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Reine-Solange Sauer, Juliane Kirchner, Shaobing Yang, Liu Hu, Mathias Leinders, Claudia Sommer, Alexander Brack, Heike L Rittner
The blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) prevents leakage of molecules, such as pronociceptive mediators, into the spinal cord, but its role in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is not completely understood. Rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI) develop mechanical allodynia, thermal hypersensitivity, and reduced motor performance (Rota-Rod test) compared with sham-injured mice-similar to mice with spared nerve injury (SNI). The BSCB becomes permeable for small and large tracers 1 day after nerve ligation...
July 28, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Robin White, Todd Atherly, Blake Guard, Giacomo Rossi, Chong Wang, Curtis Mosher, Craig Webb, Steve Hill, Mark Ackermann, Peter Sciabarra, Karin Allenspach, Jan Suchodolski, Albert E Jergens
The intestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to the pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in dogs. While studies have reported alterations in fecal (luminal) microbial populations, only limited information is available about the mucosal microbiota of IBD dogs at diagnosis and following medical therapy. Our aim was to characterize the mucosal microbiota and determine the clinical, microbiological, and mucosal homeostatic effects of probiotic treatment in dogs with IBD. Thirty four IBD dogs were randomized to receive standard therapy (ST = diet + prednisone) with or without probiotic...
July 5, 2017: Gut Microbes
Abbas Rezaeian Mehrabadi, Minna A Korolainen, Gary Odero, Donald W Miller, Tiina M Kauppinen
Alzheimer's disease pathology includes, beside neuronal damage, reactive gliosis and reduced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Microglia are intimately associated with the BBB and upon AD pathology, pro-inflammatory responses of microglia could contribute to BBB damage. To study whether microglia can directly affect BBB integrity, the effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) -stimulated primary murine microglia on co-cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) and murine astrocyte cultures were assessed. We also assessed whether microglial phenotype modulation via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition/ablation can reverse microglial impact on these BBB forming cells...
April 28, 2017: Neurochemistry International
Mehmet Düzlü, Hakan Tutar, Recep Karamert, Furkan Karaloğlu, Muammer Melih Şahin, Mehmet Göcek, Mehmet Birol Uğur, Nebil Göksu
INTRODUCTION: Temporal bone paragangliomas (TBPs) are benign tumors arising from neural crest cells located along the jugular bulbus and the tympanic plexus. In general surgical excision, radiotherapy and wait-and-scan protocols are the main management modalities for TBPs. OBJECTIVE: In this paper we aim to present our clinical experience with TBPs and to review literature data. METHODS: The patients who were operated for tympanomastoid paraganglioma (TMP) or tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) in our clinic in the last 15 years were enrolled in the study...
December 8, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Ying Bai, Yuan Zhang, Jun Hua, Xiangyu Yang, Xiaotian Zhang, Ming Duan, Xinjian Zhu, Wenhui Huang, Jie Chao, Rongbin Zhou, Gang Hu, Honghong Yao
MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) plays a critical role in various cellular processes; however, the role of miR-143 in the maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity remains poorly defined. Silencing miR-143 in a genetic animal model or via an anti-miR-143 lentivirus prevented the BBB damage induced by methamphetamine. miR-143, which targets p53 unregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), increased the permeability of human brain endothelial cells and concomitantly decreased the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs)...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health in chickens. As there is limited literature on in vivo biomarkers to assess increased IP in chickens, the objective of this study was to identify a reliable biomarker of IP using DSS ingestion and fasting models. Male Ross chickens (n = 48) were reared until day 14 on the floor pen in an animal care facility, randomized into the following groups: control, DSS and fasting (each with n = 16), and then placed in metabolism cages. DSS was administered in drinking water at 0...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Ujjwal Sonika, Pooja Goswami, Bhaskar Thakur, Rajni Yadav, Prasenjit Das, Vineet Ahuja, Anoop Saraya
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal permeability (IP) has been shown to be increased in acute pancreatitis (AP) and is considered to be responsible for development of septic complications. However, the mechanism of increase in IP is not well studied. We studied whether alteration in tight junction proteins (TJP) has any role in altered IP in patients with AP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care referral center. Twenty consecutive moderate and severe AP patients fulfilling the study criteria were included along with 20 controls that underwent gastroduodenoscopy for dyspepsia...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Yusuke Ono, Yutaro Hiratsuka, Masaki Murata, Akira Takasawa, Rieko Fukuda, Masanori Nojima, Satoshi Tanaka, Makoto Osanai, Koichi Hirata, Norimasa Sawada
The claudin family members are the functional components of tight junctions. Expression and localization of claudins vary among organs and tumor types. In this study, we examined expression and localization of tight junction proteins (TJP) in human liver tumors, to estimate their usefulness as differential diagnostic markers. The materials used for immunohistochemical analysis were 47 liver tumor specimens including 29 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 15 cases of cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 3 cases of combined HCC and CC (CHC), and 3 cases of cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC)...
