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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319640/the-corneal-epithelial-barrier-and-its-developmental-role-in-isolating-corneal-epithelial-and-conjunctival-cells-from-one-another
#1
James K Kubilus, Carolina Zapater I Morales, Thomas F Linsenmayer
Purpose: During development, the corneal epithelium (CE) and the conjunctiva are derived from the surface ectoderm. Here we have examined how, during development, the cells of these two issues become isolated from each other. Methods: Epithelia from the anterior eyes of chicken embryos were labeled with the fluorescent, lipophilic dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). DiI was placed on the epithelial surface of the developing anterior eye and its diffusion was monitored by fluorescence microscopy...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303918/effects-of-matrix-stiffness-on-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-like-processes-of-endometrial-epithelial-cells-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-endometriosis
#2
Sachiko Matsuzaki, Claude Darcha, Jean-Luc Pouly, Michel Canis
Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within extrauterine sites. Our previous study revealed an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process in red peritoneal endometriosis, whereas membrane localization of E-cadherin was well maintained in epithelial cells of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Here we show that endometrial epithelial cells (EEE) grown on polyacrylamide gel substrates (PGS) of 2 kilopascal (kPa), a soft matrix, initiate a partial EMT-like process with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulation...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300333/psychological-stress-induced-colonic-barrier-dysfunction-role-of-immune-mediated-mechanisms
#3
P Hattay, D K Prusator, L Tran, B Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) exhibit increases in gut permeability and alterations in tight junction (TJ) protein expression. Although psychological stress worsens IBS symptoms, the mechanisms by which stress enhances gut permeability and affects TJ protein expression remain to be determined. Here, we test the hypothesis that chronic intermittent psychological stress activates the release of proinflammatory cytokines to alter TJ proteins and promotes increased gut permeability...
March 16, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287613/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-xist-increases-blood-tumor-barrier-permeability-and-inhibits-glioma-angiogenesis-by-targeting-mir-137
#4
H Yu, Y Xue, P Wang, X Liu, J Ma, J Zheng, Z Li, Z Li, H Cai, Y Liu
Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis...
March 13, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282423/age-related-macular-degeneration-phenotypes-are-associated-with-increased-tumor-necrosis-alpha-and-subretinal-immune-cells-in-aged-cxcr5-knockout-mice
#5
Hu Huang, Ying Liu, Lei Wang, Wen Li
The role of chemokine receptor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) remains elusive. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of chemokine receptor Cxcr5 in the pathogenesis of AMD. Cxcr5 gene expression levels (mRNA and protein) are higher in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of aged C57BL/6 wild type mice than younger ones. Vascular and glial cells express Cxcr5 and its ligand Cxcl13 in mouse retina. Aged Cxcr5 knockout (-/-) mice develop both early and late AMD-like pathological features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264837/distinct-and-redundant-functions-of-esam-and-ve-cadherin-during-vascular-morphogenesis
#6
Loïc Sauteur, Markus Affolter, Heinz-Georg Belting
The cardiovascular system forms during early embryogenesis and adapts to embryonic growth by sprouting angiogenesis and vascular remodeling. These processes require fine-tuning of cell-cell adhesion to maintain and reestablish endothelial contacts, while allowing cell motility. We have compared the contribution of two endothelial cell specific adhesion proteins - VE-cadherin (VE-cad/Cdh5) and Esama (Endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule a) - during angiogenic sprouting and blood vessel fusion (anastomosis) in the zebrafish embryo by genetic analyses...
March 6, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262688/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gg-supernatant-enhance-neonatal-resistance-to-systemic-escherichia-coli-k1-infection-by-accelerating-development-of-intestinal-defense
#7
Xiaolong He, Qing Zeng, Santhosh Puthiyakunnon, Zhijie Zeng, Weijun Yang, Jiawen Qiu, Lei Du, Swapna Boddu, Tongwei Wu, Danxian Cai, Sheng-He Huang, Hong Cao
The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260988/human-corneal-endothelial-cells-expanded-in-vitro-are-a-powerful-resource-for-tissue-engineering
#8
REVIEW
Yongsong Liu, Hong Sun, Min Hu, Min Zhu, Sean Tighe, Shuangling Chen, Yuan Zhang, Chenwei Su, Subo Cai, Ping Guo
Human corneal endothelial cells have two major functions: barrier function mediated by proteins such as ZO-1 and pump function mediated by Na-K-ATPase which help to maintain visual function. However, human corneal endothelial cells are notorious for their limited proliferative capability in vivo and are therefore prone to corneal endothelial dysfunction that eventually may lead to blindness. At present, the only method to cure corneal endothelial dysfunction is by transplantation of a cadaver donor cornea with normal corneal endothelial cells...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260798/geniposide-ameliorates-tnbs-induced-experimental-colitis-in-rats-via-reducing-inflammatory-cytokine-release-and-restoring-impaired-intestinal-barrier-function
#9
Bin Xu, Yan-Li Li, Ming Xu, Chang-Chun Yu, Meng-Qiao Lian, Ze-Yao Tang, Chuan-Xun Li, Yuan Lin
Geniposide is an iridoid glycosides purified from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is known to have antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide on experimental rat colitis and to reveal the related mechanisms. Experimental rat colitis was induced by rectal administration of a TNBS solution. The rats were treated with geniposide (25, 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) or with sulfasalazine (SASP, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) as positive control for 14 consecutive days...
