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Kevin Louis Bardosh
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, implementation research and a science of global health delivery have emerged as important vehicles to improve the effectiveness of interventions. Efforts to control neglected tropical diseases (NTD) operate in challenging circumstances and with marginalized populations, making attention to context-specific details particularly relevant. Socio-anthropological insights have much to offer a science of NTD delivery. In this paper, an accessible and actionable framework for understanding NTD intervention effectiveness, based on socio-anthropological research, is presented and its utility for program planning and monitoring and evaluation is outlined...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Brittany St John, Iulia Mihaila, Katelyn Dorrance, Leann Smith DaWalt, Karla K Ausderau
Participatory action research methodologies may empower and protect marginalized individuals; however, they remain underutilized. Limited studies have investigated the impact of participatory action research, specifically on individuals with intellectual disability (ID). This study examines (1) the perspectives of co-researchers with ID on their involvement in the research process and (2) the feasibility of their inclusion based on perspectives of research staff (academic faculty and graduate students without ID)...
August 2018: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Natalia Cichoń, Paulina Rzeźnicka, Michał Bijak, Elżbieta Miller, Sergiusz Miller, Joanna Saluk
BACKGROUND: One of the therapeutic methods used in stroke rehabilitation is magnetotherapy using extremely low frequency and variable pulse shape electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF). OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of magnetotherapy on the condition of postacute stroke patients, as measured by plasma oxidative stress markers and clinical parameters which show the progress of rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The selected 57 post-stroke patients were divided into 2 groups, those with ELFEMF therapy and those without...
July 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Anqi Jin, Jianhao Xu, Yan Wang
BACKGROUND: Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations have been described in different pathological types of thyroid cancers (TC). After many types of research focusing on the mutations rate in malignant tumors, the main role of TERT promoter mutations has been changed to the preoperative diagnosis and prognosis of TC, according to their high prevalence in aggressive TC. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus, and VHL and reviewed the most common 2 mutations C288T and C250T in different types of TC, the association between them and some specific clinicopathological features, and their significance in preoperative diagnosis and prognosis of TC...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Angela L Winegar, Jamie Moxham, Thomas P Erlinger, Kevin J Bozic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Rory M Shallis, Nora Chokr, Maximillian Stahl, Alexander B Pine, Amer M Zeidan
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) encompass a heterogenous collection of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders defined by dysregulated hematopoiesis, peripheral cytopenias, and a risk of leukemic progression. Increasing data support the role of innate and adaptive immune pathways in the pathogenesis and disease course of MDS. The role of immunosuppressive therapy has an established role in the treatment of other hematologic diseases such as aplastic anemia whose pathogenesis is postulated to reflect that of MDS with regards to many aspects of immune activation...
July 19, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Cori A Palermo, Bethany L Brand
OBJECTIVE: The first objective was to understand how individuals with complex dissociative disorders (CDD) score on the Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (TSI-2). These individuals have high elevations on many psychological measures' validity and clinical scales because of the severe traumatic reactions they experience; thus, creating a challenge for clinicians who seek to determine whether these individuals are exaggerating reported symptoms. The second objective was to compare coached CDD simulators to CDD profiles on the TSI-2s clinical and validity scales...
July 19, 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Janet Shibley Hyde, Rebecca S Bigler, Daphna Joel, Charlotte Chucky Tate, Sari M van Anders
The view that humans comprise only two types of beings, women and men, a framework that is sometimes referred to as the "gender binary," played a profound role in shaping the history of psychological science. In recent years, serious challenges to the gender binary have arisen from both academic research and social activism. This review describes 5 sets of empirical findings, spanning multiple disciplines, that fundamentally undermine the gender binary. These sources of evidence include neuroscience findings that refute sexual dimorphism of the human brain; behavioral neuroendocrinology findings that challenge the notion of genetically fixed, nonoverlapping, sexually dimorphic hormonal systems; psychological findings that highlight the similarities between men and women; psychological research on transgender and nonbinary individuals' identities and experiences; and developmental research suggesting that the tendency to view gender/sex as a meaningful, binary category is culturally determined and malleable...
July 19, 2018: American Psychologist
Kate Fiona Jones, Pat Dorsett, Grahame Simpson, Lynne Briggs
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The aim of this exploratory study was to consider how spirituality (encompassing meaning, hope and purpose), may facilitate family resilience after spinal cord injury (SCI) over time. Research Method/Design: A qualitative, longitudinal study design was adopted. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 family dyads (consisting of the individual with SCI and a nominated family member) on 2 occasions, 6 months apart. A thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Participants reported drawing upon a range of different sources of spirituality, including religious faith, the natural world, inner strength, and meaningful connectedness with others...
July 19, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Alfredo Addeo, Giulio Metro
In the present editorial we describe the therapeutic achievements in the treatment of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We focus on the major breakthroughs we have been witnessing in this context, from the introduction of crizotinib as the first approved targeted drug, to the meaningful improvement in terms of clinical benefit that alectinib, a second generation ALK-inhibitor, has recently provided over crizotinib. Finally, we address major trends of clinical research in this setting, and whether this might translate into further clinical improvement in the near future...
