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what is ecmo

Ming Luo, Jing Lin, Zhen Qin, Lei Du
RATIONALE: Ebstein anomaly is a common congenital heart disease that may induce severe tricuspid regurgitation and dilation of the "atrialized" portion of the right ventricle. Patients who undergo surgery to correct Ebstein anomaly are at high risk of postoperative right-sided heart failure, yet little is known about what pre-, peri-, or postoperative procedures may help reduce this risk. PATIENT CONCERNS: Here, we describe 3 cases of adults with Ebstein anomaly who underwent corrective surgery and in whom right-sided heart failure occurred with severe tricuspid regurgitation detected by transesophageal echocardiography...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Iki Adachi, Sarah Burki, Charles D Fraser
The last decade has witnessed significant advancement in the field of ventricular assist device (VAD) support. Although device options for pediatric patients were previously severely limited because of body size constraints, this frustrating situation has gradually been changing, owing to ongoing device miniaturization. Recognition of the superiority of VAD support compared with conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support has spurred enthusiasm for VAD support in children. In this article, we discuss the current status of pediatric VAD support; where do we stand now and where will we be heading? Because this field is rapidly changing, it is anticipated that this article will provide a general overview of what is currently occurring in the field of pediatric VAD support...
January 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Annual
Onnen Moerer, Tommaso Tonetti, Michael Quintel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe respiratory failure due to the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) might require rescue therapy measures beyond even extended standard care to ensure adequate oxygenation and survival. This review provides a summary and assessment of treatment options that can be beneficial when the standard approach fails. RECENT FINDINGS: 'Life-threatening' conditions or refractory hypoxemia during mechanical ventilation are more a matter of personal rating than an objective diagnosis based on defined and/or unanimously agreed thresholds that would mandate the use of rescue therapies...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Sacha Rozencwajg, Matthieu Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Akil Walli, Troels Dirch Poulsen, Mette Dam, Jens Børglum
Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a fatal complication when doses of propofol administration exceed 4 mg/kg/h for more than 48 hours. Propofol overdosage is not uncommon in patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE). We describe a case of refractory status epilepticus complicated by propofol infusion syndrome and collect from 5 databases all reports of refractory status epilepticus cases that were treated by propofol and developed the syndrome and outline whether refractory status epilepticus treatment with propofol is standardized according to international recommendations, compare it with alternative medications, and discuss how this syndrome can be treated and prevented...
2016: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
Takeshi Uzuka, Masanori Nakamura, Tomohiro Nakajima, Shinichi Kusudoh, Hiroaki Usubuchi, Akihiko Tanaka, Noriyasu Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Hemoptysis is a common complication in all kinds of surgery. However, it is rarely critical because it resolves with or without intervention. CASE PRESENTATION: Here the authors present what is believed to be an unprecedented report of a case involving a fatal idiopathic bronchial hemorrhage complication during cardiac surgery. Eighty-five-year-old female with severe aorticvalve stenosis had elective aortic valve replacement. Subsequently, she developed diffuse bilateral severe idiopathic bronchial hemorrhage which required maximum intervention such as external bronchial ligation, V-A ECMO, coil embolization of bronchial artery and internal airway blockage by spigot...
May 5, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Andres Oswaldo Razo-Vazquez, Kevin Thornton
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use in adults is rapidly increasing in its use for both cardiac and respiratory failure. ECMO exists in 2 primary configurations: veno-venous ECMO, used in the setting of isolated respiratory failure, and veno-arterial ECMO, which can be used in respiratory failure but is mandatory in the setting of cardiac failure. Acute kidney injury occurs frequently in patients on ECMO, and renal replacement therapy is often required. Continuous forms of renal replacement therapy predominate, but there is a high degree of variation in clinical practice among ECMO centers internationally...
May 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Roger Jelliffe
Acutely ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients often have large apparent volumes of distribution of drugs and, because of this, their drug clearance (CL) is usually also increased. 'Augmented renal Cl' is a current issue in the management of drug therapy for acutely ill and unstable ICU patients; however, Cl, the product of volume and the rate constant for excretion, describes only a theoretical volume of drug cleared per unit of time. Information of the actual rate of movement of the drug itself is obscured...
August 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Jeremiah W Awori Hayanga, Alena Lira, Jonathan K Aboagye, Heather K Hayanga, Jonathan D'Cunha
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the effect of centre volume on survival when extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used as a bridge to lung transplantation (LTx). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing data on adult lung transplantations performed between 2000 and 2014. Centres were categorized based on volume of transplants into low-, medium- and high-volume centres (1-5, 6-15 and >15, respectively). Baseline characteristics were assessed and a Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival with log-rank test...