March 6, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260013/wogonin-protects-human-retinal-pigment-epithelium-cells-from-lps-induced-barrier-dysfunction-and-inflammatory-responses-by-regulating-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#10
Chen Chen, Danni Guo, Guohua Lu
Inflammation in the retinal pigment epithelium is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Wogonin is a flavonoid isolated from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis and has multiple pharmacological effects, including anti‑inflammatory effects. The present study sought to determine if the pharmacological effects of wogonin were relevant to the treatment of AMD. ARPE‑19 cells were pre‑conditioned with different concentrations of wogonin (0‑50 µM) prior to induction of inflammation with LPS (2 µg/ml)...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259952/ppar%C3%A2-%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-protects-rat-peritoneal-mesothelial-cells-against-peritoneal-dialysis-solution%C3%A2-induced-damage
#11
Yun-Fang Zhang, Qi Wang, Yan-Yan Su, Jie-Lin Wang, Bao-Jun Hua, Shen Yang, Jun-Xia Feng, Hong-Yan Li
Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) leads to ultrafiltration failure (UFF). Peritoneal mesothelial cells, which form the innermost monolayer of the peritoneal cavity, have been shown to regulate various responses, including inflammation, in UFF. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPAR‑γ) agonist, rosiglitazone, on peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS)‑induced injuries in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs). RPMCs were cultured for different durations and with different concentrations of PDS...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257821/tight-junction-protein-zo-1-controls-organic-cation-carnitine-transporter-octn2-slc22a5-in-a-protein-kinase-c-dependent-way
#12
Dominika Jurkiewicz, Katarzyna Michalec, Krzysztof Skowronek, Katarzyna A Nałęcz
OCTN2 (SLC22A5) is an organic cation/carnitine transporter belonging to the solute carrier transporters (SLC) family. OCTN2 is ubiquitously expressed and its presence was shown in various brain cells, including the endothelial cells forming blood-brain barrier, where it was mainly detected at abluminal membrane and in proximity of tight junctions (TJ). Since OCTN2 contains a PDZ-binding domain, the present study was focused on a possible role of transporter interaction with a TJ-associated protein ZO-1, containing PDZ domains and detected in rat Octn2 proteome...
May 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251923/binding-of-zo-1-to-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-integrins-regulates-the-mechanical-properties-of-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-fibronectin-links
#13
Víctor González-Tarragó, Alberto Elosegui-Artola, Elsa Bazellières, Roger Oria, Carlos Pérez-González, Pere Roca-Cusachs
Fundamental processes in cell adhesion, motility, and rigidity adaptation are regulated by integrin-mediated adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM). The link between the ECM component fibronectin (fn) and integrin α5β1 forms a complex with ZO-1 in cells at the edge of migrating monolayers, regulating cell migration. However, how this complex affects the α5β1-fn link is unknown. Here we show that the α5β1/ZO-1 complex decreases the resistance to force of α5β1-fn adhesions located at at the edge of migrating cell monolayers, while also increasing α5β1 recruitment...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251411/a-fish-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-model-established-from-the-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-cell-line-rtgutgc
#14
Matteo Minghetti, Carolin Drieschner, Nadine Bramaz, Hannah Schug, Kristin Schirmer
The intestine of fish is a multifunctional organ: lined by only a single layer of specialized epithelial cells, it has various physiological roles including nutrient absorption and ion regulation. It moreover comprises an important barrier for environmental toxicants, including metals. Thus far, knowledge of the fish intestine is limited largely to in vivo or ex vivo investigations. Recently, however, the first fish intestinal cell line, RTgutGC, was established, originating from a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
March 1, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247028/localization-and-pneumococcal-alteration-of-junction-proteins-in-the-human-alveolar-capillary-compartment
#15
Andrea Peter, Diana Fatykhova, Olivia Kershaw, Achim D Gruber, Jens Rueckert, Jens Neudecker, Mario Toennies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Maria Schimek, Stephan Eggeling, Norbert Suttorp, Andreas C Hocke, Stefan Hippenstiel
Loss of alveolar barrier function with subsequent respiratory failure is a hallmark of severe pneumonia. Although junctions between endo- and epithelial cells regulate paracellular fluid flux, little is known about their composition and regulation in the human alveolar compartment. High autofluorescence of human lung tissue in particular complicates the determination of subcellular protein localization. By comparing conventional channel mode confocal imaging with spectral imaging and linear unmixing, we demonstrate that background fluorescent spectra and fluorophore signals could be rigorously separated resulting in complete recovery of the specific signal at a high signal-to-noise ratio...
