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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715808/retinoic-acid-facilitates-toll-like-receptor-4-expression-to-improve-intestinal-barrier-function-through-retinoic-acid-receptor-beta
#1
Yingying Li, Yuan Gao, Ting Cui, Ting Yang, Lan Liu, Tingyu Li, Jie Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vitamin A (VA) protects the intestinal epithelial barrier by improving cell migration and proliferation. Our previous studies demonstrated that VA deficiency (VAD) during pregnancy suppresses the systemic and mucosal immune responses in the intestines of offspring and that VA supplementation (VAS) during early life can increase immune cell counts. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which VA regulates intestinal epithelial barrier function. METHODS: Caco-2 cells were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 24 hours to determine the optimum ATRA concentration to which the cells in question respond...
July 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617990/cell-specific-diversity-in-the-expression-and-organization-of-cytoplasmic-plaque-proteins-of-apical-junctions
#2
Ekaterina Vasileva, Sophie Sluysmans, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Sandra Citi
Tight and adherens junctions play critical roles in the barrier, adhesion, and signaling functions of epithelial and endothelial cells. How the molecular organization of these junctions is tuned to the widely diverse physiological requirements of each tissue type is not well understood. Here, we address this question by examining the expression, localization, and interactions of major cytoplasmic plaque proteins of tight and adherens junctions in different cultured epithelial and endothelial cell lines. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses show that the expression profiles of cingulin, paracingulin, ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, PLEKHA7, afadin, PDZD11, p120-catenin, and α-catenin, as well as the transmembrane junctional proteins occludin, E-cadherin, and VE-cadherin, are significantly diverse when comparing kidney cells (MDCK, mCCD), keratinocytes (HaCaT), lung carcinoma (A427, A549), and endothelium-derived cells (bEnd...
June 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610850/dietary-myo-inositol-deficiency-decreased-the-growth-performances-and-impaired-intestinal-physical-barrier-function-partly-relating-to-nrf2-jnk-e2f4-and-mlck-signaling-in-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#3
Shuang-An Li, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xu Tang, He-Qun Shi, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary myo-inositol on the growth and intestinal physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (221.83 ± 0.84 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of myo-inositol (27.0, 137.9, 286.8, 438.6, 587.7 and 737.3 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal myo-inositol levels, myo-inositol deficiency (27...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554775/zonula-occludens-2-regulates-rho-proteins-activity-and-the-development-of-epithelial-cytoarchitecture-and-barrier-function
#4
Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alejandro Castillo-Kauil, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Lourdes Alarcón, David Flores-Benitez, Francisco Cuellar-Perez, Bruno López-Bayghen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, José Vázquez-Prado, Lorenza González-Mariscal
Silencing Zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2), a tight junctions (TJ) scaffold protein, in epithelial cells (MDCK ZO-2 KD) triggers: 1) Decreased cell to substratum attachment, accompanied by reduced expression of claudin-7 and integrin β1, and increased vinculin recruitment to focal adhesions and stress fibers formation; 2) Lowered cell-cell aggregation and appearance of wider intercellular spaces; 3) Increased RhoA/ROCK activity, mediated by GEF-HI recruitment to cell borders by cingulin; 4) Increased Cdc42 activity, mitotic spindle disorientation and the appearance of cysts with multiple lumens; 5) Increased Rac and cofilin activity, multiple lamellipodia formation and random cell migration but increased wound closure; 6) Diminished cingulin phosphorylation and disappearance of planar network of microtubules at the TJ region; and 7) Increased transepithelial electrical resistance at steady state, coupled to an increased expression of ZO-1 and claudin-4 and a decreased expression of claudin-2 and paracingulin...
May 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477369/snx27-interactome-in-t-lymphocytes-identifies-zo-2-dynamic-redistribution-at-the-immune-synapse
#5
María Tello-Lafoz, Gonzalo Martínez-Martínez, Cristina Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Juan Pablo Albar, Morgan Huse, Severine Gharbi, Isabel Merida
T lymphocyte recognition of antigens leads to the formation of a highly organized structure termed immune synapse (IS) by analogy with the nervous synapse. Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) controls the endosomal traffic of PDZ domain-interacting proteins, and its alteration is associated with impaired synaptic function and neurological diseases. In T lymphocytes SNX27-positive vesicles polarize to the IS, the identity of SNX27 interactors in these conditions nonetheless remains unknown. Here we used proteomics to analyze the SNX27 interactome purified from IS-forming T cells, and confirmed the conserved nature of the SNX27/WASH/retromer association in hematopoietic cells...
May 6, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456683/patchouli-alcohol-ameliorates-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-experimental-colitis-and-suppresses-tryptophan-catabolism
#6
Chang Qu, Zhong-Wen Yuan, Xiu-Ting Yu, Yan-Feng Huang, Guang-Hua Yang, Jian-Nan Chen, Xiao-Ping Lai, Zi-Ren Su, Hui-Fang Zeng, Ying Xie, Xiao-Jun Zhang
Despite the increased morbidity of ulcerative colitis (UC) in recent years, available treatments remain unsatisfactory. Pogostemon cablin has been widely applied to treat a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in clinic for centuries, in which patchouli alcohol (PA, C15H26O) has been identified as the major active component. This study attempted to determine the bioactivity of PA on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice colitis and clarify the mechanism of action. Acute colitis was induced in mice by 3% DSS for 7 days...
