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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665472/off-line-solid-phase-extraction-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-quantitation-of-brivaracetam-acid-metabolites-method-validation-and-application-to-in-vitro-metabolism-assays
#1
Emmanuel Bourgogne, Benoit Culot, Sylvie Dell'Aiera, Hugues Chanteux, Armel Stockis, Jean-Marie Nicolas
Brivaracetam (BRV) is a new high affinity synaptic vesicle protein 2A ligand recently approved for adults with partial-onset seizures. As a support to in vitro metabolism assays, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method coupled to off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed to quantify BRV acid metabolites, that is, BRV-AC (carboxylic derivative derived from BRV hydrolysis) and BRV-OHAC (corresponding to hydroxylated BRV-AC). The method was validated for various incubates (liver and kidney tissue homogenates and blood, all from humans) and applied to in vitro metabolism assays...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652661/combined-brain-and-heart-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-systemic-vasculitides-fiction-or-real-need
#2
REVIEW
Sophie I Mavrogeni, George Kitas, Hildo J Lamb, Klearchos Psychoyios, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Kyriaki Boki, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Cees G Kallenberg, Loic Guillevin, Dimitrios Vassilopoulos
Systemic vasculitides (SVs) is a group of diseases characterised by inflammation/necrosis of the blood vessel wall in various organs. Simultaneous brain and heart involvement is a cause of increased morbidity/mortality in SV. We aimed to present evidence of concurrent brain/heart involvement in SV and the role of a combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their risk stratification. Cerebral vasculitis (CV) can be presented as focal deficits, seizures, headache, neuropsychiatric manifestations or cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD) as myocardial/vascular inflammation, perfusion/function defects and fibrosis...
April 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650466/prodrome-in-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Frank M C Besag, Michael J Vasey
BACKGROUND: Prodromal symptoms (PS) of epileptic seizures are clinically well-recognized but relatively little researched. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence in the literature for the existence of prodrome and the reported frequency and nature of prodromal characteristics. METHODS: We performed a PubMed review of the clinical characteristics, frequency, and duration of PS in papers published between 2007 and 2017. We also reviewed findings from prospective studies into the predictive performance of prodrome...
April 9, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628910/the-sub-regional-functional-organization-of-neocortical-irritative-epileptic-networks-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#4
Radek Janca, Pavel Krsek, Petr Jezdik, Roman Cmejla, Martin Tomasek, Vladimir Komarek, Petr Marusic, Premysl Jiruska
Between seizures, irritative network generates frequent brief synchronous activity, which manifests on the EEG as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Recent insights into the mechanism of IEDs at the microscopic level have demonstrated a high variance in the recruitment of neuronal populations generating IEDs and a high variability in the trajectories through which IEDs propagate across the brain. These phenomena represent one of the major constraints for precise characterization of network organization and for the utilization of IEDs during presurgical evaluations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627874/meningiomas-skull-base-versus-non-skull-base
#5
Torstein R Meling, Michele Da Broi, David Scheie, Eirik Helseth
To identify differences between skull base meningiomas (SBM) and non-skull base meningiomas (NSBM). All adult patients (18.0-69.9 years) operated for intracranial meningiomas between 1990 and 2010 at our institution were investigated. Al-Mefty's definition was used to dichotomize tumors into SBM and NSBM. Overall, 1148 consecutive patients were identified. Median age at surgery was 54.2 years [18.1-69.9]. Median follow-up was 7.4 years [0.0-20.9]. There were 562 patients (49%) with SBM and 586 (51%) with NSBM...
April 7, 2018: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621596/a-novel-action-of-lacosamide-on-gaba-a-currents-sets-the-ground-for-a-synergic-interaction-with-levetiracetam-in-treatment-of-epilepsy
#6
Gabriele Ruffolo, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Jinane Fattouch, Alessandra Morano, Cristina Limatola, Eleonora Aronica, Eleonora Palma, Anna Teresa Giallonardo
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases, and its pharmacological treatment holds great importance for both physicians and national authorities, especially considering the high proportion of drug-resistant patients (about 30%). Lacosamide (LCM) is an effective and well-tolerated new-generation antiepileptic drug (AED), currently licensed as add-on therapy for partial-onset seizures. However, LCM mechanism of action is still a matter of debate, although its effect on the voltage sensitive sodium channels is by far the most recognized...
