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Oncology and hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207115/current-status-and-future-prospects-of-the-strategy-of-combining-car%C3%A2-t-with-pd%C3%A2-1-blockade-for-antitumor-therapy-review
#1
Jinjing Xu, Qing Zhang, Kang Tian, Haiyu Wang, Hong Yin, Junnian Zheng
The immune system serves an important role in controlling and eradicating malignant cells. Immunotherapy for treating tumors has received much attention in recent years due to its marked effect. There are two approaches which currently lead this field: Chimeric antigen receptor‑modified T‑cell immunotherapy (CAR‑T) and programmed cell death protein-1 blockade (PD‑1 blockade). CAR‑T has emerged as a promising regimen for the treatment of a range of types of cancer, including chronic lymphoid leukemia and neuroblastoma, with studies of long term remission in certain patients...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206328/nutritional-and-hematologic-markers-as-predictors-of-risk-of-surgical-site-infection-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-undergoing-major-oncologic-surgery
#2
Ho-Jin Son, Jong-Lyel Roh, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection is a complication of surgery for patients with head and neck cancer. We examined the risk factors for surgical site infection in patients undergoing surgery for head and neck cancer. METHODS: The study involved 369 patients who underwent surgery for head and neck cancer. Hematological and nutritional parameters were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the risk factors for surgical site infection...
December 5, 2017: Head & Neck
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204195/magnitude-of-neurogenic-tumor-burden-in-pediatric-population-a-tertiary-care-center-study
#3
Shagufta Qadri, Mahboob Hasan, Kafil Akhtar
Objective: Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neoplasm in the past few decades is one of the most gratifying achievements in the field of oncology. This study was aimed to ascertain the burden (incidence and prevalence) and histopathologic features of neurogenic tumors occurring in the pediatric population. Materials and Methods: The study evaluated a total of 492 cases of pediatric tumors over a period of 8 years from 2007 to 2015, including patients of 0-12 years of age group; attending the out-patients and in-patients Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Surgery at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, AMU, Aligarh, with the complaints of tumor or tumor associated sign and symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203150/retroviral-and-lentiviral-safety-analysis-of-gene-modified-t-cell-products-and-infused-hiv-and-oncology-patients
#4
Katherine T Marcucci, Julie K Jadlowsky, Wei-Ting Hwang, Megan Suhoski-Davis, Vanessa E Gonzalez, Irina Kulikovskaya, Minnal Gupta, Simon F Lacey, Gabriela Plesa, Anne Chew, J Joseph Melenhorst, Bruce L Levine, Carl H June
Replication-competent retrovirus/lentivirus (RCR/L) and insertional oncogenesis are potential safety risks with integrating viruses in gene-modified cell therapies. As such, the Food and Drug Administration guidances outline RCR/L-monitoring methods throughout the entire gene therapy treatment cycle. We present data for 17 vector lots, 375 manufactured T cell products, and 308 patients post-infusion across both HIV and oncology indications, showing no evidence of RCR/L. Given our data, a Poisson probability model estimates that a single patient, or a group of patients, would need to be followed for at least 52...
October 20, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200167/a-severe-case-of-murine-typhus-presenting-with-anemia-and-severe-thrombocytopenia
#5
Jade Wulff, Judith Margolin, Nana E Coleman, Gail Demmler-Harrison, Fong Lam, Mona D Shah
We discuss a child with severe thrombocytopenia and mild anemia admitted to the Hematology service who quickly deteriorated to a life-threatening state. However, once rickettsial disease was considered in the differential diagnosis and empiric doxycycline begun, she quickly and fully recovered. A diagnostic panel, including Rickettsia typhi serology, confirmed the diagnosis of murine typhus but this occurred weeks after she had recovered. Given the potential severity of rickettsial diseases and the ease of modern travel across geographic borders, hematology-oncology providers everywhere must consider rickettsial diseases in their differential diagnosis of critically ill children and begin empiric therapy with doxycycline promptly...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198341/concomitant-use-of-corticosteroids-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-patients-with-hematologic-or-solid-neoplasms-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
A Garant, C Guilbault, T Ekmekjian, Z Greenwald, P Murgoi, T Vuong
PURPOSE: Clinical trials studying immune checkpoint inhibitors exclude patients on corticosteroids, due to the hypothesis that corticosteroids may antagonize immunotherapy. We performed a systematic review of the literature looking at the clinical outcomes of cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors and concomitant corticosteroids. METHODS: The following databases were searched for relevant studies: MEDLINE, Embase Classic+Embase, BIOSIS Previews, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the CENTRAL Registry of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Scopus...
