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acetylcholinesterase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225493/acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-treatment-alleviated-cognitive-impairment-caused-by-delayed-encephalopathy-due-to-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#1
Kumi Yanagiha, Kazuhiro Ishii, Akira Tamaoka
INTRODUCTION: Delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can even occur in patients with mild symptoms of acute CO poisoning. Some cases taking conventional hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy or steroid-pulse therapy may be insufficient, and AchEI may be effective. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSES: We report two cases of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO poisoning involving two women aged 69 (Case 1) and 60 years (Case 2) whose cognitive function improved with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AchEI) treatment...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225154/human-butyrylcholinesterase-efficacy-against-nerve-agent-exposure
#2
Beth A Reed, Carol L Sabourin, David E Lenz
Acetylcholinesterase is vital for normal operation of many processes in the body. Following exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, death can ensue without immediate medical intervention. Current therapies mitigate the cholinergic crisis caused by nerve agents but do not fully prevent long-term health concerns, for example, brain damage following seizures. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a stoichiometric bioscavenger being investigated as an antidote for OP nerve agent poisoning. HuBChE sequesters OP nerve agent in the bloodstream preventing the nerve agent from reaching critical target organ systems...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222393/caffeine-prevents-changes-in-muscle-caused-by-high-intensity-interval-training
#3
Juliano M Vieira, Jessié M Gutierres, Fabiano B Carvalho, Luciane B Pereira, Liziele S Oliveira, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Marília V Rodrigues, Jossiele Leitemperger, Vânia Loro, Cristina C Krewer, Marina S Vencato, Roselia M Spanevello
The use of ergogenic substances such as caffeine has become a strategy to enhance sports performance. In the present study we evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) associated with caffeine intake on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Ca(2+)ATPase activity and glycogen levels in the muscles of rats were evaluated. The animals were divided in groups: control, caffeine 4 or 8mg/kg, HIIT, HIIT plus caffeine 4 or caffeine 8mg/kg. Our results showed a decrease in glycogen levels in muscle in all trained groups after acute session exercise, while that an increase in glycogen levels was observed in all groups in relation to control in chronic exercise protocol...
February 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220973/enzyme-controlled-nanodevice-for-acetylcholine-triggered-cargo-delivery-based-on-janus-au-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles
#4
Antoni Llopis-Lorente, Paula Diez, Cristina de la Torre, Alfredo Sanchez, Felix Sancenon, Elena Aznar, Maria D Marcos, Paloma Martínez-Ruíz, Ramón Martínez-Máñez, Reynaldo Villalonga
This work reports a new gated nanodevice for acetylcholine-triggered cargo delivery. We prepared and characterized Janus Au-mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with acetylcholinesterase on the Au face and with supramolecular β-cyclodextrin:benzimidazole inclusion complexes as caps on the mesoporous silica face. The nanodevice is able to selectively deliver the cargo in the presence of acetylcholine via enzyme-mediated acetylcholine hydrolysis, locally lowering the pH and opening the supramolecular gate...
February 21, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220522/an-efficient-synthesis-of-bi-aryl-pyrimidine-heterocycles-potential-new-drug-candidates-to-treat-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Tanzeel Ur Rehman, Islam Ullah Khan, Muhammad Ashraf, Hamadeh Tarazi, Sadaf Riaz, Muhammad Yar
A series of 13 novel pyrimidine-based sulfonamides 6a-m were synthesized in short periods of time under microwave conditions in good to excellent yield (54-86%). The chemical structures of these heterocycles consist of a central pyrimidine ring having a phenyl group and pyrimidine groups with sulfonamide motifs. The enzyme inhibitory potential of these compounds was investigated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) because these enzymes play a crucial role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease...
February 21, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219821/neurotoxic-responses-in-brain-tissues-of-rainbow-trout-exposed-to-imidacloprid-pesticide-assessment-of-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-activity-oxidative-stress-and-acetylcholinesterase-activity
#6
Ahmet Topal, Gonca Alak, Mustafa Ozkaraca, Aslı Cilingir Yeltekin, Selim Comaklı, Gurdal Acıl, Mine Kokturk, Muhammed Atamanalp
The extensive use of imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, causes undesirable toxicity in non-targeted organisms including fish in aquatic environments. We investigated neurotoxic responses by observing 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) activity, oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rainbow trout brain tissue after 21 days of imidacloprid exposure at levels of (5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 20 mg/L). The obtained results indicated that 8-OHdG activity did not change in fish exposed to 5 mg/L of imidacloprid, but 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L of imidacloprid significantly increased 8-OHdG activity compared to the control (p < 0...
