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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408569/nanoliposome-c6-ceramide-increases-the-anti-tumor-immune-response-and-slows-growth-of-liver-tumors-in-mice
#1
Guangfu Li, Dai Liu, Eric T Kimchi, Jussuf T Kaifi, Xiaoqiang Qi, Yariswamy Manjunath, Xinjian Liu, Tye Deering, Diego M Avella, Todd Fox, Don C Rockey, Todd D Schell, Mark Kester, Kevin F Staveley-O'Carroll
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ceramide, a sphingolipid metabolite, affects T-cell signaling, induces apoptosis of cancer cells, and slows tumor growth in mice. However, it has not been used as a chemotherapeutic agent because of its cell impermeability and precipitation in aqueous solution. We developed a nanoliposome-loaded C6-ceremide (LipC6) to overcome this limitation and investigated its effects in mice with liver tumors. METHODS: Immune competent C57BL/6 mice received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride and intra-splenic injections of oncogenic hepatocytes...
March 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396486/in-vivo-microbiome-and-associated-immune-markers-new-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-vaginal-dysbiosis
#2
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Danilo Licastro, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
The microbiota fulfils a key role in the training and function of the immune system, which contributes to the symbiosis between the host and complex microbial communities. In this study, we characterized the interplay between vaginal bacteria and local immune mediators during dysbiosis in selected women of reproductive age who were grouped according to Nugent's criteria. The abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis and Bifidobacterium breve was increased in the intermediate dysbiotic status, while the presence of a plethora of non-resident bacteria characterized the group with overt vaginosis...
February 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274868/galectin-3-mediates-tumor-cell-stroma-interactions-by-activating-pancreatic-stellate-cells-to-produce-cytokines-via-integrin-signaling
#3
Wei Zhao, Jaffer A Ajani, Guha Sushovan, Nobuo Ochi, Rosa Hwang, Margarete Hafley, Randy L Johnson, Robert S Bresalier, Craig D Logsdon, Zhiqian Zhang, Shumei Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), abundance of extracellular matrix (ECM), and production of cytokines and chemokines. Galectin 3 (GAL3), a β-galactoside-specific lectin, contributes to PDAC development but its effects on the stroma and cytokine production are unclear. METHODS: The effect of recombinant human GAL3 (rGAL3) on activation of PSCs, production of cytokines, and ECM proteins was determined by proliferation, invasion, cytokine array, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193875/dabigatran-inhibits-intravitreal-thrombin-activity
#4
Jeroen Bastiaans, Verena C Mulder, Jan C van Meurs, Marja Smits-Te Nijenhuis, Conny van Holten-Neelen, P Martin van Hagen, Willem A Dik
PURPOSE: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a vitreoretinal disorder in which retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell activation contributes to both formation of fibrotic retinal membranes and inflammation. Vitreous of patients with PVR contains increased thrombin activity which induces profibrotic and proinflammatory programs in RPE cells. Inhibition of intravitreal thrombin activity may thus represent a therapeutic option for PVR. In this study, we examined the capacity of the clinically available direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran to inhibit thrombin activity in vitreous fluids...
