2 mg/kg) were used to induce seizure in animals. Cromakalim at doses of 0...
January 2018: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435578/comparative-effectiveness-of-levetiracetam-vs-phenobarbital-for-infantile-epilepsy
#4
Zachary M Grinspan, Renée A Shellhaas, Jason Coryell, Joseph E Sullivan, Elaine C Wirrell, John R Mytinger, William D Gaillard, Eric H Kossoff, Ignacio Valencia, Kelly G Knupp, Courtney Wusthoff, Cynthia Keator, Nicole Ryan, Tobias Loddenkemper, Catherine J Chu, Edward J Novotny, John Millichap, Anne T Berg
Importance: More than half of infants with new-onset epilepsy have electroencephalographic and clinical features that do not conform to known electroclinical syndromes (ie, nonsyndromic epilepsy). Levetiracetam and phenobarbital are the most commonly prescribed medications for epilepsy in infants, but their comparative effectiveness is unknown. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of levetiracetam vs phenobarbital for nonsyndromic infantile epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Early Life Epilepsy Study-a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study conducted from March 1, 2012, to April 30, 2015, in 17 US medical centers-enrolled infants with nonsyndromic epilepsy and a first afebrile seizure between 1 month and 1 year of age...
February 12, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431884/successes-and-optimism-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-neurological-disorders-ripe-for-a-surgical-time-out
#5
Alexander I Tröster
In the USA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), dystonia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). DBS has been approved for these same conditions in Europe, but, additionally the European Commission (EC) has granted the Conformité Européenne (CE) Mark for DBS as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures in adults with medically refractory epilepsy. In this issue of EJN Budman and colleagues [1] briefly review the range of neurologic conditions that might constitute promising new indications for DBS...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403319/a-review-of-the-pharmacology-and-clinical-efficacy-of-brivaracetam
#6
REVIEW
Pavel Klein, Anyzeila Diaz, Teresa Gasalla, John Whitesides
Brivaracetam (BRV; Briviact) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults. BRV is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle 2A (SV2A) with 15- to 30-fold higher affinity than levetiracetam, the first AED acting on SV2A. It has high lipid solubility and rapid brain penetration, with engagement of the target molecule, SV2A, within minutes of administration. BRV has potent broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity in animal models. Phase I studies indicated BRV was well tolerated and showed a favorable pharmacokinetic profile over a wide dose range following single (10-1,000 mg) and multiple (200-800 mg/day) oral dosing...
2018: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395663/atp1a3-related-epileptic-encephalopathy-responding-to-ketogenic-diet
#7
Tommaso Schirinzi, Federica Graziola, Raffaella Cusmai, Lucia Fusco, Francesco Nicita, Mirella Elia, Lorena Travaglini, Enrico Bertini, Paolo Curatolo, Federico Vigevano, Alessandro Capuano
BACKGROUND: Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC) is a rare neurological disease caused by mutations in ATP1A3 gene codifying for alpha3 subunit of Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Repeated and transient attacks of hemiplegia, usually affecting one side of the body or the other, or both sides of the body at once, are the core features of AHC. Monocular nystagmus, other abnormalities in ocular movements, dystonic posturing and epilepsy are commonly associated to AHC. However, the spectrum of ATP1A3 related diseases is still expanding and new phenotypes have been reported...
January 26, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394328/stereotyped-high-frequency-oscillations-discriminate-seizure-onset-zones-and-critical-functional-cortex-in-focal-epilepsy
#8
Su Liu, Candan Gurses, Zhiyi Sha, Michael M Quach, Altay Sencer, Nerses Bebek, Daniel J Curry, Sujit Prabhu, Sudhakar Tummala, Thomas R Henry, Nuri F Ince
High-frequency oscillations in local field potentials recorded with intracranial EEG are putative biomarkers of seizure onset zones in epileptic brain. However, localized 80-500 Hz oscillations can also be recorded from normal and non-epileptic cerebral structures. When defined only by rate or frequency, physiological high-frequency oscillations are indistinguishable from pathological ones, which limit their application in epilepsy presurgical planning. We hypothesized that pathological high-frequency oscillations occur in a repetitive fashion with a similar waveform morphology that specifically indicates seizure onset zones...
