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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909604/upregulation-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-may-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-biliary-atresia
#1
Chun Jing Ye, Jiang Wang, Yi Fan Yang, Zhen Shen, Gong Chen, Yan Lei Huang, Yi Jie Zheng, Rui Dong, Shan Zheng
OBJECTIVES:  Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive inflammatory obstructive cholangiopathy in infants. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is known to play an important role as a late mediator of inflammation. However, it is not clear whether HMGB1 levels are of clinical significance in patients with BA. The aim of this study was to determine correlations between serum HMGB1 levels and the clinicopathologic features of BA. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  Serum samples were collected from 19 infants with BA, 7 infants with anicteric choledochal cysts (CC) and normal liver function, and 8 healthy controls...
June 17, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909515/influence-of-biliopancreatic-diversion-on-pregnancy-outcomes-in-comparison-to-other-bariatric-surgery-procedures
#2
S De Carolis, A Botta, Gelsomina Del Sordo, R Guerrisi, S Salvi, M P De Carolis, A Iaconelli, P Giustacchini, M Raffaelli, A Lanzone
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy after bariatric surgery (BS) has an increased risk for small-for-gestational-age infants (SGA), shorter length of gestation, and probably perinatal mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate if biliopancreatic diversion could impair pregnancy outcomes in comparison to other bariatric surgery procedures. METHODS: We conducted a cohort retrospective single-center study in 65 women before and after BS. Thirty-one pregnancies occurred before BS, while 109 after BS, amongst which n = 51 after biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) and n = 58 after non-malabsorptive procedures...
June 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909441/annular-pancreas-in-china-9-years-experience-from-a-single-center
#3
REVIEW
DengLiang Wang, Quan Kang, ShuJun Shi, Wei Hu
To summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis among 152 children with annular pancreas (AP). A retrospective review of 152 patients with AP who were treated with surgical repair between January 2009 and August 2017 was performed at our pediatric surgical units. Presenting symptoms, birth weight, radiological findings, associated anomalies, the type of surgery performed were analyzed. (1) 152 patients were identified, out of which 82 were males, and 70 were females; (2) the average birth weight of children with AP was less than that of healthy newborns...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909381/maternal-immunisation-in-pregnancy-to-protect-newborn-infants
#4
Kathryn M Edwards
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909352/the-role-of-milk-fat-globule-membranes-in-behavior-and-cognitive-function-using-a-suckling-rat-pup-supplementation-model
#5
Lauren R Brink, Bo Lönnerdal
Milk fat globule membranes (MFGM) surround droplets delivering lipids to the breast-fed infant and are enriched with glycoproteins upon exocytosis out of the mammary cell. MFGM is typically removed during processing of cow milk for the manufacture of infant formula. Recent clinical trials have found that formula supplemented with bovine MFGM improved cognition. Here, we aimed to explore the mechanisms behind this improved developmental outcome. Sprague-Dawley rats were bred, and their litters were manipulated to either 10 pups to represent normal growth (N) or 16 pups to represent restricted growth (R) per dam...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909251/fnirs-reveals-enhanced-brain-activation-to-female-versus-male-infant-directed-speech-relative-to-adult-directed-speech-in-young-human-infants
#6
Simone Sulpizio, Hirokazu Doi, Marc H Bornstein, Joy Cui, Gianluca Esposito, Kazuyuki Shinohara
We hypothesized an association between auditory stimulus structure and activity in the brain that underlies infant auditory preference. In a within-infant design, we assessed brain activity to female and male infant directed relative to adult directed speech in 4-month-old infants using fNIRS. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that enhanced frontal brain activation, specifically in prefrontal cortex that is involved in emotion and reward, is evoked selectively by infant directed speech produced by female voices and may serve as a neuronal substrate for attention to and preference for "motherese" displayed by infants...