April 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Ayako Honda, Masato Morita, Akiko Taniguchi, Akihiko Tabuchi, Sadahiro Kubo
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is known to be the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. A nearly fatal case of postoperative TRALI, successfully managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), is reported. The patient was a 70-year-old woman for whom laparoscopic nephrectomy was planned. She received several units of packed red blood cells and fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) intraoperatively due to massive bleeding. At the end of the operation, her PaO2/FIO2 ratio was 504, and she was extubated...
November 2015: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
David Dreizin, Jay Menaker, Thomas M Scalea
The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of severe traumatic injuries treatable with ECMO and their imaging features, considerations for cannula placement, and complications that may arise in polytraumatized patients on extracorporeal life support. Recent major advances in miniaturization and biocompatibility of ECMO devices have dramatically increased their safety profile and expanded the application of ECMO to patients with severe polytrauma.
October 2015: Emergency Radiology
James D Geiger, Ronald B Hirschl
The pace of medical innovation continues to increase. The deployment of new technologies in surgery creates many ethical challenges including how to determine safety of the technology, what is the timing and process for deployment of a new technology, how are patients informed before undergoing a new technology or technique, how are the outcomes of a new technology evaluated and how are the responsibilities of individual patients and society at large balanced. Ethical considerations relevant to the implementation of ECMO and robotic surgery are explored to further discussion of how we can optimize the delicate balance between innovation and regulation...
June 2015: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
James M Blum, William R Lynch, Craig M Coopersmith
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a temporary technique for providing life support for cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary dysfunction, or both. The two forms of ECMO, veno-arterial (VA) and veno-venous (VV), are used to support cardiopulmonary and pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. Historically, ECMO was predominantly used in the neonatal and pediatric populations, as early adult studies failed to improve outcomes. ECMO has become far more common in the adult population because of positive results in published case series and clinical trials during the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in 2009 to 2010...
June 2015: Chest
S R Hosmane, T Barrow, A Ashworth, E Smith
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is the short-term (days to weeks) support of patients with severe respiratory and/or cardiac failure. The use of these devices has been well established in paediatric and post-heart and lung transplantation patients; however, its use in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has gained acceptance as standard clinical practice over the past decade. The results of the CESAR trial (Conventional ventilation or ECMO for Severe Adult Respiratory failure) showed significant survival benefit for patients with ARDS undergoing ECMO...
May 2015: Clinical Radiology
Aung Myat, Niket Patel, Shana Tehrani, Adrian P Banning, Simon R Redwood, Deepak L Bhatt
A unifying definition of what constitutes high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention remains elusive. This reflects the existence of several recognized patient, anatomic, and procedural characteristics that, when combined, can contribute to elevating risk. The relative inability to withstand the adverse hemodynamic sequelae of dysrhythmia, transient episodes of ischemia-reperfusion injury, or distal embolization of atherogenic material associated with coronary intervention serve as a common thread to tie this patient cohort together...
February 2015: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
Hwee Min D Lee, John R H Archer, Paul I Dargan, David M Wood
CONTEXT: Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) are being used together or in close succession in the management of circulatory failure secondary to cardiotoxic drug poisoning. There have been reports of mechanical problems, including fat emulsion agglutination, clogging, increased blood clot formation and even cracking of parts of the machine, in patients concurrently receiving VA-ECMO and ILE as part of parenteral nutrition. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the adverse effects associated with the combined use of ILE and ECMO in the poisoned patient...
March 2015: Clinical Toxicology
Ralph Tramm, Dragan Ilic, Andrew R Davies, Vincent A Pellegrino, Lorena Romero, Carol Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support that targets the heart and lungs. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe respiratory failure accesses and returns blood from the venous system and provides non-pulmonary gas exchange. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for severe cardiac failure or for refractory cardiac arrest (extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR)) provides gas exchange and systemic circulation. The configuration of ECMO is variable, and several pump-driven and pump-free systems are in use...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Warwick W Butt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2014: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Simon J Finney
Extracorporeal membrane oxygen (ECMO) has been used for many years in patients with life-threatening hypoxaemia and/or hypercarbia. While early trials demonstrated that it was associated with poor outcomes and extensive haemorrhage, the technique has evolved. It now encompasses new technologies and understanding that the lung protective mechanical ventilation it can facilitate is inextricably linked to improving outcomes for patients. The positive results from the CESAR (Conventional ventilation or ECMO for Severe Adult Respiratory failure) study and excellent outcomes in patients who suffered severe influenza A (H1N1/09) infection have established ECMO in the care of patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome...
September 2014: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
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