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Jinwei Zhang, Yue Lu, Jianan Wei, Li Li, Ling Han
This study was carried out to study the protective effect of carboxytmethylpachymaran (CMP) on TNF-α-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cell monolayers and the underlying mechanism. The Caco-2 cell monolayers were pretreated with 50, 100 or 150μg/mL CMP for 72h, and then they were exposed to 100ng/mL tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) for 72h. The results showed that CMP alleviated the drop of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the increase of phenol red flux induced by TNF-α...
July 28, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wei Li, Kaiji Sun, Yun Ji, Zhenlong Wu, Weiwei Wang, Zhaolai Dai, Guoyao Wu
BACKGROUND: Glycine traditionally is classified as a nutritionally nonessential amino acid in humans and animals. Because of its abundance in the body and its extensive use via multiple pathways, requirements for glycine are particularly high in neonates. Our recent studies show that dietary glycine supplementation is needed for optimal intestinal development in piglets. Importantly, reduced concentrations of glycine in the lumen of the small intestine are associated with gut dysfunction in low-birth-weight piglets...
May 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Bongki Kim, Sylvie Breton
The initial segment (IS) in rodents is functionally and structurally distinct from other epididymal segments and plays an important role in sperm maturation. The MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway is maintained active in the IS by testicular luminal factors and plays crucial roles in the maintenance and differentiation of the IS epithelium. Tight junctions (TJs) are constituents of the blood-epididymis barrier, which mediates the paracellular transport of ions, solutes, and water and controls epithelial cell differentiation, thereby contributing to the establishment of a unique luminal environment...
January 2016: Biology of Reproduction
J Li, X Cong, Y Zhang, R L Xiang, M Mei, N Y Yang, Y C Su, S Choi, K Park, L W Zhang, L L Wu, G Y Yu
The tight junction-based paracellular pathway plays an important role in saliva secretion. Zonula occludens (ZO) proteins are submembranous proteins of tight junction complex; however, their function in salivary epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we found that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin increased rat saliva secretion both in vivo and ex vivo. Meanwhile, TRPV1 activation enlarged the width of tight junctions between neighboring acinar cells, increased the paracellular flux of 4-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran in submandibular gland (SMG) tissues, and decreased transepithelial electric resistance (TER) in SMG-C6 cells...
December 2015: Journal of Dental Research
Ning Jiao, Zhenlong Wu, Yun Ji, Bin Wang, Zhaolai Dai, Guoyao Wu
BACKGROUND: L-Glutamate (Glu) is a major amino acid in milk and postweaning diets for mammals (including pigs and human infants). However, effects of Glu on intestinal mucosal barrier and antioxidative functions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that Glu may enhance the barrier function of intestinal porcine epithelial cell line 1 (IPEC-1) cells by upregulating the expression of tight junction proteins. METHODS: IPEC-1 cells were cultured with or without Glu in the presence or absence of 1 mmol/L diquat (an oxidant) for indicated time points...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Hao Wang, Yun Ji, Guoyao Wu, Kaiji Sun, Yuli Sun, Wei Li, Bin Wang, Beibei He, Qing Zhang, Zhaolai Dai, Zhenlong Wu
BACKGROUND: Besides serving as a substrate for protein synthesis, L-tryptophan (L-Trp) is used via serotonin-, kynurenine-, and niacin-synthetic pathways to produce bioactive compounds crucial for whole-body homeostasis. It is unknown whether L-Trp itself can regulate metabolic pathways in animal cells. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that L-Trp may activate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 and enhance expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in intestinal porcine epithelial cells...
June 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Tao Zuo, Lu Cao, Xuemin Li, Qi Zhang, Changhu Xue, Qingjuan Tang
Gastrointestinal mucositis and infection by chemotherapy treatment are associated with alterations in the functioning of the intestinal barrier, due to the potential damage induced by anticancer drugs on the epithelial tight junctions and adheren junction. We aimed to study the protective effect of dietary polysaccharides on chemotherapy-induced injury in the epithelial cells. In the current study, using mice that were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide for 2 days, we reveal that polysaccharides from the ink of Ommastrephes bartrami (OBP) enhanced the mRNA and protein expression levels of Occludin, zonulae occluden (ZO)-1, and E-cadherin...