April 27, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420508/a-promising-protein-responsible-for-overactive-bladder-in-ovariectomized-mice
#7
Huey-Yi Chen, Chao-Jung Chen, Wen-Chi Chen, Shih-Jing Wang, Yung-Hsiang Chen
OBJECTIVE: Ovariectomy (OVX) in mice is a model mimicking a neuro-electronic proof of an overactive bladder in postmenopausal women. Overactive bladder (OAB) was recently found to be due to an altered gap junction protein in a rat model. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate changes in cell junction protein expression and composition in the bladder of OVX mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six virgin female mice were randomized into three groups: mice with a sham operation only (control), OVX mice without estradiol (E2) replacement, and OVX mice with E2 replacement (OVX + E2)...
April 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415133/zo-2-a-tight-junction-protein-involved-in-gene-expression-proliferation-apoptosis-and-cell-size-regulation
#8
REVIEW
Lorenza González-Mariscal, Jael Miranda, Arturo Raya-Sandino, Alaide Domínguez-Calderón, Francisco Cuellar-Perez
ZO-2 is a peripheral tight junction protein that belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family. Here, we explain the modular and supramodular organization of ZO-2 that allows it to interact with a wide variety of molecules, including cell-cell adhesion proteins, cytoskeletal components, and nuclear factors. We also describe how ZO proteins evolved through metazoan evolution and analyze the intracellular traffic of ZO-2, as well as the roles played by ZO-2 at the plasma membrane and nucleus that translate into the regulation of proliferation, cell size, and apoptosis...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327343/astilbin-from-engelhardtia-chrysolepis-enhances-intestinal-barrier-functions-in-caco-2-cell-monolayers
#9
Tatsuo Nakahara, Yosuke Nishitani, Shin Nishiumi, Masaru Yoshida, Takeshi Azuma
Astilbin, which is one of polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Engelhardtia chrysolepis HANCE (Chinese name, huang-qui), is available as the effective component in food and cosmetics because of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The tight junction (TJ) proteins, which protect the body from foreign substances, are related to adhesion between a cell and a cell. Previously, the enhancement of TJ's functions induced by aglycones of flavonoids has been demonstrated, but the effects of the glycosides such as astilbin have not been observed yet...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287613/knockdown-of-long-non-coding-rna-xist-increases-blood-tumor-barrier-permeability-and-inhibits-glioma-angiogenesis-by-targeting-mir-137
#10
H Yu, Y Xue, P Wang, X Liu, J Ma, J Zheng, Z Li, Z Li, H Cai, Y Liu
Antiangiogenic therapy plays a significant role in combined glioma treatment. However, poor permeability of the blood-tumor barrier (BTB) limits the transport of chemotherapeutic agents, including antiangiogenic drugs, into tumor tissues. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in various diseases, especially malignant tumors. The present study found that lncRNA X-inactive-specific transcript (XIST) was upregulated in endothelial cells that were obtained in a BTB model in vitro. XIST knockdown increased BTB permeability and inhibited glioma angiogenesis...
March 13, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018313/outer-membrane-vesicles-and-soluble-factors-released-by-probiotic-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-commensal-ecor63-enhance-barrier-function-by-regulating-expression-of-tight-junction-proteins-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells
#11
Carina-Shianya Alvarez, Josefa Badia, Manel Bosch, Rosa Giménez, Laura Baldomà
The gastrointestinal epithelial layer forms a physical and biochemical barrier that maintains the segregation between host and intestinal microbiota. The integrity of this barrier is critical in maintaining homeostasis in the body and its dysfunction is linked to a variety of illnesses, especially inflammatory bowel disease. Gut microbes, and particularly probiotic bacteria, modulate the barrier integrity by reducing gut permeability and reinforcing tight junctions. Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is a good colonizer of the human gut with proven therapeutic efficacy in the remission of ulcerative colitis in humans...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741223/the-poly-cistronic-mir-23-27-24-complexes-target-endothelial-cell-junctions-differential-functional-and-molecular-effects-of-mir-23a-and-mir-23b
#12
Jia Li, Yang Zhao, Ying Lu, William Ritchie, Georges Grau, Mathew A Vadas, Jennifer R Gamble
The regulation of function of endothelial cell-cell junctions is fundamental in sustaining vascular integrity. The polycistronic microRNA (miR) complexes containing miR-23a-27a-24-2, and 23b-27b-24-1 are predicted to target the majority of major endothelial junctional proteins. We focus on miR-23a and miR-23b, and investigate the functional effects of these miRs on junctions. While miR-23a and 23b only differ by 1 nucleotide (g19) outside the seed region and thus are predicted to have the same targets, they function differently with miR-23a inhibiting permeability and miR-23b inhibiting angiogenesis...