December 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196968/nk-cell-therapy-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-can-we-improve-anti-tumor-effect
#7
REVIEW
Catharina H M J Van Elssen, Stefan O Ciurea
After decades since the discovery of natural killer (NK) cells as potential effector cells fighting malignantly transformed and virally infected cells, little progress has been made in their clinical application. This yet unrealized therapeutic effect is presumably, at least in part, due to low numbers of functional NK cells that could be obtained from the peripheral blood relative to tumor burden. Our group hypothesized that a relatively small NK cell number to targeted malignant cells is the cause of a lack of clinical effect...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190182/checkpoint-inhibition-in-pediatric-hematologic-malignancies
#8
Kara L Davis, Archana M Agarwal, Anupam R Verma
Immune surveillance comprising of adaptive and innate immune systems is naturally designed to eliminate cancer development; overexpression of inhibitory receptors and their ligands prevent this check and lead to evasion and hence cancer progression and metastasis. The use of tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeting these checkpoint regulators is promising and has led to this novel field of cancer immunotherapy. The first antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), ipilimumab, showed promising results in clinical trials and was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma in 2011...
November 30, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190179/patient-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-assessment-at-the-point-of-care-with-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer
#9
Joseph R Henderson, Elizabeth Kiernan, Jennifer L McNeer, Angie Mae Rodday, Katherine Spencer, Tara O Henderson, Susan K Parsons
PURPOSE: Advances in health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measurement enable point-of-care assessments. We incorporated the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Global Health Scale in routine outpatient evaluations of adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology patients and survivors at two geographically distinct U.S. institutions. METHODS: AYAs (18-39 years old) completed the 10-question PROMIS Global. Summary subscale scores for Global Physical Health (GPH) and Global Mental Health (GMH) were produced using established scoring algorithms (standardized mean = 50, standard deviation = 10)...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188298/adjuvant-sandwich-chemotherapy-plus-radiotherapy-vs-adjuvant-chemotherapy-alone-for-locally-advanced-bladder-cancer-after-radical-cystectomy-a-randomized-phase-2-trial
#10
Mohamed S Zaghloul, John P Christodouleas, Andrew Smith, Ahmed Abdallah, Hany William, Hussein M Khaled, Wei-Ting Hwang, Brian C Baumann
Importance: Locoregional failure for patients with locally advanced bladder cancer (LABC) after radical cystectomy (RC) is common even with chemotherapy and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) can decrease locoregional failure but has not been studied in the chemotherapy era. Objective: To investigate if adjuvant sequential RT plus chemotherapy can improve locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) compared with adjuvant chemotherapy alone...
November 29, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182495/platelet-transfusion-for-patients-with-cancer-american-society-of-clinical-oncology-clinical-practice-guideline-update
#11
Charles A Schiffer, Kari Bohlke, Meghan Delaney, Heather Hume, Anthony J Magdalinski, Jeffrey J McCullough, James L Omel, John M Rainey, Paolo Rebulla, Scott D Rowley, Michael B Troner, Kenneth C Anderson
Purpose To provide evidence-based guidance on the use of platelet transfusion in people with cancer. This guideline updates and replaces the previous ASCO platelet transfusion guideline published initially in 2001. Methods ASCO convened an Expert Panel and conducted a systematic review of the medical literature published from September 1, 2014, through October 26, 2016. This review builds on two 2015 systematic reviews that were conducted by the AABB and the International Collaboration for Transfusion Medicine Guidelines...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178132/thrombopoietin-receptor-agonists-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-thrombocytopenia-in-patients-with-solid-tumours
#12
REVIEW
Xia Zhang, Yunhai Chuai, Wei Nie, Aiming Wang, Guanghai Dai
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is defined as a peripheral platelet count less than 100×109/L, with or without bleeding in cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. CIT is a significant medical problem during chemotherapy, and it carries the risk of sub-optimal overall survival and bleeding. Alternative interventions to platelet transfusion are limited. Different stages of preclinical and clinical studies have examined the thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) for CIT in patients with solid tumours...
November 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177849/practice-patterns-in-hepatitis-b-virus-screening-before-cancer-chemotherapy-in-a-major-us-hospital-network
#13
Ye Eun Kwak, Stacy M Stein, Joseph K Lim
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy face an increased risk of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. AIM: To determine the HBV screening rate in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy in various clinical settings. METHOD: We identified 11,959 adult cancer patients (age ≥ 18 years) receiving parenteral chemotherapy between 2012 and 2015 within a major US hospital network, including a large university hospital, community teaching hospitals, and community oncology clinics...
November 24, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177551/diagnosis-and-management-of-gastrointestinal-complications-in-adult-cancer-patients-2017-updated-evidence-based-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#14
REVIEW
M Schmidt-Hieber, J Bierwirth, D Buchheidt, O A Cornely, M Hentrich, G Maschmeyer, E Schalk, J J Vehreschild, Maria J G T Vehreschild
Cancer patients frequently suffer from gastrointestinal complications. In this manuscript, we update our 2013 guideline on the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal complications in adult cancer patients by the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society of Hematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO). An expert group was put together by the AGIHO to update the existing guideline. For each sub-topic, a literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases, and strengths of recommendation and the quality of the published evidence for major therapeutic strategies were categorized using the 2015 European Society for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) criteria...
