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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204953/comparing-safety-and-efficacy-of-third-generation-antiepileptic-drugs-long-term-extension-and-post-marketing-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Charlotte S Kwok, Emily L Johnson, Gregory L Krauss
Four "third-generation" antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were approved for adjunctive treatment of refractory focal onset seizures during the past 10 years. Long-term efficacy and safety of the drugs were demonstrated in large extension studies and in reports of subgroups of patients not studied in pivotal trials. Reviewing extension study and post-marketing outcome series for the four newer AEDs-lacosamide, perampanel, eslicarbazepine acetate and brivaracetam-can guide clinicians in treating and monitoring patients...
December 4, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204018/role-of-biomarkers-in-differentiating-new-onset-seizures-from-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures
#2
Mahendra Javali, Purushottam Acharya, Shripal Shah, Rohan Mahale, Pushparaja Shetty, Srinivasa Rangasetty
Introduction: Review of literature revealed very limited studies considering a combination of serum prolactin (PRL) and serum creatine kinase (CK) as markers for differentiating epileptic and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). Therefore, in the present study, we analyzed the role of serum PRL and serum CK, individually and in combination. Methodology: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care medical teaching hospital over a period of 18 months...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204016/usefulness-of-pulsed-arterial-spin-labeling-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-new-onset-seizure-patients-and-its-comparison-with-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Varun Bansal, Suresh Kumar, Sudhir Sharma, Sanjiv Sharma, R G Sood
Introduction: Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion and pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) imaging are newer advanced magnetic resonance sequences which are capable of detecting vascular changes in patients with new-onset seizure disorder even when no significant abnormalities are visualized on conventional sequences. The purpose of our study is to establish utility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) in new-onset seizure patients and compare ASL with DSC perfusion sequence. Materials and Methods: Twenty-six patients coming to emergency department with new-onset seizure disorder were evaluated using DSC and ASL sequence...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175723/brain-tumors-associated-with-psychogenic-non-epileptic-seizures-case-series
#4
Catherine R Garcia, Gulam Q Khan, Amy M Morrow, Priyanka Yadav, Donita D Lightner, Frank G Gilliam, John L Villano
OBJECTIVE: The association of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) with primary or secondary brain tumors has not been well described in the literature. We aim to discuss their association, and their impact in brain tumor treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified four patients retrospectively from our practice. The diagnosis of PNES was based on clinical suspicion and standard EEG, supplemented with video-EEG recording in 2 patients. RESULTS: The initial diagnosis of brain tumor was associated with a new onset seizure prior to diagnosis...
November 22, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160210/exceptional-response-to-brivaracetam-in-a-patient-with-refractory-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-and-absence-seizures
#5
Alberto Grande-Martín, David Sopelana-Garay, José Manuel Pardal-Fernández, Rosa María Sánchez-Honrubia, Álvaro Abelardo Sánchez-Larsen
Brivaracetam is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for patients with focal-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. However, it has been suggested that it could provide broad-spectrum efficacy given its similarity to levetiracetam and based on the results from preclinical studies and others of patients with generalized epilepsy. We present the case of a woman with refractory idiopathic generalized epilepsy and absence seizures with dramatic response to brivaracetam. Our report supports a consideration of treatment with this new antiepileptic drug on a case-by-case basis in patients with refractory generalized epilepsy, while we await further studies on this topic...
November 21, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160208/a-case-of-post-leptospirosis-autoimmune-epilepsy-presenting-with-sleep-related-hypermotor-seizures
#6
Prashant Makhija, Siby Gopinath, Sudheeran Kannoth, Kurupath Radhakrishnan
This video-illustrated case report concerns a 49-year-old woman who presented with sleep-related hypermotor seizures. The antecedent history of leptospirosis, high frequency of new-onset seizures, presence of an unclassified anti-neuronal antibody, and dramatic response to steroids strongly supported post-infectious immune-mediated pathogenesis in our patient. To the best of our knowledge, post-leptospirosis autoimmune epilepsy presenting as sleep-related hypermotor seizures has not hitherto been reported. [Published with video sequences on www...
