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Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar

Julie Omolola Okiro, Catherine Mc Hugh, Abuelmagd Abdalla
We report two patients with chronic hyperglycaemia secondary to type 2 diabetes who developed severe vomiting on d. The first patient was diagnosed with a mixed picture of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) and the second, with DKA. They were on insulin therapy which was discontinued on commencing d because of inefficacy and weight gain. The HHS patient developed dehydration secondary to vomiting and had lactic acidosis but no other precipitant could be found in either case...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
R J Barranco, F Gomez-Peralta, C Abreu, M Delgado-Rodriguez, A Moreno-Carazo, F Romero, M A de la Cal, J M Barranco, F J Pasquel, G E Umpierrez
AIMS: Hyperglycaemic crises (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state) are medical emergencies in people with diabetes. We aimed to determine their incidence, recurrence and economic impact. METHODS: An observational study of hyperglycaemic crises cases using the database maintained by the out-of-hospital emergency service, the Healthcare Emergency Public Service (EPES) during 2012. The EPES provides emergency medical services to the total population of Andalusia, Spain (8...
March 22, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Christopher Ueck, Thomas Volksdorf, Pia Houdek, Sabine Vidal-Y-Sy, Susanne Sehner, Bernhard Ellinger, Ralf Lobmann, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Konrad Reinshagen, Ina Ridderbusch, Klaas Kohrmeyer, Ingrid Moll, Rolf Daniels, Philipp Werner, Irmgard Merfort, Johanna M Brandner
Diabetes mellitus is a frequent cause for chronic, difficult-to-treat wounds. New therapies for diabetic wounds are urgently needed and in-vitro or ex-vivo test systems are essential for the initial identification of new active molecules. The aim of this study is to compare in-vitro and ex-vivo test systems for their usability for early drug screening and to investigate the efficacy of a birch bark triterpene extract (TE) that has been proven ex-vivo and clinically to accelerate non-diabetic wound healing (WH), in a diabetic context...
2017: PloS One
Towhid Imam, Philip Finny, Alan Choo-Kang, Rehman Khan
A 44-year-old Caucasian man presented to the emergency department in acute cardiogenic shock, with pulmonary oedema, secondary to an acute myocardial infarction and in a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. The previous day he had undergone a colonoscopy, which revealed features of colitis, and was started on prednisolone. He had been previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, migraine and anxiety attacks. While awaiting a coronary angiogram he developed abdominal pain and a CT scan was performed and found a large right adrenal mass...
October 26, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Lucy-Anne Frank, Andrew Solomon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2, 2016: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Usha Devi Appalsawmy, Habib Akbani
A 56-year-old man who was a Jehovah's Witness with an advanced directive against autologous procedures developed acute kidney injury needing renal replacement therapy while he was intubated and ventilated on the intensive care unit. He was being treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. He also had a healing laparotomy wound, having undergone a splenectomy less than a month ago following a road traffic accident. His hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis were refractory to medical treatment. As he became oligoanuric, decision was taken to carry out acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) by inserting a Tenckhoff catheter in his abdomen using peritoneoscopic technique...
August 31, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
A W MacEwen, D M Carty, A McConnachie, G A McKay, J G Boyle
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that junior doctors lack the confidence and skills to manage acute/inpatient diabetes. We investigated the impact of the introduction of a "Diabetes Acute Care Day" on undergraduate medical students' knowledge and confidence in acute/inpatient diabetes. METHODS: Participants attended four short lectures on the basics of diabetes, diabetic emergencies, inpatient diabetes management and peri-operative/procedure care followed by case-based learning tutorials on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) and hypoglycaemia using capillary blood glucose charts to interpret and practice subsequent insulin prescription and adjustment...
March 9, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Guillermo Umpierrez, Mary Korytkowski
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and hypoglycaemia are serious complications of diabetes mellitus that require prompt recognition, diagnosis and treatment. DKA and HHS are characterized by insulinopaenia and severe hyperglycaemia; clinically, these two conditions differ only by the degree of dehydration and the severity of metabolic acidosis. The overall mortality recorded among children and adults with DKA is <1%. Mortality among patients with HHS is ~10-fold higher than that associated with DKA...
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Alexander Spyridoulias, Muhammad Shakeel Riaz
Decompensated hypothyroidism is a rare endocrine emergency but a differential that should be considered in patients presenting critically unwell with systemic illness. We report a case of myxoedema coma in a woman presenting with respiratory failure, hypotension, hypothermia and a reduced level of consciousness, all of which are poor prognostic features in decompensated hypothyroidism. The patient was admitted to critical care for mechanical ventilation and cardiovascular support and treated with a combination of insulin, liothyronine and levothyroxine, making a good recovery...
