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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526701/netrin-1-preserves-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-through-deleted-in-colorectal-cancer-focal-adhesion-kinase-rhoa-signaling-pathway-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#1
Zongyi Xie, Budbazar Enkhjargal, Cesar Reis, Lei Huang, Weifeng Wan, Jiping Tang, Yuan Cheng, John H Zhang
BACKGROUND: Netrin-1 (NTN-1) has been established to be a novel intrinsic regulator of blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintenance. This study was carried out to investigate the potential roles of exogenous NTN-1 in preserving BBB integrity after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as well as the underlying mechanisms of its protective effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 309 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523565/blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-exacerbated-in-experimental-model-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-via-mmp-9-activation-and-downregulation-of-tight-junction-proteins
#2
Saurabh Dhanda, Rajat Sandhir
The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. (99m)Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521486/fibronectin-induces-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-human-breast-cancer-mcf-7-cells-via-activation-of-calpain
#3
Cheng-Lin Li, Dan Yang, Xin Cao, Fan Wang, Duan-Yang Hong, Jing Wang, Xiang-Chun Shen, Yan Chen
Fibronectin (FN) is a primary component of the mammary mesenchymal compartment and undergoes dramatic changes during breast cancer development. Increased FN expression is associated with an invasive and metastatic breast cancer phenotype. The present study demonstrated that FN causes an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like morphological change in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. FN stimulation caused the downregulation of epithelial markers E-cadherin and tight junction protein ZO-1, and the upregulation of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515165/zinc-supplementation-via-gpr39-upregulates-pkc%C3%AE-to-protect-intestinal-barrier-integrity-in-caco-2-cells-challenged-by-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium
#4
Yu-Xin Shao, Zhao Lei, Patricia G Wolf, Yan Gao, Yu-Ming Guo, Bing-Kun Zhang
Background: Zinc has been shown to improve intestinal barrier function against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection, but the mechanisms involved in this process remain undefined.Objective: We aimed to explore the roles of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)39 and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) in the regulation by zinc of intestinal barrier function.Methods: A Transwell Caco-2 monolayer was pretreated with 0, 50, or 100 μM Zn and then incubated with S. typhimurium for 0-6 h. Afterward, cells silenced by the small interfering RNA for GPR39 or PKCζ were pretreated with 100 μM Zn and incubated with S...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513595/hiv-2-infection-is-associated-with-preserved-galt-homeostasis-and-epithelial-integrity-despite-ongoing-mucosal-viral-replication
#5
S M Fernandes, A R Pires, P Matoso, C Ferreira, H Nunes-Cabaço, L Correia, E Valadas, J Poças, P Pacheco, H Veiga-Fernandes, R B Foxall, A E Sousa
The mechanisms that enable preservation of gut mucosal integrity during persistent viral replication and inherent inflammation remain unclear. Here, we investigated, for the first time, gut homeostasis in HIV-2 infection, a naturally occurring form of attenuated HIV disease. We found viral replication in both sigmoid and ileum of asymptomatic HIV-2+ patients (range: 240-851 circulating CD4+T-cells per μl) despite their undetectable viremia, accompanied by interferon-γ-producing CD8 T-cell expansion, irrespective of antiretroviral treatment...
May 17, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508744/overexpression-of-human-papillomavirus-type-16-oncoproteins-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-stat3-signaling-pathway-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#6
Wenzhang Zhang, Xin Wu, Liang Hu, Yuefan Ma, Zihan Xiu, Bingyu Huang, Yun Feng, Xudong Tang
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of HPV-16 oncoproteins in the development and progression of NSCLC is not completely clear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial step for invasion and metastasis, plays a key role in the development and progression of NSCLC. Here, we explored the effect of HPV-16 oncoproteins on EMT and the underlying mechanisms. NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H460, were transiently transfected with EGFP-N1-HPV-16 E6 or E7 plasmid...
December 15, 2016: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506763/neonatal-hyperoxia-disrupts-the-intestinal-barrier-and-impairs-intestinal-function-in-rats
#7
Hsiu-Chu Chou, Chung-Ming Chen
Animal studies have demonstrated that neonatal hyperoxia injures the distal small intestine and disrupts the intestinal barrier. This study evaluated the effects of brief hyperoxia exposure on intestinal function in newborn rats. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to room air or normobaric hyperoxia (85% O2) for 1week. The rats were euthanized on Postnatal Day 7, and their terminal ilea and sera were collected for histological analyses and intestinal permeability measurements, respectively. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was determined...