November 21, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#7
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141310/-analysis-of-gene-mutation-of-early-onset-epileptic-spasm-with-unknown-reason
#8
X Yang, G Pan, W H Li, L M Zhang, B B Wu, H J Wang, P Zhang, S Z Zhou
Objective: To summarize the gene mutation of early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason. Method: In this prospective study, data of patients with early onset epileptic spasm with unknown reason were collected from neurological department of Children's Hospital of Fudan University between March 2016 and December 2016. Patients with known disorders such as infection, metabolic, structural, immunological problems and known genetic mutations were excluded. Patients with genetic disease that can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and phenotypic characteristics were also excluded...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130506/animal-models-of-acquired-epilepsy-insights-into-mechanisms-of-human-epileptogenesis
#9
Albert J Becker
In many patients who suffer from epilepsies, recurrent epileptic seizures do not start at birth but develop later in life. This holds particularly true for epilepsies with a focal seizure origin including focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). TLE most frequently has its seizure onset in the hippocampal formation. Hippocampal biopsies of pharmacoresistant TLE patients undergoing epilepsy surgery for seizure control most frequently reveal the damage pattern of hippocampal sclerosis, i...
November 12, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123489/plasmapheresis-responsive-rapid-onset-dementia-with-predominantly-frontal-dysfunction-in-the-context-of-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy
#10
Dominique Endres, Magnus S Vry, Petra Dykierek, Anne N Riering, Eva Lüngen, Oliver Stich, Rick Dersch, Nils Venhoff, Daniel Erny, Irina Mader, Philipp T Meyer, Ludger Tebartz van Elst
Background: Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is a rare immunological neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased antithyroid antibodies and mixed neurological and psychiatric symptoms. HE has been previously discussed as a differential diagnosis for rapid progressive dementia. However, most of these patients suffered from additional neurological symptoms, like ataxia or seizures. Case presentation: Here, we present the case of a 59-year-old female patient suffering rapid onset dementia with salient frontal executive dysfunction...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102749/surgical-revascularization-for-children-with-moyamoya-disease-a-new-modification-to-the-pial-synangiosis
#11
Chuan Chen, Hui Wang, Bo Hou, Lun Luo, Ying Guo
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the therapeutic efficacy of modified pial synangiosis in children with moyamoya disease and our experience with this method. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical efficacy of modified pial synangiosis in children with moyamoya disease who were treated between October 2002 and August 2015 in our center. The clinical characteristics of these rare cases were summarized, and the surgical efficacy was assessed based on long-term follow-up results...
November 1, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088958/a-systematic-review-of-perioperative-seizure-prophylaxis-during-brain-tumor-resection-the-case-for-a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
Vyshak Chandra, Andrew K Rock, Charles Opalak, Joel M Stary, Adam P Sima, Matthew Carr, Rafael A Vega, William C Broaddus
OBJECTIVE The majority of neurosurgeons administer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prophylactically for supratentorial tumor resection without clear evidence to support this practice. The putative benefit of perioperative seizure prophylaxis must be weighed against the risks of adverse effects and drug interactions in patients without a history of seizures. Consequently, the authors conducted a systematic review of prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have evaluated the efficacy of perioperative seizure prophylaxis among patients without a history of seizures...
November 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076473/-the-management-of-patients-with-new-epileptic-seizures-in-the-early-period-after-resection-of-hemispheric-tumors-two-case-reports-and-a-literature-review
#13
E Yu Sokolova, I A Savin, A B Kadasheva, A V Gavryushin, D I Pitskhelauri, A V Kozlov, K N Lapteva, V V Podlepich
Epileptic seizures developing for the first time after a neurosurgical intervention (de novo seizures) are a challenge for choosing an optimal treatment. The pathogenesis of these seizures is often associated with factors that become inactive in the early postoperative period. These seizures can not serve the basis for diagnosing symptomatic epilepsy and should be regarded as a brain response to surgery, and patients do not need anticonvulsant therapy that reduces the quality of life. But in some situations, new early postoperative seizures serve the onset of symptomatic epilepsy and require prolonged anticonvulsant therapy...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076415/antiepileptic-drugs-for-preventing-seizures-in-patients-with-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#14
Pedro Moura Branco, Bernardo Oliveira Ratilal, João Costa, Cristina Sampaio