2015: Nutrition and Cancer
Hao Wang, Chen Zhang, Guoyao Wu, Yuli Sun, Bin Wang, Beibei He, Zhaolai Dai, Zhenlong Wu
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of tight junction integrity is associated with decreased nutrient absorption and numerous gastrointestinal diseases in humans and piglets. Although l-glutamine has been reported to enhance intestinal-mucosal mass and barrier function under stressful conditions, in vivo data to support a functional role for l-glutamine on intestinal tight junction protein (TJP) expression in weanling mammals are limited. OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that glutamine regulates expression of TJPs and stress-related corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) signaling in the jejunum of weanling piglets...
January 2015: Journal of Nutrition
Xiaomu Qiao, Isabelle Roth, Eric Féraille, Udo Hasler
Coordinated cell proliferation and ability to form intercellular seals are essential features of epithelial tissue function. Tight junctions (TJs) classically act as paracellular diffusion barriers. More recently, their role in regulating epithelial cell proliferation in conjunction with scaffolding zonula occludens (ZO) proteins has come to light. The kidney collecting duct (CD) is a model of tight epithelium that displays intense proliferation during embryogenesis followed by very low cell turnover in the adult kidney...
2014: Cell Cycle
Shinsaku Tokuda, Tomohito Higashi, Mikio Furuse
ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3 are tight junction-associated scaffold proteins that bind to transmembrane proteins of tight junctions and the underlying cytoskeleton. ZO-1 is involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization, but its detailed molecular mechanism is less well understood. Gene knockout is an ideal method to investigate the functions of proteins that might have redundant functions such as ZO proteins, when compared with methods such as RNA interference-mediated suppression of gene expression. In this study we applied transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), a recently developed genome editing method for gene knockout, and established ZO-1 knockout clones in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells...
2014: PloS One
A Sommansson, O Yamskova, H B Schiöth, O Nylander, M Sjöblom
AIM: Increased intestinal epithelial permeability is associated with intestinal inflammation and dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of long-term oral melatonin administration on ethanol-induced increases in duodenal mucosal permeability and hypermotility. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered melatonin in their tap water (0.1 mg mL(-1) or 0.5 mg mL(-1) ) for 2 or 4 weeks. After the treatment period, the rats were anaesthetized with Inactin(®) , and a 30-mm duodenal segment was perfused in situ...
October 2014: Acta Physiologica
Domenica Spadaro, Rocio Tapia, Lionel Jond, Marius Sudol, Alan S Fanning, Sandra Citi
The localization and activities of DbpA/ZONAB and YAP transcription factors are in part regulated by the density-dependent assembly of epithelial junctions. DbpA activity and cell proliferation are inhibited by exogenous overexpression of the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1, leading to a model whereby ZO-1 acts by sequestering DbpA at the TJ. However, mammary epithelial cells and mouse tissues knock-out for ZO-1 do not show increased proliferation, as predicted by this model. To address this discrepancy, we examined the localization and activity of DbpA and YAP in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells depleted either of ZO-1, or one of the related proteins ZO-2 and ZO-3 (ZO proteins), or all three together...
August 8, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tracey A Martin, Malcolm D Mason, Wen G Jiang
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may impact the metastasis of prostate cancer via its action on prostate stem cells or their progeny. Tight junctions (TJs) are crucial to the process of metastasis and have been previously shown to be regulated by HGF. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of HGF on the function of TJs in human prostate epithelial, prostate stem cell-like and prostate cancer cell lines. Four human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, DU-145, PZHPV-7, CaHPV-10), normal adult prostate parental epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and a stem cell-like derivative of RWPE-1 (WPE-STEM) were used to assess HGF-induced changes in TJs...