June 14, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909244/change-in-viral-bronchiolitis-management-in-hospitals-in-the-uk-after-the-publication-of-nice-guideline
#7
Rachael Barr, Elliott J Carande, Andrew J Pollard, Simon B Drysdale
BACKGROUND: Viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of hospitalisation in young infants. It has previously been shown that many United Kingdom (UK) hospital Trusts were not compliant with many aspects of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) bronchiolitis guideline prior to its publication. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate changes in the management of bronchiolitis by hospital Trusts between 2015 (before NICE guideline publication) and 2017, after publication...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909190/pediatric-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-pyeloplasty-does-age-matter
#8
T Kawal, A K Srinivasan, D Shrivastava, J Van Batavia, D Weiss, C Long, A R Shukla
BACKGROUND: Although shown to be safe in infancy, robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP) for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is most commonly performed in older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: This study examined a contemporary RALP experience at a single tertiary pediatric center and compared outcomes in infants aged ≤1 year with an older cohort. METHODS AND DESIGN: All RALP procedures were entered into an Institutional Review Board-approved data registry from 2012 to 2016...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909134/the-influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-on-vaccine-responses
#9
REVIEW
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
There is substantial variation between individuals in the immune response to vaccinations. The intestinal microbiome plays a crucial rule in the development and regulation of the immune system and therefore its composition might affect how individuals respond to vaccinations. In this review, we summarise studies that investigated the influence of the intestinal microbiome on humoral and cellular vaccine responses. To date, only four studies (three in infants and one in adults) have investigated the influence of the intestinal microbiome on vaccine responses...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909074/catheter-based-closure-of-the-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-lower-weight-infants
#10
REVIEW
Leeann R Pavlek, Jonathan L Slaughter, Darren P Berman, Carl H Backes
Risks associated with drug therapy and surgical ligation have led health care providers to consider alternative strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. Catheter-based PDA closure is the procedure of choice for ductal closure in adults, children, and infants ≥6kg. Given evidence among older counterparts, interest in catheter-based closure of the PDA in lower weight (<6kg) infants is growing. Among these smaller infants, the goals of this review are to: (1) provide an overview of the procedure; (2) review the types of PDA closure devices; (3) review the technical success (feasibility); (4) review the risks (safety profile); (5) discuss the quality of evidence on procedural efficacy; (6) consider areas for future research...
June 13, 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908886/the-potential-role-of-substance-p-in-brainstem-homeostatic-control-in-the-pathogenesis-of-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-sids
#11
REVIEW
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard
Victims of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are believed to have an underlying dysfunction in medullary homeostatic control that impairs critical responses to life threatening challenges such as hypoxia, hypercarbia and asphyxia, often during a sleep period. This failure is thought to result from abnormalities in a network of neural pathways in the medulla oblongata that control respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic function and arousal. Studies have mainly focused on the role of serotonin, 5-hydroxytyptamine (5HT), although the neuropeptide substance P (SP) has also been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of medullary homeostatic function, often in conjunction with 5-HT...
May 5, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908648/maternal-perceived-stress-during-pregnancy-increases-risk-for-low-neonatal-iron-at-delivery-and-depletion-of-storage-iron-at-one-year
#12
Danielle N Rendina, Sharon E Blohowiak, Christopher L Coe, Pamela J Kling
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of maternal stress during pregnancy on newborn iron and stage 1 iron deficiency at 1 year of age. STUDY DESIGN: In total, 245 mothers and their newborn infants (52% male; 72% white) were recruited at the Meriter Hospital Birthing Center on the basis of known risk factors for iron deficiency. Umbilical cord blood hemoglobin and zinc protoporphyrin/heme (ZnPP/H) were determined to evaluate erythrocyte iron and plasma ferritin was determined to reflect storage iron...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908508/increment-of-ambient-exposure-to-fine-particles-and-the-reduced-human-fertility-rate-in-china-2000-2010
#13
Tao Xue, Tong Zhu
Epidemiological and toxicological studies suggest that exposure to ambient fine particles (PM2.5 ) can reduce human reproductive capacity. We previously reported, based on spatial epidemiology, that higher levels of PM2.5 exposure were associated with a lower fertility rate (FR) in China. However, that study was limited by a lack of temporal variation. Using first-difference regression, we linked temporal changes in FR and PM2.5 with adjustment for ecological covariates across 2806 counties in China during 2000-2010...
June 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908431/smoking-ban-and-health-at-birth-evidence-from-hungary
#14
Tamás Hajdu, Gábor Hajdu
In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth...