2018: Drugs in Context
Florian Denk, Marleen Grzybowski, Stephan M A Ernst, Birger Kollmeier, Stefan Debener, Martin G Bleichner
Future hearing devices could exploit brain signals of the user derived from electroencephalography (EEG) measurements, for example, for fitting the device or steering signal enhancement algorithms. While previous studies have shown that meaningful brain signals can be obtained from ear-centered EEG electrodes, we here present a feasibility study where ear-EEG is integrated with a live hearing device. Seventeen normal-hearing participants were equipped with an individualized in-the-ear hearing device and an ear-EEG system that included 10 electrodes placed around the ear (cEEGrid) and 3 electrodes spread out in the concha...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
Maria Lohan, Áine Aventin, Mike Clarke, Rhonda M Curran, Clíona McDowell, Ashley Agus, Lisa McDaid, Chris Bonell, Honor Young
The World Health Organisation advocates a direct focus on adolescent men in reducing adolescent pregnancy; however, no trials have been conducted. This trial (ISRCTN11632300; NCT02092480) determines whether a novel Relationship and Sexuality Educational intervention, If I Were Jack, is acceptable and feasible to implement in mixed sex UK classrooms. The intervention is a teacher-delivered intervention that emphasises male alongside female  responsibility in preventing unintended pregnancies and is designed to prevent unprotected sex...
July 18, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Christoph Teufel, Steven C Dakin, Paul C Fletcher
Early stages of visual processing are carried out by neural circuits activated by simple and specific features, such as the orientation of an edge. A fundamental question in human vision is how the brain organises such intrinsically local information into meaningful properties of objects. Classic models of visual processing emphasise a one-directional flow of information from early feature-detectors to higher-level information-processing. By contrast to this view, and in line with predictive-coding models of perception, here, we provide evidence from human vision that high-level object representations dynamically interact with the earliest stages of cortical visual processing...
July 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Vincent Edwards, Krystal R Fontenot, Falk Liebner, Brian D Condon
The growing incidence of chronic wounds in the world population has prompted increased interest in chronic wound dressings with protease-modulating activity and protease point of care sensors to treat and enable monitoring of elevated protease-based wound pathology. However, the overall design features needed for the combination of a chronic wound dressing that lowers protease activity along with protease detection capability as a single platform for semi-occlusive dressings has scarcely been addressed. The interface of dressing and sensor specific properties (porosity, permeability, moisture uptake properties, specific surface area, surface charge, and detection) relative to sensor bioactivity and protease sequestrant performance is explored here...
July 18, 2018: Sensors
Brian G Danaher, John R Seeley, Elizabeth A Stormshak, Milagra S Tyler, Allison S Caruthers, Kevin J Moore, Lucia Cardenas
BACKGROUND: Research has established that skillful family management during adolescence protects youth from a variety of mental health and behavioral problems. Interventions associated with this research have focused on parenting skills as the mediator that links early risk factors with a profile of later behavioral risk, including problem behavior, substance use, and school failure. Fortunately, positive changes in family management skills have been linked to meaningful improvements in adolescent behavior, and these improvements have been significant across a variety of cultural groups...
July 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Jingbo Meng, Syed Ali Hussain, David C Mohr, Mary Czerwinski, Mi Zhang
BACKGROUND: Today, college students are dealing with depression at some of the highest rates in decades. As the primary mental health service provider, university counseling centers are limited in their capacity and efficiency to provide mental health care due to time constraints and reliance on students' self-reports. A mobile behavioral-sensing platform may serve as a solution to enhance the efficiency and accessibility of university counseling services. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are to (1) understand the usefulness of a mobile sensing platform (ie, iSee) in improving counseling services and assisting students' self-management of their depression conditions, and (2) explore what types of behavioral targets (ie, meaningful information extracted from raw sensor data) and feedback to deliver from both clinician and students' perspectives...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Simon Hsu, Brian A Gordon, Russ Hornbeck, Joanne B Norton, Denise Levitch, Adia Louden, Ellen Ziegemeier, Robert Laforce, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Gregory S Day, Eric McDade, John C Morris, Anne M Fagan, Tammie L S Benzinger, Alison M Goate, Carlos Cruchaga, Randall J Bateman, Celeste M Karch
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Mutations in amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the pathogenic cause of autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). However, polymorphisms also exist within these genes. METHODS: In order to distinguish polymorphisms from pathogenic mutations, the DIAN Expanded Registry has implemented an algorithm for determining ADAD pathogenicity using available information from multiple domains, including genetic, bioinformatic, clinical, imaging, and biofluid measures and in vitro analyses...
July 18, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Maaike S Goelema, Renske de Bruijn, Sebastiaan Overeem, Els Møst, Reinder Haakma, Panos Markopoulos
OBJECTIVE: To date, there is little information on how lay people understand and discuss sleep in the context of daily life. Efforts to conceptualize sleep quality have been largely driven by clinical considerations of sleep disorders. As such, they are not necessarily of how normal sleepers without clinical expertise conceptualize sleep quality. A phenomenological approach was taken to understand the essence of the sleep experience and the concepts held by lay people without sleep disorders...
July 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Kenneth S Kendler, Henrik Ohlsson, Paul Lichtenstein, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the heritability of treated major depression in a twin and full/half-sibling design, to describe key genetic epidemiological features of major depression and to determine which clinical indices of genetic liability optimally predict risk of depression in relatives. METHOD: The authors examined all treated cases of major depression in Sweden recorded in inpatient, specialist, and primary care registries and, using OpenMx, estimated the etiologic role of genetic and environmental factors from monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs and full and half siblings reared together and apart (total N=1,718,863 pairs)...
July 19, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Kuan-Chen Chen, Chu-Hua Wu, Chao-Hsiun Tang, Kuo-Cherh Huang
OBJECTIVES: This nationwide population-based study aimed at evaluating healthcare resource utilization and direct medical costs among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving biologic therapies in Taiwan. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective cohort of 2,425 RA patients who had received first-line tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist treatment for at least 6 months (the baseline period) between 2007 and 2011 was identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
2018: PloS One
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