July 2014: Oncology Reports
David A Katzka, Ravikanth Tadi, Thomas C Smyrk, Eesha Katarya, Anamay Sharma, Deborah M Geno, Michael Camilleri, Prasad G Iyer, Jeffrey A Alexander, Navtej S Buttar
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The allergic response associated with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) occurs when food antigens permeate tight junction-mediated epithelial dilated intercellular spaces. We assessed whether levels of tight junction proteins correlate with the dilation of intercellular spaces (spongiosis) and the effects of topical steroids on these parameters. METHODS: We assessed esophageal biopsy samples from 10 patients with active EoE treated with topical fluticasone, 10 untreated patients, and 10 patients without esophageal disease (controls) for degree of spongiosis...
November 2014: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Andreas Traweger, Sebastian Toepfer, Roland N Wagner, Josef Zweimueller-Mayer, Renate Gehwolf, Christine Lehner, Herbert Tempfer, Istvan Krizbai, Imola Wilhelm, Hans-Christian Bauer, Hannelore Bauer
Zonula occludens proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3), which belong to the family of membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) homologs, serve as molecular hubs for the assembly of multi-protein networks at the cytoplasmic surface of intercellular contacts in epithelial and endothelial cells. These multi-PDZ proteins exert crucial functions in the structural organization of intercellular contacts and in transducing intracellular signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. The junctional MAGUK protein ZO-2 not only associates with the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif of various transmembrane junctional proteins but also transiently targets to the nucleus and interacts with a number of nuclear proteins, thereby modulating gene expression and cell proliferation...
April 1, 2013: Tissue Barriers
Ivan Mikaelian, Mouhannad Malek, Rudy Gadet, Jean Viallet, Amandine Garcia, Anaïs Girard-Gagnepain, Cédric Hesling, Germain Gillet, Philippe Gonzalo, Ruth Rimokh, Marc Billaud
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a transdifferentiation process that converts epithelial cells into highly motile mesenchymal cells. This physiologic process occurs largely during embryonic development but is aberrantly reactivated in different pathologic situations, including fibrosis and cancer. We conducted a siRNA screening targeted to the human kinome with the aim of discovering new EMT effectors. With this approach, we have identified mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), a nutrient sensor that controls protein and lipid synthesis, as a key regulator of epithelial integrity...
November 15, 2013: Cancer Research
Youngsub Eom, Su-Yeon Kang, Jong-Suk Song, Hyo Myung Kim
PURPOSE: To compare the mean effective lens position (ELP) and actual amount of axial movement of 3 aspheric intraocular lenses (IOLs) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. METHODS: Consecutive patients had phacoemulsification with aspheric IOL implantation. The ELP measurements by AS-OCT were taken 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively...
October 2013: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Taranjit S Gujral, Ethan S Karp, Marina Chan, Bryan H Chang, Gavin MacBeath
β-catenin is a multifunctional protein that plays a critical role in cell-cell contacts and signal transduction. β-catenin has previously been shown to interact with PDZ-domain-containing proteins through its C terminus. Using protein microarrays comprising 206 mouse PDZ domains, we identified 26 PDZ-domain-mediated interactions with β-catenin and confirmed them biochemically and in cellular lysates. Many of the previously unreported interactions involved proteins with annotated roles in tight junctions...
June 20, 2013: Chemistry & Biology
Aleksandra Szczepkowska, Christine Lagaraine, Vincent Robert, Laurence Dufourny, Jean-Claude Thiéry, Janina Skipor
Ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) preferentially accumulate in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared to other PCBs. We previously reported that the same dose of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced higher concentrations in the CSF of treated animals compared to controls during short days (SD), while no differences were observed during long days (LD). Similarly, the plasma concentration of PCB153 in treated ewes was higher during SD than LD. To understand the structural and molecular events explaining the photoperiodically different concentration of PCBs in the CSF in sheep, we studied the effect of photoperiod on PCB153 action on tight junction (TJ) protein expression in the choroid plexus (CP) of ewes...
May 2013: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Laurent Guillemot, Domenica Spadaro, Sandra Citi
The cytoplamic junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in different cultured cell models. In renal epithelial MDCK cells, depletion of either protein results in a Rho-dependent increase in the expression of claudin-2. Here we examined MDCK cell clones depleted of both cingulin and paracingulin (double-KD cells), and we found that unexpectedly the expression of claudin-2, and also the expression of ZO-3 and claudin-3, were decreased, while RhoA activity was still higher than in control cells...
2013: PloS One
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