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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137633/bi-directional-exosome-driven-intercommunication-between-the-hepatic-niche-and-cancer-cells
#1
Nikolina Dioufa, Amanda M Clark, Bo Ma, Colin H Beckwitt, Alan Wells
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the multiple roles exosomes play during tumor progression is still very poor and the contribution of the normal tissue derived exosomes in distant seeding and tumor outgrowth has also not been widely appreciated. METHODS: Using our all-human liver microphysiological system (MPS) platform as a model to closely recapitulate the early metastatic events, we isolated exosomes from both tumor cells and liver microenvironment. RESULTS: We observed that while priming of the hepatic niche (HepN) with MDA-231 breast cancer derived exosomes facilitated seeding of the cancer cells in the liver, subsequent tumor outgrowth was diminished; this was consistent with increased entry into dormancy...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137183/lactobacillus-plantarum-enhanced-il-22-production-in-natural-killer-nk-cells-that-protect-the-integrity-of-intestinal-epithelial-cell-barrier-damaged-by-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli
#2
Yueqin Qiu, Zongyong Jiang, Shenglan Hu, Li Wang, Xianyong Ma, Xuefen Yang
Interleukin (IL)-22-producing Natural Killer (NK) cells protect the gut epithelial cell barrier from pathogens. A strain of probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum, LP), was previously found by our laboratory to significantly improve the mucosal barrier integrity and function of the small intestine in pigs. However, it was unclear whether LP benefited the intestinal mucosal barrier via interactions with the intestinal NK cells. The present study, therefore, was focused on the therapeutic effect of NK cells that were stimulated by LP on attenuating enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-induced the damage to the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136627/toll-like-receptor-4-reduces-occludin-and-zonula-occludens-1-to-increase-retinal-permeability-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#3
Li Liu, Youde Jiang, Jena J Steinle
We reported that β-adrenergic receptors regulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in the retina of diabetic mice and in retinal endothelial cells (REC) and Müller cells. We hypothesized that TLR4 regulates retinal permeability both in vitro and in vivo in the retinal vasculature. We used REC cultured in normal and high-glucose conditions and TLR4 siRNA treatments for cell culture studies of permeability and protein analyses of tumor necrosis factor α, occludin, and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1). We used endothelial cell (EC)-specific Cre-Lox TLR4 knockout mice to study retinal permeability and neuronal and vascular changes following exposure to ocular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) used as a retinal stressor...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133296/comparison-of-preservation-and-transportation-protocols-for-preloaded-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#4
Vito Romano, Mohit Parekh, Alessandro Ruzza, Colin E Willoughby, Stefano Ferrari, Diego Ponzin, Stephen B Kaye, Hannah J Levis
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) preparation is technically demanding and is a limiting factor for uptake of this kind of surgery. Supply methods that simplify the procedure for surgeons are key to increasing uptake. This study compares two different shipping protocols for DMEK. METHODS: An 8.5 mm DMEK graft was punched, marked and loaded for transportation in two different conditions: (A) endothelium trifolded inwards in organ culture conditions (n=7) and (B) endothelium rolled outwards in hypothermic conditions (n=7)...
November 13, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132134/xia-yu-xue-decoction-inhibits-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrosis
#5
Wenting Ma, Le Tao, Wei Zhang, Yinshen Zhu, Dongying Xue, Jie Zhang, Cheng Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestine-derived endotoxin is thought to play a role in the development of liver fibrosis. However, the pathological change in the intestine during liver fibrosis is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Xia-yu-xue decoction (XYXD) on intestinal inflammation, apoptosis, and tight junction integrity in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. METHODS: Murine liver fibrosis was developed by CCI4 treatment three times per week over a 6-week period...
November 13, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130962/trimethylamine-n-oxide-instigates-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-endothelial-dysfunction
#6
Krishna M Boini, Tahir Hussain, Pin-Lan Li, Sai S Koka
BACKGROUND/AIM: Plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a product of intestinal microbial metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine has been recently associated with atherosclerosis and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in rodents and humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of how TMAO induces atherosclerosis and CVD progression are still unclear. The present study tested whether TMAO induces NLRP3 inflammasome formation and activation and thereby contributes to endothelial injury initiating atherogenesis...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128801/oleuropein-protects-intracerebral-hemorrhage-induced-disruption-of-blood-brain-barrier-through-alleviation-of-oxidative-stress
#7
Jing Shi, Guofeng Wu, Xiaohua Zou, Ke Jiang
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) as a devastating form of stroke has remained a public health threat due to lack of FDA-approved therapy. Oxidative stress originated from blood cell degradation products plays a crucial role in the ICH pathogenesis. In this study we evaluated oleuropein, a potent natural antioxidant from olive, in a well-established rat ICH model from overall symptoms to detailed molecular mechanism. METHODS: ICH model was established by collagenase injection to the brain of rats, which were randomly divided into groups with vehicle mock treatment, followed by treatment with different doses of oleuropein via daily intraperitoneal injection post-ICH for 3days...