April 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621233/degenerate-time-dependent-network-dynamics-anticipate-seizures-in-human-epileptic-brain
#7
Adrià Tauste Campo, Alessandro Principe, Miguel Ley, Rodrigo Rocamora, Gustavo Deco
Epileptic seizures are known to follow specific changes in brain dynamics. While some algorithms can nowadays robustly detect these changes, a clear understanding of the mechanism by which these alterations occur and generate seizures is still lacking. Here, we provide crossvalidated evidence that such changes are initiated by an alteration of physiological network state dynamics. Specifically, our analysis of long intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings from a group of 10 patients identifies a critical phase of a few hours in which time-dependent network states become less variable ("degenerate"), and this phase is followed by a global functional connectivity reduction before seizure onset...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616471/a-review-of-the-new-antiepileptic-drugs-for-focal-onset-seizures-in-pediatrics-role-of-extrapolation
#8
REVIEW
Alexis Arzimanoglou, O'Neill D'Cruz, Douglas Nordli, Shlomo Shinnar, Gregory L Holmes
Most antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) receive regulatory approval for children years after the drug is available in adults, encouraging off-label use of the drug in children and hindering attempts to obtain quality pediatric data in controlled trials. Extrapolating adult efficacy data to pediatrics can reduce the time between approval in adults and that in children. To extrapolate efficacy from adults to children, several assumptions must be supported, such as (1) a similar disease progression and response to interventions in adults and children, and (2) similar exposure response in adults and children...
April 3, 2018: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610691/cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-in-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-flare
#9
L M Conners, R Ahad, P H Janda, Z Mudasir
Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by a chronic inflammatory state and is therefore associated with abnormalities in coagulation and a hypercoagulable state. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis is a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease yet contributes significant morbidity and mortality to those affected. Early diagnosis is critical, as a delay in diagnosis portends a worse prognosis. This paper seeks to highlight the increased risk of venous sinus thrombosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease...
2018: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582225/outcomes-in-children-treated-with-pentobarbital-infusion-for-refractory-and-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#10
Jennifer Erklauer, Jeanine Graf, Mona McPherson, Anne Anderson, Angus Wilfong, Charles G Minard, Laura Loftis
BACKGROUND: Functional neurologic outcome for children with refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus has not been well defined. METHODS: Retrospective chart review including children age 0-17 years who received pentobarbital infusion from 2003 to 2016 for status epilepticus. Outcomes were defined in terms of mortality, need for new medical technology assistance at hospital discharge and functional neurologic outcome determined by pediatric cerebral performance category score (PCPC)...
March 26, 2018: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579308/the-effect-of-albendazole-treatment-on-non-seizure-outcomes-in-patients-with-symptomatic-neurocysticercosis
#11
Kriti Thapa, Matthew L Romo, Arturo Carpio, Denise Leslie, Howard Andrews, W Allen Hauser, Elizabeth A Kelvin
Background: There is little information about the impact of anthelminthic treatment on clinical symptoms other than seizures in neurocysticercosis (NC). We investigated the effect of albendazole on non-seizure symptoms experienced by patients with NC. Methods: Data are from a randomized controlled trial comparing albendazole plus prednisone with placebo plus prednisone for treatment of NC among 173 patients with active or transitional NC cysts and new-onset symptoms...
March 22, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572865/hippocampal-subfield-segmentation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-relation-to-outcomes
#12
B A K Kreilkamp, B Weber, S B Elkommos, M P Richardson, S S Keller
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and surgical outcome correlates of preoperative hippocampal subfield volumes in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) multisequence segmentation technique. METHODS: We recruited 106 patients with TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent conventional T1-weighted and T2 short TI inversion recovery MRI. An automated hippocampal segmentation algorithm was used to identify twelve subfields in each hippocampus...
March 23, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564192/herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-atypical-presentation-as-a-right-middle-cerebral-artery-stroke
#13
Maria Shoaib, Jacqueline J Kraus, Muhammad T Khan
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is a medical emergency associated with high mortality and morbidity. Definitive diagnosis is established by history, clinical examination, neuroimaging studies, supportive electroencephalogram (EEG) findings, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. We report a case of HSVE presenting as a stroke mimic in a 76-year-old female with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin. She was admitted to our medical intensive care unit with intermittent fever, lethargy, and new onset left-sided hemiparesis...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563858/eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-the-treatment-of-adults-with-partial-onset-epilepsy-an-evidence-based-review-of-efficacy-safety-and-place-in-therapy
#14
REVIEW
Simona Lattanzi, Francesco Brigo, Claudia Cagnetti, Alberto Verrotti, Gaetano Zaccara, Mauro Silvestrini
Introduction: Up to 30% of the patients diagnosed with epilepsy will continue suffering from seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs, either in monotherapy or polytherapy. Hence, there remains the need to develop new effective and well-tolerated therapies. Aim: The objective of this article was to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive treatment in adult patients with focal onset seizures. Evidence review: ESL is the newest, third-generation, single enantiomer member of the dibenzazepine family...
