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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330172/origins-of-tobacco-harm-reduction-in-the-uk-the-product-modification-programme-1972-1991
#1
Jesse Elias, Pamela M Ling
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the current embrace of long-term nicotine maintenance by British governmental agencies and tobacco harm reduction by several leading British public health organisations, describe the context and deliberations of the UK's first formal tobacco risk reduction programme: 'Product Modification'. METHODS: Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents, news archives and Parliamentary debate records. RESULTS: From 1972 to 1991, the British government sought to investigate safer smoking through the 'product modification programme'...
January 12, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329710/hydride-generation-coupled-with-thioglycolic-acid-coated-gold-nanoparticles-as-simple-and-sensitive-headspace-colorimetric-assay-for-visual-detection-of-sb-iii
#2
Tesfaye Tolessa, Zhi-Qiang Tan, Jing-Fu Liu
Antimony (Sb) is a toxic element which causes different health problems including cardiac problems and lung cancer in humans, and its levels in surface water can be noticeably increased to 100 μg/L typically in the proximity of anthropogenic sources. Thus, besides instrumental techniques, it is of great significance to develop a simple, sensitive and selective analytical method for direct analysis of Sb(III) at trace level without the need of any expensive and/or complicated instrumentations and sample preparation processes...
April 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329403/host-tree-selection-by-the-invasive-argentine-ant-hymenoptera-formicidae-in-relation-to-honeydew-producing-insects
#3
Yugo Seko, Daisuke Hayasaka, Atsushi Nishino, Taizo Uchida, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, Takuo Sawahata
The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr; Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is one of the world's most hazardous invasive species, and thus its eradication from Japan is important. Physical and chemical controls can be expensive and cause strong adverse effects on local terrestrial ecosystems regardless of their high efficacy. Here, presence/absence of host-tree selection by Argentine ants was investigated to understand the ant-honeydew-producing insects interactions in order to develop new cultural controls compatible with biodiversity conservation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329300/symmetric-dimeric-bisbenzimidazoles-dbp-n-reduce-methylation-of-rarb-and-pten-while-significantly-increase-methylation-of-rrna-genes-in-mcf-7-cancer-cells
#4
Svetlana V Kostyuk, Margarita A Kvasha, Daria A Khrabrova, Olga V Kirsanova, Elizaveta S Ershova, Elena M Malinovskaya, Natalia N Veiko, Alexander A Ivanov, Vasiliy S Koval, Alexei L Zhuze, Vadim H Tashlitsky, Pavel E Umriukhin, Sergey I Kutsev, Elizaveta S Gromova
BACKGROUND: Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n) are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n) produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328460/terrein-inhibits-migration-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-via-inhibition-of-the-rho-and-rac-signaling-pathways
#5
Anongnard Kasorn, Fabien Loison, Thaned Kangsamaksin, Suchada Jongrungruangchok, Mathurose Ponglikitmongkol
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Progression and aggressiveness of breast cancer is usually associated with its migration and invasion abilities. Recently, natural products with potential anticancer activity have become attractive candidates for alternative treatment of cancer. A fungal metabolite, terrein, isolated from the Aspergillus terreus has been revealed to exhibit selective anticancer activity; although this molecule has a variety of biological activities. The inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in hepatoma, keratinocytes, and lung cancer cells was due to cell cycle arrest without induction of apoptosis...