August 23, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689324/enhancement-of-endothelial-permeability-by-free-fatty-acid-through-lysosomal-cathepsin-b-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#13
Lei Wang, Yang Chen, Xiang Li, Youzhi Zhang, Erich Gulbins, Yang Zhang
Obesity is an important risk factor for exacerbating chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. High serum level of saturated free fatty acids such as palmitate is an important contributor for obesity-induced diseases. Here, we examined the contribution of inflammasome activation in vascular cells to free fatty acid-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury in obesity. Our findings demonstrated that high fat diet-induced impairment of vascular integrity and enhanced vascular permeability in the myocardium in mice were significantly attenuated by Nlrp3 gene deletion...
November 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648126/effects-of-metformin-treatment-on-glioma-induced-brain-edema
#14
Bin Zhao, Xiaoke Wang, Jun Zheng, Hailiang Wang, Jun Liu
Considerable evidence has demonstrated that metformin can activate 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in protection of endothelial cell permeability. Hence, the present study evaluated the effects of metformin on blood brain barrier permeability and AQP4 expression in vitro, and assessed the effects of metformin treatment on tumor-induced brain edema in vivo. Hypoxia or VEGF exposure enhanced bEnd3 endothelial cell monolayer permeability and attenuated the expression of tight junction proteins including Occludin, Claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640333/dietary-vitamin-c-deficiency-depressed-the-gill-physical-barriers-and-immune-barriers-referring-to-nrf2-apoptosis-mlck-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-tor-signaling-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-under-infection-of-flavobacterium-columnare
#15
Hui-Jun Xu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study explored the effects of vitamin C on the physical barriers and immune barriers, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the gill of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) (1) increased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl (PC) contents (P < 0.05), decreased the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and mRNA levels (P < 0...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604867/sumoylation-regulates-the-intracellular-fate-of-zo-2
#16
Franziska Wetzel, Sonnhild Mittag, Misael Cano-Cortina, Tobias Wagner, Oliver H Krämer, Rainer Niedenthal, Lorenza Gonzalez-Mariscal, Otmar Huber
The zonula occludens (ZO)-2 protein links tight junctional transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton and associates with splicing and transcription factors in the nucleus. Multiple posttranslational modifications control the intracellular distribution of ZO-2. Here, we report that ZO-2 is a target of the SUMOylation machinery and provide evidence on how this modification may affect its cellular distribution and function. We show that ZO-2 associates with the E2 SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and with SUMO-deconjugating proteases SENP1 and SENP3...
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583188/current-trends-in-salivary-gland-tight-junctions
#17
REVIEW
Olga J Baker
Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398226/chronic-hypoxia-down-regulates-tight-junction-protein-zo-2-expression-in-children-with-cyanotic-congenital-heart-defect
#18
Emma L Jenkins, Massimo Caputo, Gianni D Angelini, Mohamed T Ghorbel
AIMS: Tight junction protein zonula occludens protein 2 (ZO-2) is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinases protein family known to be expressed at tight junctions of epithelial and endothelial cells and at adherens junctions (AJs) in cardiomyocytes. Little is known about ZO-2 expression and function in the human heart. Here, we examined the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia down-regulates ZO-2 expression in human myocardium and cultured rat cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a diagnosis of cyanotic (n = 10) or acyanotic (n = 10) Tetralogy of Fallot undergoing surgical repair were used to examine ZO-2 messenger RNA and protein expression by real time-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting...
June 2016: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366215/probiotics-modify-tight-junction-proteins-in-an-animal-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
David Briskey, Mandy Heritage, Lesley-Anne Jaskowski, Jonathan Peake, Glenda Gobe, V Nathan Subramaniam, Darrell Crawford, Catherine Campbell, Luis Vitetta
BACKGROUND: We have investigated the effects of a multispecies probiotic preparation containing a combination of probiotic bacterial genera that included Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli and a Streptococcus in a mouse model of high-fat diet or obesity-induced liver steatosis. METHODS: Three groups of C57B1/6J mice were fed either a standard chow or a high-fat diet for 20 weeks, while a third group was fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and then concomitantly administered probiotics for a further 10 weeks...
July 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312122/zeaxanthin-based-dietary-supplement-and-topical-serum-improve-hydration-and-reduce-wrinkle-count-in-female-subjects
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Steve Schwartz, Emily Frank, Dennis Gierhart, Paula Simpson, Robert Frumento
BACKGROUND: Dietary modification, through supplementation and elimination diets, has become an area of interest to help slow skin aging, reduce symptom severity or prevent reoccurrence of certain dermatologic conditions [Clinical Dermatology vol. 31 (2013) 677-700]. Free radical components (reactive oxygen species or ROS) or lipid peroxide (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of accelerated skin aging when prolonged oxidative stress occurs. The use of antioxidant-related therapies such as nutraceuticals is of particular interest in restoring skin homeostasis...
December 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
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