2018: Core Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562876/the-revised-definition-and-classification-of-epilepsy-for-neurodiagnostic-technologists
#15
Robert S Fisher, Anna M Bonner
The definition of who has epilepsy, classification of seizure types, and types of epilepsy have all recently been revised. The classical definition of epilepsy as a person having two or more unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart has been expanded also to include those with one seizure and a high likelihood (more than 60%) of having another. In the new definition, epilepsy is considered to be resolved when a person is seizure-free for 10 years, the terminal 5 being off seizure medicines, or when an age-dependent syndrome has been outgrown...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542386/potassium-channel-gain-of-function-in-epilepsy-an-unresolved-paradox
#16
Zachary Niday, Anastasios V Tzingounis
Exome and targeted sequencing have revolutionized clinical diagnosis. This has been particularly striking in epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders, for which new genes or new variants of preexisting candidate genes are being continuously identified at increasing rates every year. A surprising finding of these efforts is the recognition that gain of function potassium channel variants are actually associated with certain types of epilepsy, such as malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy or early-onset epileptic encephalopathy...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540685/predicting-the-spatiotemporal-diversity-of-seizure-propagation-and-termination-in-human-focal-epilepsy
#17
Timothée Proix, Viktor K Jirsa, Fabrice Bartolomei, Maxime Guye, Wilson Truccolo
Recent studies have shown that seizures can spread and terminate across brain areas via a rich diversity of spatiotemporal patterns. In particular, while the location of the seizure onset area is usually invariant across seizures in an individual patient, the source of traveling (2-3 Hz) spike-and-wave discharges during seizures can either move with the slower propagating ictal wavefront or remain stationary at the seizure onset area. Furthermore, although many focal seizures terminate synchronously across brain areas, some evolve into distinct ictal clusters and terminate asynchronously...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537403/the-new-classification-of-seizures-an-overview-for-the-general-physician
#18
S Liyanagedera, R P Williams
The International League Against Epilepsy Classification of the Epilepsies, first presented in 1981, has been widely adopted across the globe. In 2017 it was revised to allow for more robust, specific, flexible and logical classification of seizures. A number of new seizure types are recognised. Classification should be timely as it plays a vital role in the diagnosis and management of patients with epilepsy. Accurate classification also underpins epilepsy research from pathophysiology to public health. Here we review the basic and extended forms of the classification...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530436/observational-multicentre-study-into-the-use-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-spanish-neurology-consultations
#19
J M Mercadé Cerdá, F J López Gonzalez, P Serrano Castro, M D Castro Vilanova, D M Campos Blanco, M R Querol Pascual
INTRODUCTION: The study aims to quantify the types of antiepileptic drugs (AED) prescribed in neurology consultations. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This descriptive, observational study included a sample of 559 patients older than 14 years, diagnosed with epilepsy, and receiving pharmacological treatment. Data were collected at outpatient consultations by 47 Spanish neurologists in May 2016. Epilepsy was defined based on the International League Against Epilepsy classification...
March 9, 2018: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527491/spectral-bandwidth-of-interictal-fast-epileptic-activity-characterizes-the-seizure-onset-zone
#20
Marcel Heers, Moritz Helias, Tanguy Hedrich, Matthias Dümpelmann, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Tonio Ball
The foremost aim of presurgical epilepsy evaluation is the delineation of the seizure onset zone (SOZ). There is increasing evidence that fast epileptic activity (FEA, 14-250 Hz) occurring interictally, i.e. between seizures, is predominantly localized within the SOZ. Currently it is unknown, which frequency band of FEA performs best in identifying the SOZ, although prior studies suggest highest concordance of spectral changes with the SOZ for high frequency changes. We suspected that FEA reflects dampened oscillations in local cortical excitatory-inhibitory neural networks, and that interictal FEA in the SOZ is a consequence of reduced oscillatory damping...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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