January 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381703/sozrank-a-new-approach-for-localizing-the-epileptic-seizure-onset-zone
#9
Yonathan Murin, Jeremy Kim, Josef Parvizi, Andrea Goldsmith
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders affecting about 1% of the world population. For patients with focal seizures that cannot be treated with antiepileptic drugs, the common treatment is a surgical procedure for removal of the seizure onset zone (SOZ). In this work we introduce an algorithm for automatic localization of the seizure onset zone (SOZ) in epileptic patients based on electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings. The proposed algorithm builds upon the hypothesis that the abnormal excessive (or synchronous) neuronal activity in the brain leading to seizures starts in the SOZ and then spreads to other areas in the brain...
January 30, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378300/assessment-of-brain-oxygenation-imbalance-following-soman-exposure-in-rats
#10
Kevin Lee, Sara Bohnert, Ying Wu, Cory Vair, John Mikler, G Campbell Teskey, Jeff F Dunn
Nerve agents (NAs) are potent organophosphorus (OP) compounds with applications in chemical warfare. OP compounds act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Soman (O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is one of the most potent NAs. It is well known that small doses of NAs can be lethal, and that even non-lethal exposure leads to long-term mental debilitation/neurological damage. However, the neuropathology following exposure to sub-lethal nerve agents is not well understood. In this study we examined changes in tissue oxygenation (pO2) in the cortex and hippocampus after a sub-lethal dose of soman [80-90 μg/kg; subcutaneous]...
January 26, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373157/new-onset-status-epilepticus-in-pediatric-patients-causes-characteristics-and-outcomes
#11
Saba Jafarpour, Ryan M Hodgeman, Carolina De Marchi Capeletto, Mateus Torres Avelar de Lima, Kush Kapur, Robert C Tasker, Tobias Loddenkemper
BACKGROUND: Many pediatric patients presenting with status epilepticus have no history of seizures. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients aged one month to 21 years who presented during six consecutive years with convulsive status epilepticus and without a history of seizures. New-onset refractory status epilepticus was defined as status epilepticus refractory to two lines of treatment, without an identified cause in the first 48 hours...
December 1, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366682/dynamic-contrast-enhanced-dce-mri-derived-kinetic-perfusion-indices-may-help-predicting-seizure-control-in-single-calcified-neurocysticercosis
#12
Alok Kumar Singh, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Gaurav Raj Agrawal, Nuzhat Husain, Chandra Mani Pandey, Prativa Sahoo, Neeraj Kumar
BACKGROUND: The factors responsible for seizure recurrence in patients with Solitary calcified neurocysticercosis (NCC) are not well understood. Blood brain barrier (BBB) breach may be associated with seizure recurrence. Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI derived indices Kep, Ktrans and Ve are useful in quantifying BBB permeability. In this study, we assessed the possible role of DCE-MRI and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 levels in predicting seizure recurrence. METHODS: In this prospective-observational study, patients with new-onset seizures and a solitary calcified NCC were included...
January 20, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351212/changes-in-the-expression-of-aqp4-and-aqp9-in-the-hippocampus-following-eclampsia-like-seizure
#13
Xinjia Han, Qian Huang, Lei Liu, Xiaoyan Sha, Bihui Hu, Huishu Liu
Eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that is defined by the new onset of grand mal seizures on the basis of pre-eclampsia. Until now, the mechanisms underlying eclampsia were poorly understood. Brain edema is considered a leading cause of eclamptic seizures; aquaporins (AQP4 and AQP9), the glial water channel proteins mainly expressed in the nervous system, play an important role in brain edema. We studied AQP4 and AQP9 expression in the hippocampus of pre-eclamptic and eclamptic rats in order to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in brain edema...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328901/a-50-year-old-woman-with-new-onset-seizure
#14
John R Queen, Samantha Bogner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327143/long-term-control-and-predictors-of-seizures-in-intracranial-meningioma-surgery-a-population-based-study
#15
Hai Xue, Olafur Sveinsson, Jiri Bartek, Petter Förander, Simon Skyrman, Lars Kihlström, Raana Shafiei, Tiit Mathiesen, Torbjörn Tomson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the long-term seizure control and antiepileptic drug (AED) prescriptions, as well as identifying predictors of seizure(s) before and after surgery in a population-based cohort of operated intracranial meningioma patients. METHODS: A total of 113 consecutive adult (> 18 years old) patients with newly diagnosed meningioma operated at the Karolinska University Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included and followed up until the end of 2015...