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is an accumulation of blood within the intracranial subdural space. It is associated with minor traumatic events and affects mostly the elderly. CSH can be effectively treated surgically with good outcomes, although the recurrence rate is high. Epileptic seizures are one of the major complications associated with CSH, either in the pre or postoperative period. The incidence rate of new onset seizures after CSH diagnosis ranges between 3% and 23%. However, the benefit of using prophylactic antiepileptic drugs in these patients is controversial with significant variations in clinical practice...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071284/characterizing-cefepime-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Ayesha A Appa, Rupali Jain, Robert M Rakita, Shahin Hakimian, Paul S Pottinger
Neurotoxicity due to cefepime has not been well characterized. We performed a systematic review of the literature and included 5 additional cases from our center. Of the 198 cases found, the mean age was 67 years and 87% of patients had renal dysfunction. The most common clinical features were diminished level of consciousness (80%), disorientation/agitation (47%), and myoclonus (40%). It is worth noting that nonconvulsive status epilepticus was relatively common with 31% of cases, whereas only 11% had convulsive seizures...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069823/microrna-134-plasma-levels-before-and-after-treatment-with-valproic-acid-for-epilepsy-patients
#16
Xiaofeng Wang, Yifeng Luo, Shuangxi Liu, Liming Tan, Sanhu Wang, Rongyong Man
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorders characterized by recurrent spontaneous seizures. MicroRNAs play a vital role in regulating synaptic plasticity, brain development and post-transcriptional expression of proteins. In both animal models of epilepsy and human patients, miR-134, a brain-specific microRNA has recently been identified as a potential regulator of epileptogenesis. METHODS: microRNA identified as targets for the actions of valproic acid (VPA) are known to have important effects in brain function...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068610/seizure-risk-associated-with-antidepressant-treatment-among-patients-with-depressive-disorders-a-population-based-case-crossover-study
#17
Chi-Shin Wu, Hsin-Yen Liu, Hui-Ju Tsai, Shi-Kai Liu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of seizure associated with antidepressant use among patients with depressive disorders. METHODS: Individuals visiting the emergency department or hospitalized because of new-onset seizure (ICD-9-CM diagnostic code 345 or 780.3; our primary study outcome) after receiving antidepressants for depressive disorders, were identified from a Taiwanese total population health insurance database. Using a case-crossover study design, relative risk of antidepressant-related seizure was estimated by comparing the rates of antidepressant exposure during the case periods vs control periods...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066376/a-de-novo-mutation-in-rpl10-causes-a-rare-x-linked-ribosomopathy-characterized-by-syndromic-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy-a-new-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Danielle K Bourque, Taila Hartley, Sarah M Nikkel, Daniela Pohl, Martine Tétreault, Kristin D Kernohan, David A Dyment
Intellectual disability (ID) affects 1-2% of the general population and up to 50% of those with ID are estimated to have an underlying genetic cause. Next-generation sequencing provides an efficient means to identify the molecular causes of monogenic forms of ID. Here we present an 18 year old male with severe ID, absent speech, microcephaly, ataxia, dysmorphic facial features, and a refractory, early-onset seizure disorder. Exome sequencing revealed a rare de novo mutation in the X-linked gene RPL10 (c.232A > G, p...
October 21, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061647/pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy-in-zebrafish-caused-by-aldh7a1-deficiency
#19
Izabella A Pena, Yann Roussel, Kate Daniel, Kevin Mongeon, Devon Johnstone, Hellen Weinschutz Mendes, Marjolein Bosma, Vishal Saxena, Nathalie Lepage, Pranesh Chakraborty, David A Dyment, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Nanda Verhoeven-Duif, Tuan Vu Bui, Kym M Boycott, Marc Ekker, Alex MacKenzie
Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) is a rare disease characterized by mutations in the lysine degradation gene ALDH7A1 leading to recurrent neonatal seizures which are uniquely alleviated by high doses of pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (vitamin B6 vitamers). Despite treatment, neurodevelopmental disabilities are still observed in most PDE patients underlining the need for adjunct therapies. Over 60 years after the initial description of PDE, we report the first animal model for this disease: an aldh7a1-null zebrafish (Danio rerio) displaying deficient lysine metabolism and spontaneous and recurrent seizures in the larval stage (10 dpf)...
October 23, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051738/early-seizure-detection-based-on-cardiac-autonomic-regulation-dynamics
#20
Jonatas Pavei, Renan G Heinzen, Barbora Novakova, Roger Walz, Andrey J Serra, Markus Reuber, Athi Ponnusamy, Jefferson L B Marques
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes changes in the autonomic nervous system. Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the regulation of cardiac activity and autonomic nervous system tone. The early detection of epileptic seizures could foster the use of new treatment approaches. This study presents a new methodology for the prediction of epileptic seizures using HRV signals. Eigendecomposition of HRV parameter covariance matrices was used to create an input for a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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