March 1, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246473/effect-of-toll-like-receptor-3-agonist-poly-i-c-on-intestinal-mucosa-and-epithelial-barrier-function-in-mouse-models-of-acute-colitis
#16
Hong-Wei Zhao, Yue-Hong Yue, Hua Han, Xiu-Li Chen, Yong-Gang Lu, Ji-Min Zheng, Hong-Tao Hou, Xiao-Meng Lang, Li-Li He, Qi-Lu Hu, Zi-Qian Dun
AIM: To investigate potential effects of poly I:C on mucosal injury and epithelial barrier disruption in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. METHODS: Thirty C57BL/6 mice were given either regular drinking water (control group) or 2% (w/v) DSS drinking water (model and poly I:C groups) ad libitum for 7 d. Poly I:C was administrated subcutaneously (20 μg/mouse) 2 h prior to DSS induction in mice of the poly I:C group. Severity of colitis was evaluated by disease activity index, body weight, colon length, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)...
February 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244327/ultrathin-alumina-membranes-as-scaffold-for-epithelial-cell-culture-from-the-intestine-of-rainbow-trout
#17
Carolin Drieschner, Matteo Minghetti, Songmei Wu, Philippe Renaud, Kristin Schirmer
Permeable membranes are indispensable for in vitro epithelial barrier models. However, currently available polymer-based membranes are low in porosity and relatively thick, resulting in a limited permeability and unrealistic culture conditions. In this study, we developed an ultrathin, nanoporous alumina membrane as novel cell culture interface for vertebrate cells, with focus on the rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss) intestinal cell line RTgutGC. The new type of membrane is framed in a silicon chip for physical support and has a thickness of only 1 μm, with a porosity of 15% and homogeneous nanopores (Ø = 73 ± 21 nm)...
March 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235673/laquinimod-enhances-central-nervous-system-barrier-functions
#18
Fred Lühder, Hania Kebir, Francesca Odoardi, Tanja Litke, Maike Sonneck, Jorge Ivan Alvarez, Jan Winchenbach, Nadine Eckert, Liat Hayardeny, Ella Sorani, Dmitri Lodygin, Alexander Flügel, Alexandre Prat
Laquinimod is currently being tested as a therapeutic drug in multiple sclerosis. However, its exact mechanism of action is still under investigation. Tracking of fluorescently-tagged encephalitogenic T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, revealed that laquinimod significantly reduces the invasion of pathogenic effector T cells into the CNS tissue. T-cell activation, differentiation and amplification within secondary lymphoid organs after immunization with myelin antigen, their migratory capacity and re-activation within the nervous tissue were either only mildly affected or remained unchanged...
February 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218448/chronic-supplementation-with-dietary-proanthocyanidins-protects-from-diet-induced-intestinal-alterations-in-obese-rats
#19
Gil-Cardoso Katherine, Ginés Iris, Pinent Montserrat, Ardévol Anna, Arola Lluís, Blay Mayte, Terra Ximena
SCOPE: Increased attention has been paid to the link between altered intestinal function and elevated incidence of metabolic disorders, such as in obesity. The present study investigated in obese rats the role of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) chronic treatment, taken in a low, moderate or high dose, on obesity-associated intestinal alterations in response to a cafeteria diet (CAF). METHODS AND RESULTS: To evaluate the degree of intestinal inflammation, ROS production and MPO activity were measured as well as the expression of inflammatory related genes...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216266/perinatal-administration-of-bisphenol-a-alters-the-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-the-uterus-and-reduces-the-implantation-rate
#20
Annia A Martínez-Peña, Jorge Rivera-Baños, Laura L Méndez-Carrillo, Marcos I Ramírez-Solano, Aarón Galindo-Bustamante, J Carlos Páez-Franco, Sumiko Morimoto, Lorenza González-Mariscal, M Esther Cruz, C Adriana Mendoza-Rodríguez
We studied the effect of bisphenol-A (BPA) administration to rats, during the perinatal period, on the fertility of F1 generation and on the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the uterus during early pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar dams (F0) received: BPA-L (0.05mg/kg/day), BPA-H (20mg/kg/day) or vehicle, from gestational day (GD) 6 to lactation day 21. F1 female pups were mated at 3 months of age and sacrificed at GD 1, 3, 6, and 7. Serum hormonal levels, ovulation rate, number of implantation sites and expression of TJ proteins in the uterus of F1 females were evaluated...
February 17, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
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