October 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
A Harati, R Schultheiß, K Harati, S Rohde, W Weber, T Deitmer
Background: Tympanojugular paraganglioma (TJP) are benign, high vascularized, local destructive tumors. Despite many studies in the literature, the management of particularly complex TJP (e. g., posterior fossa and/or carotid artery invasion) remains controversial. In the current study we present our treatment strategies for complex TJP and long-term results. Patients and methods: Between 2003 and 2013, 17 patients with TJP Fisch types C and D were treated in our institution. Primary symptoms were hearing loss, followed by facial nerve palsy and lower cranial nerve impairments...
December 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Wei Liu, Dong Hu, Haizhong Huo, Weifeng Zhang, Fatemeh Adiliaghdam, Sarah Morrison, Juan M Ramirez, Sarah S Gul, Sulaiman R Hamarneh, Richard A Hodin
BACKGROUND: Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays a pivotal role in maintaining gut health and well-being. Oral supplementation with IAP in mice improves gut barrier function and prevents luminal proinflammatory factors from gaining access to the circulation. In this study, we sought to explore the relationship between IAP and tight junction protein (TJP) expression and function. STUDY DESIGN: The effect of IAP deletion on TJP levels was studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) generated from IAP-knockout and wild type mice...
June 2016: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Yon-Suk Kim, Jin-Woo Hwang, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Sangkeun Son, Il-Bok Seo, Jae-Hyun Jeong, Ee-Hwa Kim, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Pyo-Jam Park
In this study, we found that chloroform fraction (CF) from TJP ethanolic extract inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular ROS in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes was reduced, as evidenced by western blot. Our results indicate that CF exerts anti-inflammatory effects by down-regulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of MAPK (ERK, JNK and p38) and NF-κB signaling...
March 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yon-Suk Kim, Eun-Kyung Kim, Jin-Woo Hwang, Il-Bok Seo, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Sangkeun Son, Jae-Hyun Jeong, Sang-Ho Moon, Byong-Tae Jeon, Pyo-Jam Park
The ethanolic extract of Trapa japonica pericarp (TJP) and its various fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant potential. The ethyl acetate fraction (EF) from TJP exhibited significant antioxidant and protective effects against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experimental results showed that the EF suppressed t-BHP-induced damage in Chang cells by inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that the EF effectively inhibited t-BHP-induced apoptosis by suppressing caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9...
March 2016: Food & Function
A B Franco-Sena, F Rebelo, Tjp Pinto, D R Farias, G E Silveira, R H Mendes, V T Henriques, G Kac
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin and other selected variables on gestational weight gain (GWG) according to pre-gestational body mass index (BMI). DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Public Health Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. SAMPLE: Two hundred and twenty-eight pregnant women. METHODS: Women were followed at the 5-13, 20-26 and 30-36th gestational weeks. The effects of independent variables on GWG in normal weight (BMI 18...
October 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Andrea Bacciu, Sampath Chandra Prasad, Natalie Sist, Giulia Rossi, Paolo Piazza, Mario Sanna
BACKGROUND: Management of the cervical and petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) is frequently required in Fisch class C tympanojugular paragangliomas (TJPs). The purpose of this study was to discuss the perioperative intervention of the ICA in patients who underwent surgical resection of a TJP. METHODS: A retrospective study of 237 patients surgically treated for Fisch class C TJPs was done to identify cases that required ICA management. RESULTS: Management of the ICA was required in 176 patients (74...