January 4, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328451/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-bidirectional-effect-of-arsenic-on-erk-signaling-pathway
#6
Dongjie Li, Yutao Wei, Shangzhi Xu, Qiang Niu, Mei Zhang, Shugang Li, Mingxia Jing
Arsenic is a toxic metal, which ultimately leads to cell apoptosis. ERK is considered a key transcriptional regulator of arsenic‑induced apoptosis. Due to a few controversial issues about arsenic‑mediated extracellular signal‑regulated MAP kinases (ERK) signaling, a meta‑analysis was performed. Subgroup analyses demonstrated that high doses (≥2 µmol/l) of arsenic increased the expression of Ras, ERK, ERK1, ERK2, phosphorylated (p)‑ERK, p‑ERK1, and p‑ERK2, while low doses (<2 µmol/l) decreased the expression of Ras, ERK1, p‑ERK, and p‑ERK2 when compared to control groups...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328033/-elemental-status-of-patients-with-various-forms-of-vitiligo
#7
N I Tsiskarishvili, A Katsitadze, N V Tsiskarishvili, I Charischarishvili
Vitiligo is a multifactorial disease in which, in each specific case of its manifestation, different mechanisms of its pathogenesis and different levels of melanin formation in the skin can be involved. Skin is one of the most metabolically active organs. Carrying out a number of vital functions (barrier, protective, respiratory, excretory, metabolic, immune, etc.), it needs microelementss. Of the 92 naturally occurring chemical elements, 81 are found in the human body. Lack of the vital elements, leads to the emergence of diseases, which are based on deficiency, excess or imbalance of micro- and macroelements in the body...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327808/the-rocky-road-to-personalized-medicine-in-acute-myeloid-leukaemia
#8
REVIEW
Bryan Brinda, Irum Khan, Brian Parkin, Heiko Konig
Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a malignant disorder of the myeloid blood lineage characterized by impaired differentiation and increased proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells. Recent technological advances have led to an improved understanding of AML biology but also uncovered the enormous cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity of the disease. Despite this heterogeneity, AML is mostly managed by a 'one-size-fits-all' approach consisting of intensive, highly toxic induction and consolidation chemotherapy...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327186/environmental-pollutants-pathogens-and-immune-system-in-earthworms
#9
Shyamasree Ghosh
Earthworms also known as farmer's friends are natural tillers of soil. They belong to Phylum Annelida and class Oligochaeta. Acid soils with organic matter and surface humus maintain the largest fauna of worms and earthworms. Due to their habitat in soil, they are constantly exposed to microbes and pollution generated by anthropogenic sources. Studies have revealed that damage of the immune system of earthworms can lead to alterations of both morphological and cellular characteristics of worms, activation of signalling pathways and can strongly influence their survival...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325813/cardiac-function-and-exercise-adaptation-in-8-children-with-lpin1-mutations
#10
Antoine Legendre, Diala Khraiche, Phalla Ou, François-Xavier Mauvais, Marine Madrange, Anne-Sophie Guemann, Jean-Philippe Jais, Damien Bonnet, Yamina Hamel, Pascale de Lonlay
INTRODUCTION: Lipin-1 deficiency is a major cause of rhabdomyolysis that are precipitated by febrile illness. The prognosis is poor, with one-third of patients dying from cardiac arrest during a crisis episode. Apart from acute rhabdomyolysis, most patients are healthy, showing normal clinical and cardiac ultrasound parameters. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report cardiac and exercise examinations of 8 children carrying two LPIN1 mutations. The examinations were performed outside of a myolysis episode, but one patient presented with fever during one examination...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325626/fragile-x-syndrome-and-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#11
Deborah A Hall, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
Fragile X-associated disorders encompass several conditions, which are caused by expansion mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited etiology of intellectual disability and results from a full mutation or >200 CGG repeats in FMR1. It is associated with developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, and seizures. Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in premutation carriers of 55-200 CGG repeats in FMR1 and is characterized by kinetic tremor, gait ataxia, parkinsonism, executive dysfunction, and neuropathy...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324749/brand-switching-and-toxic-chemicals-in-cigarette-smoke-a-national-study
#12
Jennifer R Mendel, Sabeeh A Baig, Marissa G Hall, Michelle Jeong, M Justin Byron, Jennifer C Morgan, Seth M Noar, Kurt M Ribisl, Noel T Brewer
INTRODUCTION: US law requires disclosure of quantities of toxic chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke by brand and sub-brand. This information may drive smokers to switch to cigarettes with lower chemical quantities, under the misperception that doing so can reduce health risk. We sought to understand past brand-switching behavior and whether learning about specific chemicals in cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to brand switching. METHODS: Participants were US adult smokers surveyed by phone (n = 1,151, probability sample) and online (n = 1,561, convenience sample)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324279/inhibition-of-udp-glucose-dehydrogenase-by-6-thiopurine-and-its-oxidative-metabolites-possible-mechanism-for-its-interaction-within-the-bilirubin-excretion-pathway-and-6tp-associated-liver-toxicity
#13
Chamitha J Weeramange, Cassie M Binns, Chixiang Chen, Ryan J Rafferty
6-Thiopurine (6TP) is an actively prescribed drug in the treatment of various diseases ranging from Crohn's disease and other inflammatory diseases to acute lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's leukemia. While 6TP has beneficial therapeutic uses, severe toxicities are also reported with its use, such as jaundice and liver toxicity. While numerous investigations into the mode in which toxicity originates has been undertaken. None have investigated the effects of inhibition towards UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase (UDPGDH), an oxidative enzyme responsible for UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) formation or UDP-Glucuronosyl transferase (UGT1A1), which is responsible for the conjugation of bilirubin with UDPGA for excretion...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323792/the-retinamide-vnlg-152-inhibits-ar-ar-v7-and-mnk-eif4esignaling-pathways-to-suppress-emt-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-xenograft-growth
#14
Vidya P Ramamurthy, Senthilmurugan Ramalingam, Lalji K Gediya, Vincent C O Njar
VNLG-152, a lead novel retinamide (NR) shown to suppress growth and progression in genetically diverse PCa cells via inhibition of AR signaling and eIF4E translational machinery. Herein, we report therapeutic effects of VNLG-152 on castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) growth and metastatic phenotype in CRPC tumor xenograft model. Administration of VNLG-152 significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the growth of aggressive CWR22Rv1 tumors by 63.4% and 76.3% respectively (P = 0.001), vs. vehicle with no host toxicity...