January 11, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314318/two-novel-cps1-mutations-in-a-case-of-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-deficiency-causing-hyperammonemia-and-leukodystrophy
#16
Xihui Chen, Lijuan Yuan, Mao Sun, Qingbo Liu, Yuanming Wu
BACKGROUND: Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle, mostly characterized by hyperammonemia and the concomitant leukodystrophy. The onset of CPS1D can be at any age, and the clinical manifestations are variable and atypical. Genetic tests are indispensable for accurate diagnosis of CPS1D on the basis of biochemical tests. METHODS: Blood tandem mass spectrometric analysis and urea organic acidemia screening were performed on a Chinese neonatal patient with low activity, recurrent seizures, and hyperammonemia...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306539/random-ensemble-learning-for-eeg-classification
#17
Mohammad-Parsa Hosseini, Dario Pompili, Kost Elisevich, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Real-time detection of seizure activity in epilepsy patients is critical in averting seizure activity and improving patients' quality of life. Accurate evaluation, presurgical assessment, seizure prevention, and emergency alerts all depend on the rapid detection of seizure onset. A new method of feature selection and classification for rapid and precise seizure detection is discussed wherein informative components of electroencephalogram (EEG)-derived data are extracted and an automatic method is presented using infinite independent component analysis (I-ICA) to select independent features...
January 3, 2018: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295802/hydrocephalus-in-pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy-new-case-and-literature-review
#18
Virginia Navarro-Abia, María Soriano-Ramos, Noemí Núñez-Enamorado, Ana Camacho-Salas, Ana Martinez-de Aragón, Elena Martín-Hernández, Rogelio Simón-de Las Heras
INTRODUCTION: Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare disorder of the lysine metabolism, characterized by a pharmacoresistant epileptic encephalopathy that usually begins in the neonatal period. However, its phenotypic spectrum is wide and not limited to seizures. We report a new case of PDE who developed hydrocephalus, along with an exhaustive review of the literature. CASE REPORT: Our patient presented with seizures at 13 h of life. Antiepileptic drugs, vitamins and cofactors were required to achieve seizure control...
December 30, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289807/seizures-in-surgically-resected-atypical-and-malignant-meningiomas-long-term-outcome-analysis
#19
Yu-Chi Wang, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Po-Hsun Tu, Kuo-Chen Wei, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chi Lee, Zhuo-Hao Liu, Pin-Yuan Chen
PURPOSE: Seizures in rare atypical and malignant meningiomas were significantly under-studied. Our aim was to examine the rates, predictors, and seizure control in these meningiomas, and to analyze associations between clinical characteristics and seizure free survival (SFS) following surgical resection in an Asian population. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 102 patients with atypical or malignant meningiomas. Seizures occurring before and after the operation were reviewed...
December 17, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280817/newly-diagnosed-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-atypical-presentation-with-focal-seizures-and-long-standing-lymphadenopathy
#20
Eric S Mull, Vivian Aranez, Drew Pierce, Ilene L Rothman, Rabheh Abdul-Aziz
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may present with involvement of multiple organ systems, usually with a constellation of nonspecific constitutional symptoms and signs. Seizures and thrombosis are uncommon at presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 17-year-old boy of African descent with an 11-year history of persistent lymphadenopathy with negative outpatient workup for lymphoma and immunodeficiency who was admitted to our tertiary care hospital for new-onset seizure activity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
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