November 30, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162324/modulation-of-human-macrophage-activity-by-ascaris-antigens-is-dependent-on-macrophage-polarization-state
#5
Sara Almeida, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams
Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro. Mɸs were exposed to A. suum ABF at different stages of their differentiation and/or polarization. Mɸ were first differentiated from monocytes into either uncommitted (M-), classically activated (M(GM-CSF)) or alternatively activated (M(M-CSF)) phenotypes and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
April 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158975/assessment-of-perioperative-stress-in-colorectal-cancer-by-use-of-in-vitro-cell-models-a-systematic-review
#6
Tove Kirkegaard, Mikail Gögenur, Ismail Gögenur
Background: The perioperative period is important for patient outcome. Colorectal cancer surgery can lead to metastatic disease due to release of disseminated tumor cells and the induction of surgical stress response. To explore the overall effects on surgically-induced changes in serum composition, in vitro model systems are useful. Methods: A systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify studies describing in vitro models used to investigate cancer cell growth/proliferation, cell migration, cell invasion and cell death of serum taken pre- and postoperatively from patients undergoing colorectal tumor resection...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136347/pro-inflammatory-mediator-responses-from-neonatal-airway-epithelial-cells-and-early-childhood-wheeze
#7
Steve Turner, David Miller, Garry M Walsh, Alison Scaife, Ultan F Power, Michael D Shields, Graham Devereux
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cell (AEC) function differs between children with and without asthma. Here, we associated neonatal AEC function with asthma symptoms at 4 years of age. METHODS: Nasal AEC were collected from neonates within 48 h of birth. Cells were cultured and stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha/interleukin-1 beta (TNFα/IL-1β), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or house dust mite (HDM). Absolute concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in the culture supernatant were quantified and expressed as median [interquartile range] in pg/mg protein...
January 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034260/clodronate-improves-survival-of-transplanted-hoxb8-myeloid-progenitors-with-constitutively-active-gmcsfr-in-immunocompetent-mice
#8
Simon Lee, Saul Kivimäe, Francis C Szoka
New methods to produce large numbers of myeloid progenitor cells, precursors to macrophages (MΦs), by maintaining Hoxb8 transcription factor activity1 has reinvigorated interest in MΦ cell therapies. We generated Hoxb8-dependent myeloid progenitors (HDPs) by transducing lineage-negative bone marrow cells with a constitutively expressed Hoxb8 flanked by loxP. HDPs proliferate indefinitely and differentiate into MΦ when Hoxb8 is removed by a tamoxifen-inducible Cre. We genetically modified HDPs with a constitutively active GMCSF receptor and the tamoxifen-induced transcription factor IRF8, which we have termed "HDP-on...
December 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019365/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-oxidative-stress-within-monocytes-and-modulates-immune-cell-levels-in-adults-with-metabolic-syndrome-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Anand R Nair, Nithya Mariappan, April J Stull, Joseph Francis
BACKGROUND: Blueberries (BB) have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in obese and pre-diabetic humans, and decrease oxidative stress and inflammation, and ameliorate cardio-renal damage in rodents. This indicates that blueberries have a systemic effect and are not limited to a particular organ system. In order for blueberries to exert beneficial effects on the whole body, the mechanism would logically have to operate through modulation of cellular humoral factors...
October 11, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982603/in-vitro-infectivity-of-oncolytic-newcastle-disease-virus-correlation-between-plaque-and-fluorescent-focus-assays
#10
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Benjamin S Rush, Melissa L Coughlin, Gautam Sanyal
Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) is an avian paramyxovirus that has no significant pathogenicity in humans. Cancer cells with impaired immune defense mechanisms are susceptible to infection and lysis by NDV. A recombinant construct of a lentogenic form of NDV (rNDV) containing an insertion of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) transgene was earlier reported and shown to have acceptably low avian pathogenicity as well as oncolytic potential. Reliable measurement of infectious titer is key to determining the effectiveness of virus preparations to infect and lyse cells...
