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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167512/matrix-metalloproteinase-9-activity-and-a-downregulated-hedgehog-pathway-impair-blood-brain-barrier-function-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-cns-tuberculosis
#1
Sara Brilha, Catherine W M Ong, Babette Weksler, Nacho Romero, Pierre-Olivier Couraud, Jon S Friedland
Central nervous system tuberculosis (CNS TB) has a high mortality and morbidity associated with severe inflammation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from inflammation but the mechanisms causing BBB damage in CNS TB are uncharacterized. We demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) causes breakdown of type IV collagen and decreases tight junction protein (TJP) expression in a co-culture model of the BBB. This increases permeability, surface expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and leukocyte transmigration...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154866/activation-of-igf-1-igfbp-3-signaling-by-berberine-improves-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-of-rats-with-acute-endotoxemia
#2
Yan He, Xiaoming Yuan, Guangrong Zhou, Aiwen Feng
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) play a role in the maintenance of gut mucosal barrier function. Nevertheless, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 and tight junction protein (TJP) expression in small intestinal mucosa are often impaired during endotoxemia. In this model of acute endotoxemia, the regulatory effect of berberine on IGF-I/IGFBP-3 and TJP expression in ileal mucosa was evaluated. The findings revealed systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) suppressed mRNA and protein expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3, but berberine ameliorated their production...
November 14, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114076/circular-rna-dlgap4-ameliorates-ischemic-stroke-outcomes-by-targeting-mir-143-to-regulate-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-associated-with-blood-brain-barrier-integrity
#3
Ying Bai, Yuan Zhang, Bing Han, Li Yang, Xufeng Chen, Rongrong Huang, Fangfang Wu, Jie Chao, Pei Liu, Gang Hu, John H Zhang, Honghong Yao
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are highly expressed in the central nervous system and regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, the potential role of circRNAs in stroke remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the circular RNA DLGAP4 (circDLGAP4) functions as an endogenous microRNA-143 (miR-143) sponge to inhibit miR-143 activity, resulting in the inhibition of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (HECTD1) expression. CircDLGAP4 levels were significantly decreased in the plasma of acute ischemic stroke patients (13 females and 13 males) and in a mouse stroke model...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075202/mitochondrial-atp-depletion-disrupts-caco-2-monolayer-integrity-and-internalizes-claudin-7
#4
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Sander Grefte, Vincent C J de Boer, Lara Zeper, Dorien A M van Dartel, Inge van der Stelt, Melissa Bekkenkamp-Grovenstein, Klaske van Norren, Harry J Wichers, Jaap Keijer
Objective:In vivo studies suggest that intestinal barrier integrity is dependent on mitochondrial ATP production. Here, we aim to provide mechanistic support, using an in vitro model mimicking the oxidative in vivo situation. Methods: Human Caco-2 cells were cultured for 10 days in culture flasks or for 14 days on transwell inserts in either glucose-containing or galactose-containing medium. Mitochondria were visualized and cellular respiration and levels of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) proteins were determined...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034530/gene-expression-and-morphological-changes-in-the-intestinal-mucosa-associated-with-increased-permeability-induced-by-short-term-fasting-in-chickens
#5
S Gilani, G S Howarth, G Nattrass, S M Kitessa, R Barekatain, R E A Forder, C D Tran, R J Hughes
Short-term fasting for 4.5 and 9 hr has been demonstrated to increase intestinal permeability (IP) in chickens. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0, 4.5, 9 and 19.5 hr fasting on intestinal gene expression and villus-crypt architecture of enterocytes in jejunal and ileal samples. On day 38, Ross-308 male birds were fasted according to their group and then euthanised. Two separate intestinal sections (each 2 cm long, jejunum and ileum) were collected. One section was utilised for villus height and crypt depth measurements...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033903/protective-effect-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-against-immune-mediated-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#6
Wenrui Wu, Longxian Lv, Ding Shi, Jianzhong Ye, Daiqiong Fang, Feifei Guo, Yating Li, Xingkang He, Lanjuan Li
Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota participates in the pathogenesis and progression of liver diseases. The severity of immune-mediated liver injury is associated with different microbial communities. Akkermansia muciniphila can regulate immunologic and metabolic functions. However, little is known about its effects on gut microbiota structure and function. This study investigated the effect of A. muciniphila on immune-mediated liver injury and potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two C57BL/6 mice were assigned to three groups (N = 7-8 per group) and continuously administrated A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935573/acrolein-disrupts-tight-junction-proteins-and-causes-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-epithelial-cell-death-leading-to-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-and-permeability
#7
Wei-Yang Chen, Min Wang, Jingwen Zhang, Shirish S Barve, Craig J McClain, Swati Joshi-Barve
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental and dietary factors can affect intestinal epithelial integrity leading to gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Intestinal barrier dysfunction is a pathogenic process associated with many chronic disorders. Acrolein is an environmental and dietary pollutant and a lipid-derived endogenous metabolite. The impact of acrolein on the intestine has not been investigated before and is evaluated in this study, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that oral acrolein exposure in mice caused damage to the intestinal epithelial barrier, resulting in increased permeability and subsequently translocation of bacterial endotoxin-lipopolysaccharide into the blood...