February 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219697/effect-of-salvia-miltiorrhiza-root-extract-on-brain-acetylcholinesterase-and-butyrylcholinesterase-activities-their-mrna-levels-and-memory-evaluation-in-rats
#7
Marcin Ozarowski, Przemyslaw L Mikolajczak, Anna Piasecka, Radoslaw Kujawski, Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Anna Bogacz, Michal Szulc, Ewa Kaminska, Malgorzata Kujawska, Agnieszka Gryszczynska, Piotr Kachlicki, Waldemar Buchwald, Andrzej Klejewski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Lamiaceae), one of the most important and popular plants of traditional medicine of Asia, is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and in central nervous system disturbances. The main aim of this study was to assess the influence of subchronic (28-fold) administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza root extract (SE, 200mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioural activity and memory of rats and to evaluate the activities of cholinesterases (AChE and BuChE) and gene expression levels of AChE and BuChE as well as of beta-secretase (BACE1) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in vivo...
February 17, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217929/phytochemical-characterization-antibacterial-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-cryptostephanus-vansonii-an-endemic-amaryllid
#8
Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O Aremu, Jude C Chukwujekwu, Jiri Gruz, Jiri Skorepa, Karel Doležal, Cuthbert A T Katsvanga, Johannes Van Staden
Cryptostephanus vansonii I. Verd., an endemic Amaryllidaceae species from Zimbabwe, was evaluated for its acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and cytotoxicity properties using Ellman's colorimetric method and the tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay against Vero monkey kidney cells, respectively. The plant extracts were also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against five bacteria. Furthermore, phytochemical profiles of the extracts were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis...
February 20, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215813/a-comparative-approach-using-biomarkers-in-feral-and-caged-neotropical-fish-implications-for-biomonitoring-freshwater-ecosystems-in-agricultural-areas
#9
Carlos Eduardo Delfino Vieira, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Liziara Costa Cabrera, Ednei Gilberto Primel, Gilberto Fillmann, Adalto Bianchini, Claudia Bueno Dos Reis Martinez
The aim of this study was to investigate the responses of biomarkers in feral and caged fish and the capacity of these biomarkers to discriminate contamination levels along a stream located in an agricultural area in Southern Brazil. Specimens of the Neotropical fish, Astyanax altiparanae, were confined for 168h in three lakes along the stream. Additionally, during the weeks of in situ exposure, wild specimens of this species were collected from the same sites. Biochemical biomarkers were analyzed, such as phase I biotransformation enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase, and we also determined hepatic and branchial levels of non-protein thiols (NPSH), oxidative damage such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in muscle and brain...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213109/screening-of-plants-used-in-the-european-traditional-medicine-to-treat-memory-disorders-for-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-and-anti-amyloidogenic-activity
#10
Eva S Lobbens, Karina J Vissing, Lene Jorgensen, Marco van de Weert, Anna K Jäger
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants used in the traditional medicine of Europe to treat memory dysfunction and/or to enhance memory were investigated for activity against the underlying mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate 35 ethanolic extracts of plants, selected using an ethnopharmacological approach, for anti-amyloidogenic activity as well as an ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The anti-amyloidogenic activity of the extracts against amyloid beta was investigated by Thioflavin T fibrillation assays and the ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase was evaluated monitoring the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine RESULTS: Under the experimental conditions investigated, extracts of two plants, Carum carvi and Olea sylvestris, inhibited amyloid beta fibrillation considerably, eight plant extracts inhibited amyloid beta fibrillation to some extent, 16 plant extracts had no effect on amyloid beta fibrillation and nine extracts accelerated fibrillation of amyloid beta...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212939/cannabis-exacerbates-depressive-symptoms-in-rat-model-induced-by-reserpine
#11
Yasser A Khadrawy, Hussein G Sawie, Omar M E Abdel-Salam, Eman N Hosny
Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol)...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210957/forced-treadmill-exercise-prevents-spatial-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats-probably-through-the-activation-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-hippocampus
#12
Cláudia Vanzella, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Felipe Kawa Odorcyk, Fabrício Nicola, Janaína Kolling, Aline Longoni, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Angela Terezinha de Souza Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209997/antisense-mir-132-blockade-via-the-ache-r-splice-variant-mitigates-cortical-inflammation
#13
Nibha Mishra, Lyndon Friedson, Geula Hanin, Uriya Bekenstein, Meshi Volovich, Estelle R Bennett, David S Greenberg, Hermona Soreq
MicroRNA (miR)-132 brain-to-body messages suppress inflammation by targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but the target specificity of 3'-AChE splice variants and the signaling pathways involved remain unknown. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we identified preferential miR-132 targeting of soluble AChE-R over synaptic-bound AChE-S, potentiating miR-132-mediated brain and body cholinergic suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inversely, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduced multiple miR-132 targets, suppressed AChE-S more than AChE-R and elevated inflammatory hallmarks...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209096/increased-oxidative-stress-alters-nucleosides-metabolite-levels-in-sickle-cell-anemia
#14
Lívia Gelain Castilhos, Juliana Sorraila de Oliveira, Stephen Adeniyi Adefegha, Luana Pereira Magni, Pedro Henrique Doleski, Fatima Husein Abdalla, Cínthia Melazzo de Andrade, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to assess the markers of oxidative stress, myeloperoxidase (MPO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities as well as the levels of nucleotide metabolites in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. METHODS: Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. The markers of oxidative stress (levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), plasma proteins, carbonyl content, lipid peroxidation (TBARS), total thiols (T-SH), glutathione and catalase activity), MPO, AChE and XO activities as well as the levels of nucleotide metabolites were measured in SCA patients...