January 11, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323758/highly-stable-new-organic-inorganic-perovskite-ch%C3%A2-nh%C3%A2-%C3%A2-pdbr%C3%A2-synthesis-structure-and-physical-properties
#15
Xixia Liu, Tang Jiao Huang, Liuyang Zhang, Baoshan Tang, Nengduo Zhang, Diwen Shi, Hao Gong
Lead halide perovskite has attracted striking attention recently due to their appealing properties. However, toxicity and stability are two main factors restricting its application. In this work, we experimentally synthesized less toxic and highly stable Pd-based hybrid perovskite after exploring different experimental conditions. This new hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (CH₃NH₃)₂PdBr₄ was found to be an orthorhombic crystal (Cmce, Z=4) with lattice parameters a=8.00 Å, b=7.99 Å, c= 18.89 Å. The Cmce symmetry and lattices parameters were confirmed using Pawley refinement...
January 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323695/lead-toxicity-in-the-pediatric-patient-with-sickle-cell-disease-unique-risks-and-management
#16
Josephine Misun Jung, Radhika Peddinti
Lead toxicity is the result of lead ingestion, one of the most common ingestions in the pediatric population. Nationwide and statewide efforts to recognize and curtail this epidemic have led to declining rates of toxicity. In patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), lead toxicity can be an elusive diagnosis due to overlapping symptom profiles, and inconsistent follow-up with a primary care physician can make the diagnosis even more difficult. In this article, two illustrative cases of lead toxicity in patients with SCD are described...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323687/pediatric-endocrinology-lead-toxicity-in-sickle-cell-disease-and-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#17
EDITORIAL
Joseph R Hageman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322868/in-silico-approaches-to-evaluate-the-molecular-properties-of-organophosphate-compounds-to-inhibit-acetylcholinesterase-activity-in-housefly
#18
Parthiban Marimuthu, Yong-Jin Lee, Byung-Hoon Kim, Seong S Seo
Organophosphate compounds (OPC) have become the primary choice as insecticides and is widely used across the world. Additionally, OPCs were also commonly used as a chemical warfare agent that triggers a great challenge to public safety. Exposure of OPCs to human causes immediate excitation of cholinergic neurotransmission through transient elevation of synaptic acetylcholine (ACh) levels and accumulations. Likewise, prolonged exposure of OPCs can affect the processes in immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, cardiovascular toxicity and several others...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322615/melatonin-protects-against-a%C3%AE-induced-neurotoxicity-in-primary-neurons-via-mir-132-pten-akt-foxo3a-pathway
#19
Yue Zhao, Ranran Zhao, Jintao Wu, Qian Wang, Kunkun Pang, Qingqing Shi, Qing Gao, Yanlai Hu, Xiaoguang Dong, Jing Zhang, Jinhao Sun
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a kind of neurodegenerative disorder associated with age. Investigations suggest that amyliod-β (Aβ) is implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. The accumulation of Aβ in the brain causes oxidative stress and synaptic toxicity, leads to synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Previous investigations suggest that melatonin an endogenous hormone can counteract Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. However, the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced toxicity and melatonin treatment remain elusive...
January 11, 2018: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322390/authentication-of-synthetic-environmental-contaminants-and-their-bio-transformation-products-in-toxicology-polychlorinated-biphenyls-as-an-example
#20
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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