May 11, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128669/wip1-regulates-blood-brain-barrier-function-and-neuro-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-via-the-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-signaling-pathway
#8
Hong Zhen, Lize Zhao, Zhangjun Ling, Li Kuo, Xiarui Xue, Jiaxiu Feng
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a diffusion barrier that maintains the brain environment. Wip1 is a nuclear phosphatase induced by many factors and involved in various stresses, tumorigenesis, organismal aging, and neurogenesis. Wip1's role in BBB integrity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Wip1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BBB dysfunction and inflammation in an in vitro BBB model. The in vitro BBB model was established by co-culturing human brain-microvascular endothelial cells and human astrocytes and then exposing them to 1μg/ml LPS for 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48h...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128404/milk-from-transgenic-goat-expressing-human-lysozyme-for-recovery-and-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#9
Igor de Sá Carneiro, José Nilson Rodrigues de Menezes, Julyana Almeida Maia, André Marrocos Miranda, Victor Bruno Soares de Oliveira, James D Murray, Elizabeth A Maga, Marcelo Bertolini, Luciana Relly Bertolini
Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune protein in human milk, modulating the immune response against bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the milk of a transgenic goat expressing a recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) in the milk, also testing the in vitro antibacterial activity of the rhLZ milk against pathogens of the gastrointestinal tract. Milk samples collected from Tg and non-transgenic goats (nTg) from the 3rd to the 11th week of lactation were submitted to physicochemical analyses, rhLZ semi-quantification, and to rhLZ antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus luteus, Shiguella sonnei and Enterococcus faecalis...
November 8, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124041/alteration-of-gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-cytokine-chemokine-profiles-in-5-fluorouracil-induced-intestinal-mucositis
#10
Hong-Li Li, Lan Lu, Xiao-Shuang Wang, Li-Yue Qin, Ping Wang, Shui-Ping Qiu, Hui Wu, Fei Huang, Bei-Bei Zhang, Hai-Lian Shi, Xiao-Jun Wu
Disturbed homeostasis of gut microbiota has been suggested to be closely associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) induced mucositis. However, current knowledge of the overall profiles of 5-Fu-disturbed gut microbiota is limited, and so far there is no direct convincing evidence proving the causality between 5-Fu-disturbed microbiota and colonic mucositis. In mice, in agreement with previous reports, 5-Fu resulted in severe colonic mucositis indicated by weight loss, diarrhea, bloody stool, shortened colon, and infiltration of inflammatory cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123028/the-cell-adhesion-molecule-bt-igsf-is-essential-for-a-functional-blood-testis-barrier-and-male-fertility-in-mice
#11
Laura Pelz, Bettina Purfürst, Fritz G Rathjen
The Ig-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) brain- and testis-specific immunoglobulin superfamily (BT-IgSF) protein plays a major role in male fertility in mice. However, the molecular mechanism by which BT-IgSF supports fertility is unclear. Here, we found that it is localized in Sertoli cells at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and at the apical ectoplasmic specialization. Absence of BT-IgSF in Sertoli cells in both global and conditional mouse mutants (i.e. AMHCre and Rosa26CreERT2 lines) resulted in male infertility, atrophic testes with vacuolation, azoospermia, and spermatogenesis arrest...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121970/endothelial-%C3%AE-6%C3%AE-4-integrin-protects-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-induced-neuroinflammation-by-maintaining-vascular-integrity-and-tight-junction-protein-expression
#12
Jennifer V Welser, Sebok K Halder, Ravi Kant, Amin Boroujerdi, Richard Milner
BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play critical functions regulating vascular formation and function. Laminin is a major component of the vascular basal lamina, and transgenic mice deficient in astrocyte or pericyte laminin show defective blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, indicating an important instructive role for laminin in cerebral blood vessels. As previous work shows that in the normal brain, vascular expression of the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin is predominantly restricted to arterioles, but induced on all vessels during neuroinflammation, it is important to define the role of this integrin in the maintenance of BBB integrity...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121065/proteomic-analysis-reveals-novel-ligands-and-substrates-for-lnx1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase
#13
Joan A Lenihan, Orthis Saha, Paul W Young
Ligand of Numb protein X1 (LNX1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a catalytic RING (Really Interesting New Gene) domain and four PDZ (PSD-95, DlgA, ZO-1) domains. LNX1 can ubiquitinate Numb, as well as a number of other ligands. However, the physiological relevance of these interactions in vivo remain unclear. To gain functional insights into the LNX family, we have characterised the LNX1 interactome using affinity purification and mass spectrometry. This approach identified a large number of novel LNX1-interacting proteins, as well as confirming known interactions with NUMB and ERC2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115705/co-culturing-porcine-normal-urothelial-cells-urinary-bladder-fibroblasts-and-smooth-muscle-cells-for-tissue-engineering-research
#14
Daša Zupančič, Katjuša Mrak Poljšak, Mateja Erdani Kreft
New strategies for culturing and co-culturing of the main types of urinary bladder cells are essential for successful establishment of biomimetic in vitro models, which could be applied for research into, and management of, diverse urological disorders. Porcine normal urothelial cells are available in nearly unlimited amounts and have many properties equivalent to human urothelial cells. In the present study, we established normal differentiated porcine urothelial cells in co-cultures with porcine urinary bladder normal fibroblasts and/or smooth muscle cells...