May 12, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503424/interleukin-13-and-age-related-macular-degeneration
#8
Bo Fu, Zhe-Li Liu, Han Zhang, Feng Gu
AIM: o identify the effects of interleukin (IL)-13 on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and the IL-13 level in aqueous humor of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) patients. METHODS: IL-13 levels in aqueous humor specimens from AMD patients were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ARPE-19 cells were treated with 10 ng/mL IL-13 for 12, 24, and 48h. The cell proliferaton was evaluated by the MTS method. The mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA and ZO-1 were evaluated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot respectively...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503421/differential-expression-of-breast-cancer-resistance-protein-lung-resistance-protein-and-multidrug-resistance-protein-1-in-retinas-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#9
Meng-Shuang Li, Meng Xin, Chuan-Long Guo, Gui-Ming Lin, Jun Li, Xiang-Gen Wu
AIM: To investigate the altering expression profiles of efflux transporters such as breast cancer-resistance protein (BCRP), lung resistance protein (LRP), and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) at the inner blood-retinal barrier (BRB) during the development of early diabetic retinopathy (DR) and/or aging in mice. METHODS: Relative mRNA and protein expression profiles of these three efflux transporters in the retina during the development of early DR and/or aging in mice were examined...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495656/dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-augments-blood-brain-barrier-and-tight-junction-protein-expression-in-brain-endothelial-cells
#10
Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Georgios Scheiner-Bobis
Tight junctions (TJ) between brain endothelial cells are essential for formation and maintenance of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although loss of BBB integrity is associated with several neuropathological disorders, treatments that augment or stabilise the BBB are scarce. Here we show that physiological concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) stimulate the expression of the TJ proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-3 in the brain-derived endothelial cell line bEnd.3 and promote TJ formation between neighbouring cells, demonstrated by augmented transendothelial resistance across cell monolayers...
May 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492611/the-effect-of-topical-treatments-for-crs-on-the-sinonasal-epithelial-barrier
#11
M Ramezanpour, A Rayan, J L P Smith, S Vreugde
BACKGROUND: Several topical treatments are used in the management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS), some of which the safety and efficacy has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of commonly used topical treatments on the sinonasal epithelial barrier. METHODS: Normal saline (0.9% Sodium Chloride), hypertonic saline (3% Sodium Chloride), FESS Sinu-Cleanse Hypertonic, FLO Sinus Care and Budesonide 1 mg/ 2 ml were applied to the apical side of air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) from CRS patients (n=3) and non-CRS controls (n=3) for 24 hours...
May 10, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489922/contribution-of-thrombin-reactive-brain-pericytes-to-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-in-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-obesity-associated-diabetes-and-an-in-vitro-rat-model
#12
Takashi Machida, Fuyuko Takata, Junichi Matsumoto, Tomoyuki Miyamura, Ryosuke Hirata, Ikuya Kimura, Yasufumi Kataoka, Shinya Dohgu, Atsushi Yamauchi
Diabetic complications are characterized by the dysfunction of pericytes located around microvascular endothelial cells. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exhibits hyperpermeability with progression of diabetes. Therefore, brain pericytes at the BBB may be involved in diabetic complications of the central nervous system (CNS). We hypothesized that brain pericytes respond to increased brain thrombin levels in diabetes, leading to BBB dysfunction and diabetic CNS complications. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 or 8 weeks to induce obesity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487998/effects-of-dietary-l-tryptophan-supplementation-on-intestinal-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress-in-broilers
#13
Yunshuang Yue, Yuming Guo, Ying Yang
Stress has been recognized as a critical risk factor for gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and animals. However, nutritional strategies to attenuate stress-induced intestinal barrier function and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that L-tryptophan enhanced intestinal barrier function by regulating mucosal serotonin metabolism in chronic unpredictable stress-exposed broilers. One-day-old male broilers (Arbor Acres) were fed a basal diet supplemented with or without L-tryptophan in the absence or presence of chronic unpredictable stress...