January 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951871/recombinant-vaccinia-viruses-coding-transgenes-of-apoptosis-inducing-proteins-enhance-apoptosis-but-not-immunogenicity-of-infected-tumor-cells
#11
Olga Koval, Galina Kochneva, Anastasiya Tkachenko, Olga Troitskaya, Galina Sivolobova, Antonina Grazhdantseva, Anna Nushtaeva, Elena Kuligina, Vladimir Richter
Genetic modifications of the oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) improve selective tumor cell infection and death, as well as activation of antitumor immunity. We have engineered a double recombinant VV, coding human GM-CSF, and apoptosis-inducing protein apoptin (VV-GMCSF-Apo) for comparing with the earlier constructed double recombinant VV-GMCSF-Lact, coding another apoptosis-inducing protein, lactaptin, which activated different cell death pathways than apoptin. We showed that both these recombinant VVs more considerably activated a set of critical apoptosis markers in infected cells than the recombinant VV coding GM-CSF alone (VV-GMCSF-dGF): these were phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase-3 and caspase-7 activation, DNA fragmentation, and upregulation of proapoptotic protein BAX...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939747/a-pilot-trial-of-humanized-anti-gd2-monoclonal-antibody-hu14-18k322a-with-chemotherapy-and-natural-killer-cells-in-children-with-recurrent-refractory-neuroblastoma
#12
Sara M Federico, M Beth McCarville, Barry L Shulkin, Paul M Sondel, Jacquelyn A Hank, Paul Hutson, Michael Meagher, Aaron Shafer, Catherine Y Ng, Wing Leung, William E Janssen, Jianrong Wu, Shenghua Mao, Rachel C Brennan, Victor M Santana, Alberto S Pappo, Wayne L Furman
Purpose: Anti-GD2 mAbs, acting via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, may enhance the effects of chemotherapy. This pilot trial investigated a fixed dose of a unique anti-GD2 mAb, hu14.18K322A, combined with chemotherapy, cytokines, and haploidentical natural killer (NK) cells.Experimental Design: Children with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma received up to six courses of hu14.18K322A (40 mg/m2/dose, days 2-5), GM-CSF, and IL2 with chemotherapy: cyclophosphamide/topotecan (courses 1,2), irinotecan/temozolomide (courses 3,4), and ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide (courses 5,6)...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934231/principal-component-analysis-identifies-patterns-of-cytokine-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-undergoing-definitive-radiation-therapy
#13
Susannah G Ellsworth, Bryan M Rabatic, Jie Chen, Jing Zhao, Jeffrey Campbell, Weili Wang, Wenhu Pi, Paul Stanton, Martha Matuszak, Shruti Jolly, Amy Miller, Feng-Ming Kong
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Radiation treatment (RT) stimulates the release of many immunohumoral factors, complicating the identification of clinically significant cytokine expression patterns. This study used principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze cytokines in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing RT and explore differences in changes after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and conventionally fractionated RT (CFRT) without or with chemotherapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912468/cytokine-based-predictive-models-to-estimate-the-probability-of-chronic-periodontitis-development-of-diagnostic-nomograms
#14
I Tomás, N Arias-Bujanda, M Alonso-Sampedro, M A Casares-de-Cal, C Sánchez-Sellero, D Suárez-Quintanilla, C Balsa-Castro
Although a distinct cytokine profile has been described in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients with chronic periodontitis, there is no evidence of GCF cytokine-based predictive models being used to diagnose the disease. Our objectives were: to obtain GCF cytokine-based predictive models; and develop nomograms derived from them. A sample of 150 participants was recruited: 75 periodontally healthy controls and 75 subjects affected by chronic periodontitis. Sixteen mediators were measured in GCF using the Luminex 100™ instrument: GMCSF, IFNgamma, IL1alpha, IL1beta, IL2, IL3, IL4, IL5, IL6, IL10, IL12p40, IL12p70, IL13, IL17A, IL17F and TNFalpha...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899503/salicylate-based-phytopharmaceuticals-induce-adaptive-cytokine-and-chemokine-network-responses-in-human-fibroblast-cultures
#15
Gudrun Ulrich-Merzenich, Frederik Hartbrod, Olaf Kelber, Jürgen Müller, Anna Koptina, Heike Zeitler
BACKGROUND: Cytokines and chemokines (CC) play a central role in immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes. Neutralising antibodies for single proinflammatory cytokines have developed into a powerful, though expensive and not always curative therapeutic strategy for severe diseases. Considering the redundancy of CC functions, network (N) rather than single target approaches are essential. Phytopharmaceuticals, common adjuvant therapies, are known modulators of a broad spectrum of CCs, but as complex mixtures with multiple targets they have not been systematically investigated...