January 11, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Krishna Chinthapalli, Allison Newey, Martin Krause
We present an 89-year-old man with new onset of left-sided hemiballismus affecting his face, arm and leg. He was found to have hyperglycaemia with a glucose level of 20.2 mmol/l and had started prednisolone 3 months earlier for polymyalgia rheumatica. A T 2-weighted magnetic resonance scan of the brain showed a hypointense lesion of the right lentiform nucleus. At follow-up, his symptoms had improved with treatment for diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, this is the first patient to develop hemiballismus after starting corticosteroids...
September 2015: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Amanda Price, Joseph Losek, Benjamin Jackson
AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the demographical and clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and morbidity and mortality in children with hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). METHODS: Retrospective cross-section descriptive study of children (<18 years of age) at an urban, tertiary, academic Children's Hospital diagnosed with HHS from January 2002 to December 2011. RESULTS: Six patients met inclusion criteria for the diagnosis of HHS...
January 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Asmah Hassan Syed, Joanna Shak, Ali Alsawaf
An 84-year-old lady was treated for hyperosmolar hyperglycaemia with IV insulin, fluids and catheterisation for fluid balance monitoring. Trial without catheter failed as the patient complained of new-onset urinary incontinence and lack of awareness of bladder filling. In light of her breast cancer history, we excluded cauda equina. Ultrasound KUB showed an enlarged bladder. Whole-body MRI revealed a lesion in the pons which was highly suggestive of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Her electrolytes were normal throughout her admission; thus, the rapid fluctuation in osmolality, secondary to her hyperglycaemic state, was the likely cause of CPM...
September 2015: Age and Ageing
A R Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
G Frontino, R Bonfanti, A Rigamonti, R Battaglino, V Favalli, C Bonura, F Meschi, G Barera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
A R Scott
Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is a medical emergency, which differs from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and requires a different approach. The present article summarizes the recent guidance on HHS that has been produced by the Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care, available in full at HHS has a higher mortality rate than DKA and may be complicated by myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, cerebral oedema and central pontine myelinolysis and there is some evidence that rapid changes in osmolality during treatment may be the precipitant of central pontine myelinolysis...
June 2015: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Francesca Ruth Harrington, Helen Wolfenden, Tafadzwa Makaya
Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) is a life-threatening condition rarely seen in paediatrics. It is becoming increasingly recognised with the growing incidence of childhood type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We present a 16-year-old boy with Bardet-Biedl syndrome, with comorbidities including chronic renal impairment requiring renal transplant, isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency and obesity, who presented on routine follow-up with new onset T2DM and in HHS. Investigations revealed hyperglycaemia (45...
February 20, 2015: BMJ Case Reports
Yi-Chen Wang, Li-Chao Gao, Hui Xu, Xiao-Zhang Qu, Ye Wang, Xiao-Qian Lou, Hui Guo
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to report a rare case of hypopituitarism complicated with hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state and rhabdomyolysis. CASE PRESENTATION: Hypopituitarism is a clinical syndrome in which there is a deficiency in hormone production by the pituitary gland. It often leads to hypoglycaemia, but in this case the patient was complicated with hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. The patient received prompt medical treatment, which effectively prevented the occurrence of possible acute kidney failure and other complications...
May 2015: Scottish Medical Journal
Dick Mul, Caroline R Meijer
Recently the Paediatric Association of the Netherlands (NVK) published a new guideline on the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) in children and adolescents. DKA comprises hyperglycaemia, ketosis and acidosis. Cerebral oedema is a feared, life-threatening complication of DKA. HHS is characterized by hyperglycaemia, hyperosmolarity, severe dehydration, and little or no ketone production. Multi-organ failure, rhabdomyolysis and thrombosis are the most common complications...
2013: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Nikhil M Bhagwat, Ameya S Joshi, Gururaja Rao, Premlata K Varthakavi
Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) an acute complication of diabetes mellitus, can be associated with neurological involvement ranging from seizures, involuntary movements to reversible focal neurological deficits without any structural lesions. We report a 71-year-old woman, a known case of type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with the sudden onset of hemichorea-hemiballismus. On investigations she had hyperglycaemia and urinary tract infection. Achievement of euglycemia with insulin therapy resolved the involuntary movements completely...
September 6, 2013: BMJ Case Reports
Flavia Lombardo, Marina Maggini, Gabriella Gruden, Graziella Bruno
BACKGROUND: We investigated temporal trends and geographic variations in both hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality rates for acute diabetic complications (ADC) in the Italian universal health care system. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with either primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of hyperglycaemic acute complications (ICD-9-CM codes 250.1, 250.2, 250.3) or hypoglycemic coma (ICD-9-CM code 251.0) was performed in period 2001-2010...
2013: PloS One
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