May 9, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485323/rhubarb-monomers-protect-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-in-sepsis-via-junction-proteins
#14
Lyu Wang, Yun-Liang Cui, Zhe Zhang, Zhao-Fen Lin, De-Chang Chen
BACKGROUND: Leakage of the intestinal mucosal barrier may cause translocation of bacteria, then leading to multiorgan failure. This study hypothesized that rhubarb monomers might protect the gut mucosal barrier in sepsis through junction proteins. METHODS: Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 230-250 g) under anesthesia and sedation were subjected to cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). After surgical preparation, rats were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6 or 8 each group): sham group (Group A: normal saline gavage); sepsis group (Group B: normal saline gavage); Group C (intraperitoneally, dexamethasone 0...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484272/effect-of-bacillus-subtilis-on-aeromonas-hydrophila-induced-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-damage-and-inflammation-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#15
Weiguang Kong, Can Huang, Ying Tang, Ding Zhang, Zhixin Wu, Xiaoxuan Chen
Our study explored the effect of oral intubation of Bacillus subtilis on Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal mucosal barrier function damage and inflammation in grass carp. The mid-intestine mucosal tissue was collected for ATPase activity measurement. Intestinal mucosa was also ultrastructurally examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM), and its permeability was determined using Evans blue (EB) and D-lactic acid. The mid-intestine pro-inflammation cytokine, MyD88 and tight junction (TJ) protein mRNA expression levels were measured using real-time quantitative PCR...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484247/total-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-alleviates-high-fat-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-in-mice-via-beneficial-regulation-of-gut-microbiota
#16
Da Zhou, Qin Pan, Feng Shen, Hai-Xia Cao, Wen-Jin Ding, Yuan-Wen Chen, Jian-Gao Fan
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an epidemic metabolic disease with limited therapeutic strategies. Cumulative data support the pivotal role of gut microbiota in NASH. Here, we investigated the hypothesis regarding whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is effective in attenuating high-fat diet (HFD)-induced steatohepatitis in mice. Mice were randomized into control, HFD and HFD + FMT groups. After an 8-week HFD, FMT treatment was initiated and carried out for 8 weeks. The gut microbiota structure, butyrate concentrations of the cecal content, liver pathology and intrahepatic lipid and cytokines were examined...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474748/connexin36-localization-to-pinealocytes-in-the-pineal-gland-of-mouse-and-rat
#17
S G Wang, D D Tsao, K G Vanderpool, T Yasumura, J E Rash, J I Nagy
Several cell types in the pineal gland are known to establish intercellular gap junctions, but the connexin constituents of those junctions have not been fully characterized. Specifically, the expression of connexin36 (Cx36) protein and mRNA has been examined in the pineal, but the identity of cells that produce Cx36 and that form Cx36-containing gap junctions has not been determined. We used immunofluorescence and freeze fracture replica immunogold labelling (FRIL) of Cx36 to investigate the cellular and subcellular localization of Cx36 in the pineal gland of adult mouse and rat...
May 5, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466272/bfgf-protects-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-induced-endothelial-monolayer-permeability-via-s1pr1-dependent-mechanisms
#18
Li Lin, Qingzhi Wang, Kenny Qian, Zeyuan Cao, Jian Xiao, Xiaoying Wang, Xiaokun Li, Zhanyang Yu
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a common pathological feature of many neurological disorders including stroke and brain trauma, therefore is an important therapeutic target for treatment of these diseases. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as a member of FGF superfamily plays critical roles in angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and neuron survival. We recently showed that recombinant bFGF protects against BBB disruption in traumatic brain injury in mice. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of recombinant bFGF in BBB protection by measuring the permeability of cultured endothelial cell monolayer induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)...
May 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465186/expansion-and-cryopreservation-of-porcine-and-human-corneal-endothelial-cells
#19
Leah A Marquez-Curtis, Locksley E McGann, Janet A W Elliott
Impairment of the corneal endothelium causes blindness that afflicts millions worldwide and constitutes the most often cited indication for corneal transplants. The scarcity of donor corneas has prompted the alternative use of tissue-engineered grafts which requires the ex vivo expansion and cryopreservation of corneal endothelial cells. The aims of this study are to culture and identify the conditions that will yield viable and functional corneal endothelial cells after cryopreservation. Previously, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we employed a systematic approach to optimize the post-thaw recovery of cells with high membrane integrity and functionality...
April 29, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461173/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-regulates-microglia-mediated-decrease-of-endothelial-tight-junction-integrity
#20
Abbas Rezaeian Mehrabadi, Minna A Korolainen, Gary Odero G, Donald W Miller, Tiina M Kauppinen
Alzheimer's disease pathology includes, beside neuronal damage, reactive gliosis and reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Microglia are intimately associated with the BBB and upon AD pathology, pro-inflammatory responses of microglia could contribute to BBB damage. To study whether microglia can directly affect BBB integrity, the effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) -stimulated primary murine microglia on co-cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) and murine astrocyte cultures were assessed. We also assessed whether microglial phenotype modulation via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition/ablation can reverse microglial impact on these BBB forming cells...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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