October 15, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805233/analytic-and-dynamic-secretory-profile-of-patient-derived-cytokine-induced-killer-cells
#16
Giulia Mesiano, Roberta Zini, Giulia Montagner, Nicoletta Bianchi, Rossella Manfredini, Antonella Chillemi, Massimo Aglietta, Giovanni Grignani, Ilaria Lampronti, Erika Fiorino, Fabio Malavasi, Dario Sangiolo, Roberto Gambari, Davide Ferrari
Adoptive immunotherapy with Cytokine Induced Killer (CIK) cells has shown antitumor activity against several kinds of cancers in preclinical models and clinical trials. CIK cells are a subset of ex vivo expanded T lymphocytes with T-NK phenotype and MHC-unrestricted antitumor activity. Literature provides scanty information on cytokines, chemokines and growth factors secreted by CIK cells. Therefore, we investigated the secretory profile of CIK cells generated from tumor patients. The secretome analysis was performed at specific time points (day 1, day 14 and day 21) of CIK cells expansion...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755834/immunogenicity-of-adenovirus-vaccines-expressing-the-pcv2-capsid-protein-in-pigs
#17
Delong Li, Qian Du, Bin Wu, Juejun Li, Lingling Chang, Xiaomin Zhao, Yong Huang, Dewen Tong
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main pathogen of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD), causing great economic losses in pig industry. In previous study, we constructed adenovirus vector vaccines expressing PCV2 Cap either modified with Intron A and WPRE, or CD40L and GMCSF, and evaluated all of these vaccines in mice and in pigs. Although Ad-A-C-W and Ad-CD40L-Cap-GMCSF could induce stronger immune responses than Ad-Cap, neither of them was better than commercial inactivated vaccine PCV2 SH-strain...
July 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651949/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-function-is-inhibited-in-end-stage-renal%C3%A2-disease-and-impacted-by-latent-tuberculosis%C3%A2-infection
#18
Jennifer A Juno, Jillian L M Waruk, Angela Harris, Christine Mesa, Carmen Lopez, Joe Bueti, T Blake Ball, Sandra A Kiazyk
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at elevated risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB). Inflammation and uremia negatively impact immune function in this population, but specific pathways involved in TB immunity have not been identified. Although γδ T cells are known to contribute to protection from TB, their phenotype and function in patients with ESRD is relatively unknown. To determine this we recruited 20 patients with and 20 without ESRD (controls), with or without latent TB infection to assess γδ T cell frequency, surface phenotype, and cytokine production by flow cytometry in response to stimulation...
June 24, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602759/construction-and-screening-of-a-lentiviral-secretome-library
#19
Tao Liu, Panpan Jia, Huailei Ma, Sean A Reed, Xiaozhou Luo, H Benjamin Larman, Peter G Schultz
Over 2,000 human proteins are predicted to be secreted, but the biological function of the many of these proteins is still unknown. Moreover, a number of these proteins may act as new therapeutic agents or be targets for the development of therapeutic antibodies. To further explore the extracellular proteome, we have developed a secretome-enriched open reading frame (ORF) library that can be readily screened for autocrine activity in cell-based phenotypic or reporter assays. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and database analysis predict that the library contains approximately 900 ORFs encoding known secreted proteins (accounting for 77...
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529481/topical-ophthalmic-formulation-of-trichostatin-a-and-surr9-c84a-for-quick-recovery-post-alkali-burn-of-corneal-haze
#20
Kislay Roy, Chun Hei Antonio Cheung, Rupinder K Kanwar, Rajat Sandhir, Jagat R Kanwar
Alkali burn injury is a true ocular emergency of the conjunctiva and cornea that requires immediate precision. Lack of an immediate therapy can lead to a substantial damage in the ocular surface and anterior segment further causing visual impairment and disfigurement. We explored the regenerative capability of dominant negative survivin protein (SurR9-C84A) and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin-A (TSA) in vivo, in a rat alkali burn model. A topical insult in rat eyes with NaOH led to degradation of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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