June 13, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908311/longitudinal-study-of-neonatal-brain-tissue-volumes-in-preterm-infants-and-their-ability-to-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#15
REVIEW
L Gui, S Loukas, F Lazeyras, P S Hüppi, D E Meskaldji, C Borradori Tolsa
Premature birth has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the relation between such outcomes and brain growth in the neonatal period has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigates longitudinal brain development between birth and term-equivalent age (TEA) by quantitative imaging in a cohort of premature infants born between 26 and 36 weeks gestational age (GA), to provide insight into the relation of brain growth with later neurodevelopmental outcomes. Longitudinal T2-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 84 prematurely born infants acquired shortly after birth and TEA were automatically segmented into cortical gray matter (CGM), unmyelinated white matter (UWM), subcortical gray matter (SGM), cerebellum (CB) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
June 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908039/no-neurodevelopmental-benefit-of-cerebral-oximetry-in-the-first-randomised-trial-in-preterm-infants-during-the-first-days-of-life-safeboosc-ii
#16
Anne M Plomgaard, Thomas Alderliesten, Frank van Bel, Manon Benders, Olivier Claris, Malaika Cordeiro, Eugene Dempsey, Monica Fumagalli, Christian Gluud, Simon Hyttel-Sorensen, Petra Lemmers, Adelina Pellicer, Gerhard Pichler, Gorm Greisen
AIM: Cerebral hypoxia has been associated with neurodevelopmental impairment. We studied whether reducing cerebral hypoxia in extremely preterm infants during the first 72 hours of life affected neurological outcomes at two years of corrected age. METHODS: In 2012-2013 the phase II randomised Safeguarding the Brains of our Smallest Children trial compared visible cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) monitoring in an intervention group and blinded NIRS monitoring in a control group...
June 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908036/acquired-von-willebrand-syndrome-in-congenital-heart-disease-surgery-results-from-an-observational-case-series
#17
Vanya Icheva, Martina Nowak-Machen, Ulrich Budde, Karl Jaschonek, Felix Neunhoeffer, Matthias Kumpf, Michael Hofbeck, Christian Schlensak, Gesa Wiegand
BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery of the newborn and infant with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with a high rate of intraoperative bleeding complications. CHD-related anatomic features such as valve stenoses or patent arterial ducts can lead to enhanced shear stress in blood stream and thus cause acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intraoperative incidence and impact of aVWS after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in neonates and infants with complex CHD...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908001/easy-words-reference-resolution-in-a-malevolent-referent-world
#18
Lila R Gleitman, John C Trueswell
This article describes early stages in the acquisition of a first vocabulary by infants and young children. It distinguishes two major stages, the first of which operates by a stand-alone word-to-world pairing procedure and the second of which, using the evidence so acquired, builds a domain-specific syntax-sensitive structure-to-world pairing procedure. As we show, the first stage of learning is slow, restricted in character, and to some extent errorful, whereas the second procedure is determinative, rapid, and essentially errorless...
June 15, 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907944/25-gauge-lens-sparing-vitrectomy-with-dissection-of-retrolental-adhesions-on-the-peripheral-retina-for-familial-exudative-vitreoretinopathy-in-infants
#19
Jin Ma, Yin Hu, Lin Lu, Xiaohu Ding
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical outcome of 25-gauge lens-sparing vitrectomy with dissection of retrolental adhesions on the peripheral retina for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy in infants. METHODS: Fifty-one eyes of 39 infants with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy associated with retrolental adhesions on the peripheral retina, retinal fold with macular detachment, and partial lens opacity. A 25-gauge lens-sparing vitrectomy was performed, and retrolental adhesions between the peripheral retina and the posterior lens capsule were surgically dissected...
June 16, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907939/feasibility-of-quantitative-ultrasonography-for-the-detection-of-metabolic-bone-disease-in-preterm-infants-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Liting Tong, Jaya Sujatha Gopal-Kothandapani, Amaka C Offiah
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is characterised by disordered bone mineralisation and is therefore an increased fracture risk. Preterm infants are especially at risk due to incomplete in utero bone accretion during the last trimester. Currently, diagnosing metabolic bone disease mainly relies on biochemistry and radiographs. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative ultrasound (US) are used less frequently. However, biochemical measurements correlate poorly with bone mineralisation and although scoring systems exist for metabolic bone disease, radiographs are subjective and do not detect early features of osteopenia...
June 16, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
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