November 8, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115525/microrna%C3%A2-103-regulates-tumorigenesis-in-colorectal-cancer-by-targeting-zo%C3%A2-1
#15
Jin Ke, Weiwei Shao, Yasu Jiang, Junfei Xu, Feng Li, Jun Qin
Given the emerging role of microRNAs (miRs) in cancer progression, the present study investigated the role and underlying mechanism of miR‑103 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was conducted to quantify the expression levels of miR‑103 in clinical specimens and cell lines. The role of miR‑103 in CRC was examined using MTT, colony formation and transwell assays. In addition, a luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm an associated between the 3' untranslated region of zonula occuldens‑1 (ZO‑1) and miR‑103...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115466/recombinant-tsp53-modulates-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity-via-upregulation-of-zo%C3%A2-1-in-lps%C3%A2-induced-septic-mice
#16
Jia Xu, Zhihao Liu, Wei Zhan, Ren Jiang, Chunhua Yang, Hong Zhan, Yan Xiong
Tight junctions (TJs) are a critical component in maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Gut barrier dysfunction contributes to the initiation and development of sepsis which induces an uncontrollable systemic inflammatory response and gives rise to life‑threatening clinical conditions. Excretory‑secretary antigens from Trichimella spiralis (T. spiralis) have been reported to protect from sepsis in a mouse model, however the mechanism remains to be elucidated...
November 3, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114070/srsf6-regulated-alternative-splicing-that-promotes-tumour-progression-offers-a-therapy-target-for-colorectal-cancer
#17
Ledong Wan, Wenying Yu, Enhui Shen, Wenjie Sun, Yuan Liu, Jianlu Kong, Yihua Wu, Fengyan Han, Lei Zhang, Tianze Yu, Yuwei Zhou, Sunzhe Xie, Enping Xu, Honghe Zhang, Maode Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular function of splicing factor SRSF6 in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and discover candidate chemicals for cancer therapy through targeting SRSF6. DESIGN: We performed comprehensive analysis for the expression of SRSF6 in 311 CRC samples, The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Functional analysis of SRSF6 in CRC was performed in vitro and in vivo. SRSF6-regulated alternative splicing (AS) and its binding motif were identified by next-generation RNA-sequencing and RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-seq), which was validated by gel shift and minigene reporter assay...
November 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111166/deregulated-expression-of-mir-107-inhibits-metastasis-of-pdac-through-inhibition-pi3k-akt-signaling-via-caveolin-1-and-pten
#18
Junjie Xiong, Dan Wang, Ailin Wei, Huimin Lu, Chunlu Tan, Ang Li, Jie Tang, Yichao Wang, Sirong He, Xubao Liu, Weiming Hu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) displays a highly aggressive malignancy and is considered to be an incurable and rapidly lethal disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs of approximately nucleotides that regulate several aspects of tumors pathogenesis, including migration, invasion, metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We have found that miR-107 was significantly high expression in PDAC tissues and cells. High miR-107 expression is associated with poor clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in PDAC patients...
October 27, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107696/the-potential-mechanism-for-hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-attenuating-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-via-tight-junction-signaling-pathways-excavated-by-an-integrated-serial-affinity-chromatography-and-shotgun-proteomics-analysis-approach
#19
Yanni Lv, Longsheng Fu
Our previous studies elucidated that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) exerted anti-inflammatory effects against ischemia stroke by inhibiting TLR4 pathway-mediated signaling transduction. However, only several targets were verified in that limited work. The integrated method of serial affinity chromatography (SAC) and shotgun proteomics analysis (SPA) might be an alternative approach for exploring a potential therapeutic role. SAC was induced to extract specific binding proteins in the brain tissue of 2 h of ischemia stroke mice via HSYA affinity matrices...
October 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107066/glomerular-filtration-drug-injury-in-vitro-evaluation-of-functional-and-morphological-podocyte-perturbations
#20
Olivier Delézay, Zhiguo He, Sophie Hodin, Moin A Saleem, Patrick Mismetti, Nathalie Perek, Xavier Delavenne
The kidney is an organ that plays a major role in the excretion of numerous compounds such as drugs and chemicals. However, a great number of pharmacological molecules are nephrotoxic, affecting the efficiency of the treatment and increasing morbidity or mortality. Focusing on glomerular filtration, we propose in this study a simple and reproducible in vitro human model that is able to bring to light a functional podocyte injury, correlated with morphologic/phenotypic changes after drug exposure. This model was used for the evaluation of paracellular permeability of FITC-dextran molecules as well as FITC-BSA after different treatments...
October 26, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
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