September 19, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753236/blood-spinal-cord-barrier-breakdown-and-pericyte-deficiency-in-peripheral-neuropathy
#8
Reine-Solange Sauer, Juliane Kirchner, Shaobing Yang, Liu Hu, Mathias Leinders, Claudia Sommer, Alexander Brack, Heike L Rittner
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) prevents leakage of molecules, such as pronociceptive mediators, into the spinal cord, but its role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is not completely understood. Rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) develop mechanical allodynia, thermal hypersensitivity, and reduced motor performance (Rota-Rod test) compared with sham-injured mice-similar to mice with spared nerve injury (SNI). The BSCB becomes permeable for small and large tracers 1 day after nerve ligation...
October 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678609/randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-multi-strain-probiotic-on-the-mucosal-microbiota-in-canine-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E Jergens
The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. While studies have reported alterations in fecal (luminal) microbial populations, only limited information is available about the mucosal microbiota of IBD dogs at diagnosis and following medical therapy. Our aim was to characterize the mucosal microbiota and determine the clinical, microbiological, and mucosal homeostatic effects of probiotic treatment in dogs with IBD. Thirty four IBD dogs were randomized to receive standard therapy (ST = diet + prednisone) with or without probiotic...
September 3, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461173/poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-1-regulates-microglia-mediated-decrease-of-endothelial-tight-junction-integrity
#10
Abbas Rezaeian Mehrabadi, Minna A Korolainen, Gary Odero, Donald W Miller, Tiina M Kauppinen
Alzheimer's disease pathology includes, beside neuronal damage, reactive gliosis and reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Microglia are intimately associated with the BBB and upon AD pathology, pro-inflammatory responses of microglia could contribute to BBB damage. To study whether microglia can directly affect BBB integrity, the effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) -stimulated primary murine microglia on co-cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) and murine astrocyte cultures were assessed. We also assessed whether microglial phenotype modulation via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition/ablation can reverse microglial impact on these BBB forming cells...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011121/temporal-bone-paragangliomas-15-years-experience
#11
Mehmet Düzlü, Hakan Tutar, Recep Karamert, Furkan Karaloğlu, Muammer Melih Şahin, Mehmet Göcek, Mehmet Birol Uğur, Nebil Göksu
INTRODUCTION: Temporal bone paragangliomas (TBPs) are benign tumors arising from neural crest cells located along the jugular bulbus and the tympanic plexus. In general surgical excision, radiotherapy and wait-and-scan protocols are the main management modalities for TBPs. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we aim to present our clinical experience with TBPs and to review literature data. METHODS: The patients who were operated for tympanomastoid paraganglioma (TMP) or tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) in our clinic in the last 15 years were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767041/silencing-microrna-143-protects-the-integrity-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-implications-for-methamphetamine-abuse
#12
Ying Bai, Yuan Zhang, Jun Hua, Xiangyu Yang, Xiaotian Zhang, Ming Duan, Xinjian Zhu, Wenhui Huang, Jie Chao, Rongbin Zhou, Gang Hu, Honghong Yao
MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) plays a critical role in various cellular processes; however, the role of miR-143 in the maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity remains poorly defined. Silencing miR-143 in a genetic animal model or via an anti-miR-143 lentivirus prevented the BBB damage induced by methamphetamine. miR-143, which targets p53 unregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), increased the permeability of human brain endothelial cells and concomitantly decreased the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730676/new-biomarkers-for-increased-intestinal-permeability-induced-by-dextran-sodium-sulphate-and-fasting-in-chickens
#13
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health in chickens. As there is limited literature on in vivo biomarkers to assess increased IP in chickens, the objective of this study was to identify a reliable biomarker of IP using DSS ingestion and fasting models. Male Ross chickens (n = 48) were reared until day 14 on the floor pen in an animal care facility, randomized into the following groups: control, DSS and fasting (each with n = 16), and then placed in metabolism cages. DSS was administered in drinking water at 0...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466164/mechanism-of-increased-intestinal-permeability-in-acute-pancreatitis-alteration-in-tight-junction-proteins
#14
Ujjwal Sonika, Pooja Goswami, Bhaskar Thakur, Rajni Yadav, Prasenjit Das, Vineet Ahuja, Anoop Saraya