November 24, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174192/implementation-of-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-for-patients-with-febrile-neutropenia
#15
Bahar Madran, Şiran Keske, Gizem Tokça, Ebru Dönmez, Burhan Ferhanoğlul, Mustafa Çetiner, Nil Molinas Mandel, Önder Ergönül
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the effectiveness of our standardized protocol for febrile neutropenia (FN), which was targeted to minimize unintended outcomes and reduce antimicrobial consumption. METHODS: The study was performed in a private hospital with 300 beds. We included all adult hematologic and oncologic cancer inpatients admitted between January 1, 2015-December 31, 2015, and January 1, 2016-May 31, 2017. The outcomes of the study were fatality, infections, and adherence to the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP)...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172873/retrospective-evaluation-of-toceranib-phosphate-palladia-use-in-cats-with-mast-cell-neoplasia
#16
Erika P Berger, Chad M Johannes, Gerald S Post, Gillian Rothchild, Kai-Biu Shiu, Sarah Wetzel, Leslie E Fox
Objectives The purpose of this study was to solicit and compile data from practicing veterinary specialists regarding their use of toceranib in cats with mast cell neoplasia and to provide initial assessment of possible clinical benefit and adverse events. Methods The American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine and Oncology listservs were used to solicit data pertaining to cases in which toceranib was used in the treatment of feline mast cell neoplasia. Cases were included if the following data were received: signalment (age, sex, breed), diagnosis of mast cell neoplasia by either cytology or histopathology, anatomic classification of disease (cutaneous, splenic/hepatic, gastrointestinal, other), previous and concurrent treatment, toceranib dose (mg/kg) and schedule, duration of therapy, best response and documentation of adverse events...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165809/medical-industry-at-tumor-board-three-years-analysis-of-the-open-payments-database-and-comparison-of-oncologic-specialties
#17
Amanjit S Baadh, Mikin Patel, Ketan Patel, Osman Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze and contrast medical industry payments across U.S. oncologic providers, including hematology-oncology (HO), surgical oncology (SO), interventional radiology (IR), and radiation oncology (RO). METHODS: Open-payment-data for each provider including provider specialty, state of practice, industry payor, reason for payment, and amount was compiled for each transaction between 2013 and 2015. Total, mean, and median payment amounts per-provider were calculated for each specialty...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162401/risk-factors-for-poor-mobilization-in-solid-tumors-how-effectively-can-we-mobilize-patients-with-solid-tumors
#18
REVIEW
Fergun Yilmaz, Nur Soyer, Ruchan Uslu, Mahmut Tobu, Burcak Karaca, Guray Saydam, Fahri Sahin, Filiz Vural
BACKGROUND: In the literature, risk factors for poor mobilization were tried to identify. However, most of the studies consisted heterogeneous group of patients including both hematologic and oncologic malignancies. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for poor mobilization in adults with solid tumors. METHODS: We enrolled 49(47 men, 2 women) adult patients with solid tumor who were mobilized between September 2007 and February 2017. All the mobilization procedures were performed with G-CSF(10μg/kg/day) with chemotherapy...
November 8, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156198/the-evolving-role-of-genomic-testing-in-assessing-prognosis-of-patients-with-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#19
REVIEW
David P Steensma
The introduction into routine hematology-oncology clinical practice of molecular genetic testing assays based on next-generation sequencing platforms is prompting reassessment of the importance of molecular assay results in comparison to existing disease-specific risk stratification tools based on clinical assessment and light microscopy. For patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), the most commonly used tools for prognostication currently include the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and the Revised IPSS (IPSS-R), which are based on marrow blast proportion, number and degree of cytopenias, and the metaphase karyotype...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153081/risks-and-benefits-of-twitter-use-by-hematologists-oncologists-in-the-era-of-digital-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Deanna J Attai, Patricia F Anderson, Michael J Fisch, David L Graham, Matthew S Katz, Jennifer Kesselheim, Merry Jennifer Markham, Nathan A Pennell, Mina S Sedrak, Michael A Thompson, Audun Utengen, Don S Dizon
Twitter use by physicians, including those in the hematology-oncology field, is increasing. This microblogging platform provides a means to communicate and collaborate on a global scale. For the oncology professional, an active Twitter presence provides opportunities for continuing medical education, patient engagement and education, personal branding, and reputation management. However, because Twitter is an open, public forum, potential risks such as patient privacy violations, personal information disclosures, professionalism lapses, and time management need to be considered and managed...
October 2017: Seminars in Hematology
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