June 2016: Head & Neck
Shuhong Guo, Meghali Nighot, Rana Al-Sadi, Tarik Alhmoud, Prashant Nighot, Thomas Y Ma
Gut-derived bacterial LPS plays an essential role in inducing intestinal and systemic inflammatory responses and have been implicated as a pathogenic factor in necrotizing enterocolitis and inflammatory bowel disease. The defective intestinal tight junction barrier was shown to be an important factor contributing to the development of intestinal inflammation. LPS, at physiological concentrations, causes an increase in intestinal tight junction permeability (TJP) via a TLR4-dependent process; however, the intracellular mechanisms that mediate LPS regulation of intestinal TJP remain unclear...
November 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Mayuka Nakajima, Kei Arimatsu, Tamotsu Kato, Yumi Matsuda, Takayoshi Minagawa, Naoki Takahashi, Hiroshi Ohno, Kazuhisa Yamazaki
Although periodontitis has been implicated as a risk factor for various systemic diseases, the precise mechanisms by which periodontitis induces systemic disease remain to be elucidated. We have previously revealed that repeated oral administration of Porphyromonas gingivalis elicits endotoxemia via changes in the gut microbiota of the ileum, and thereby induces systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. However, it is not clear to what extent a single administration of P. gingivalis could affect gut microbiota composition, gut barrier function, and subsequent influx of gut microbiota into the liver...
2015: PloS One
Pradip Kumar Kamat, Anuradha Kalani, Naira Metreveli, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Ischemic brain stroke is a leading cause of disability and includes hearing loss. Clinical reports have also suggested that there is hearing loss in stroke patients but the mechanism was not determined. Therefore, we hypothesized that hearing loss after cerebral ischemia may be associated with changes to the synapse, gap junction, and sodium channel (NaC) proteins. Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in wild-type mice (I/R group). The lesion volume was determined by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining of the brain sections...
July 2015: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Andrea K Watters, Slava Rom, Jeremy D Hill, Marie K Dematatis, Yu Zhou, Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Jonathan Cena, Raghava Potula, Andrew Skuba, Young-Jin Son, Yuri Persidsky, Servio H Ramirez
Recent reports indicate that neural stem cells (NSCs) exist in a cluster-like formation in close proximity to cerebral microvessels. Similar appearing clusters can be seen ex vivo in NSC cultures termed neurospheres. It is known that this neurosphere configuration is important for preserving stemness and a proliferative state. How NSCs form neurospheres or neuroclusters remains largely undetermined. In this study, we show that primary human NSCs express the tight junction proteins (TJPs): zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudin-1, -3, -5, and -12...
June 15, 2015: Stem Cells and Development
Yirong Yang, Victor M Salayandia, Jeffrey F Thompson, Lisa Y Yang, Eduardo Y Estrada, Yi Yang
BACKGROUND: Minocycline reduces reperfusion injury by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and microglia activity after cerebral ischemia. Prior studies of minocycline investigated short-term neuroprotective effects during subacute stage of stroke; however, the late effects of minocycline against early reperfusion injury on neurovascular remodeling are less well studied. We have shown that spontaneous angiogenesis vessels in ischemic brain regions have high blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability due to lack of major tight junction proteins (TJPs) in endothelial cells at three weeks...
2015: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ali Harati, Thomas Deitmer, Stefan Rohde, Alexander Ranft, Werner Weber, Rolf Schultheiß
BACKGROUND: Tympanojugular paragangliomas (TJPs) are benign, highly vascularized lesions located in the jugular foramen with frequent invasion to the temporal bone, the upper neck, and the posterior fossa cavity. Their natural history, surgical treatment, and outcome have been well addressed in the recent literature; however, there is no consensus regarding the optimal management while minimizing treatment-related morbidity. In this study, we assessed the interdisciplinary microsurgical treatment and outcome of large TJP collected at a single center...
2014: Surgical Neurology International
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