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal permeability (IP) has been shown to be increased in acute pancreatitis (AP) and is considered to be responsible for development of septic complications. However, the mechanism of increase in IP is not well studied. We studied whether alteration in tight junction proteins (TJP) has any role in altered IP in patients with AP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care referral center. Twenty consecutive moderate and severe AP patients fulfilling the study criteria were included along with 20 controls that underwent gastroduodenoscopy for dyspepsia...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444172/claudins-4-and-7-might-be-valuable-markers-to-distinguish-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-cholangiocarcinoma
#15
Yusuke Ono, Yutaro Hiratsuka, Masaki Murata, Akira Takasawa, Rieko Fukuda, Masanori Nojima, Satoshi Tanaka, Makoto Osanai, Koichi Hirata, Norimasa Sawada
The claudin family members are the functional components of tight junctions. Expression and localization of claudins vary among organs and tumor types. In this study, we examined expression and localization of tight junction proteins (TJP) in human liver tumors, to estimate their usefulness as differential diagnostic markers. The materials used for immunohistochemical analysis were 47 liver tumor specimens including 29 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 cases of cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 3 cases of combined HCC and CC (CHC), and 3 cases of cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC)...
October 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355478/-management-of-complex-tympanojugular-paragangliomas
#16
A Harati, R Schultheiß, K Harati, S Rohde, W Weber, T Deitmer
Background: Tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) are benign, high vascularized, local destructive tumors. Despite many studies in the literature, the management of particularly complex TJP (e. g., posterior fossa and/or carotid artery invasion) remains controversial. In the current study we present our treatment strategies for complex TJP and long-term results. Patients and methods: Between 2003 and 2013, 17 patients with TJP Fisch types C and D were treated in our institution. Primary symptoms were hearing loss, followed by facial nerve palsy and lower cranial nerve impairments...
December 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106638/intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-regulates-tight-junction-protein-levels
#17
Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Haizhong Huo, Weifeng Zhang, Fatemeh Adiliaghdam, Sarah Morrison, Juan M Ramirez, Sarah S Gul, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays a pivotal role in maintaining gut health and well-being. Oral supplementation with IAP in mice improves gut barrier function and prevents luminal proinflammatory factors from gaining access to the circulation. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between IAP and tight junction protein (TJP) expression and function. STUDY DESIGN: The effect of IAP deletion on TJP levels was studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from IAP-knockout and wild type mice...
June 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27007369/trapa-japonica-pericarp-extract-reduces-lps-induced-inflammation-in-macrophages-and-acute-lung-injury-in-mice
#18
Yon-Suk Kim, Jin-Woo Hwang, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Sangkeun Son, Il-Bok Seo, Jae-Hyun Jeong, Ee-Hwa Kim, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Pyo-Jam Park
In this study, we found that chloroform fraction (CF) from TJP ethanolic extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular ROS in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes was reduced, as evidenced by western blot. Our results indicate that CF exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) and NF-κB signaling...
March 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26956465/characterization-of-the-antioxidant-fraction-of-trapa-japonica-pericarp-and-its-hepatic-protective-effects-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
Yon-Suk Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jin-Woo Hwang, Il-Bok Seo, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Sangkeun Son, Jae-Hyun Jeong, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Pyo-Jam Park
The ethanolic extract of Trapa japonica pericarp (TJP) and its various fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant potential. The ethyl acetate fraction (EF) from TJP exhibited significant antioxidant and protective effects against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experimental results showed that the EF suppressed t-BHP-induced damage in Chang cells by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the EF effectively inhibited t-BHP-induced apoptosis by suppressing caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9...
March 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26662673/the-effect-of-leptin-concentrations-and-other-maternal-characteristics-on-gestational-weight-gain-is-different-according-to-pre-gestational-bmi-results-from-a-prospective-cohort
#20
A B Franco-Sena, F Rebelo, Tjp Pinto, D R Farias, G E Silveira, R H Mendes, V T Henriques, G Kac
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin and other selected variables on gestational weight gain (GWG) according to pre-gestational body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Public Health Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. SAMPLE: Two hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women. METHODS: Women were followed at the 5-13, 20-26 and 30-36th gestational weeks. The effects of independent variables on GWG in normal weight (BMI 18...
October 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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