February 16, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208063/white-matter-lesions-and-the-cholinergic-deficit-in-aging-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Nils Richter, Anne Michel, Oezguer A Onur, Lutz Kracht, Markus Dietlein, Marc Tittgemeyer, Bernd Neumaier, Gereon R Fink, Juraj Kukolja
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), white matter lesions (WMLs) are associated with an increased risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, while memory deficits have, at least in part, been linked to a cholinergic deficit. We investigated the relationship between WML load assessed with the Scheltens scale, cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measured with [(11)C]N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate PET, and neuropsychological performance in 17 patients with MCI due to AD and 18 cognitively normal older participants...
January 18, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205135/apium-graveolens-extract-influences-mood-and-cognition-in-healthy-mice
#16
Phetcharat Boonruamkaew, Wanida Sukketsiri, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant, Wijittra Kaewnam, Supita Tanasawet, Varomyalin Tipmanee, Pilaiwanwadee Hutamekalin, Pennapa Chonpathompikunlert
Apium graveolens is a food flavoring which possesses various health promoting effects. This study investigates the effect of a sub-acute administration of A. graveolens on cognition and anti-depression behaviors via antioxidant and related neurotransmitter systems in mice brains. Cognition and depression was assessed by various models of behavior. The antioxidant system of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), % inhibition of superoxide anion (O2(-)), and lipid peroxidation were studied. In addition, neurochemical parameters including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase-type A (MAO-A) were also evaluated...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195667/rna-interference-of-carboxyesterases-causes-nymph-mortality-in-the-asian-citrus-psyllid-diaphorina-citri
#17
Abdelaziz Kishk, Helmy A I Anber, Tsamoh K AbdEl-Raof, AbdEl-Hakeem D El-Sherbeni, Sobhy Hamed, Siddarame Gowda, Nabil Killiny
Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important pest of citrus. In addition, D. citri is the vector of Huanglongbing, a destructive disease in citrus, also known as citrus greening disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Huanglongbing causes huge losses for citrus industries. Insecticide application for D. citri is the major strategy to prevent disease spread. The heavy use of insecticides causes development of insecticide resistance. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to silence genes implicated in pesticide resistance in order to increase the susceptibility...
February 13, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195202/application-of-pristine-and-doped-sno2-nanoparticles-as-a-matrix-for-agro-hazardous-material-organophosphate-detection
#18
Naushad Khan, Taimur Athar, H Fouad, Ahmad Umar, Z A Ansari, S G Ansari
With an increasing focus on applied research, series of single/composite materials are being investigated for device development to detect several hazardous, dangerous, and toxic molecules. Here, we report a preliminary attempt of an electrochemical sensor fabricated using pristine Ni and Cr-doped nano tin oxide material (SnO2) as a tool to detect agro-hazardous material, i.e. Organophosphate (OP, chlorpyrifos). The nanomaterial was synthesized using the solution method. Nickel and chromium were used as dopant during synthesis...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193588/variations-of-biomarkers-response-in-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-to-low-moderate-and-high-concentrations-of-organic-chemicals-and-metals
#19
Lorena Perić, Vedrana Nerlović, Paula Žurga, Luka Žilić, Andreja Ramšak
The changes of acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), metallothioneins content (MTs), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were assessed after 4 days exposure of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis to a wide range of sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CHP, 0.03-100 μg/L), benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P, 0.01-100 μg/L), cadmium (Cd, 0.2-200 μg/L) and copper (Cu, 0.2-100 μg/L). The activity of AChE in the gills decreased after exposure to CHP and Cu, whereas no change of activity was detected after exposure to B(a)P and Cd...
January 31, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192982/novel-double-potential-electrochemiluminescence-ratiometric-strategy-in-enzyme-based-inhibition-biosensing-for-sensitive-detection-of-organophosphorus-pesticides
#20
Hongmei Chen, Han Zhang, Ruo Yuan, Shihong Chen
Generally, electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ratiometric assays were based on the energy transfer (ET) between an emitter and a metal nanomaterial or between two different emitters. The choice of suitable energy donor-acceptor pair and the distance dependence of ET would greatly limit the practical application of ratiometric assays. This work explored a novel double-potential ECL ratiometry without the ET for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) analysis, in which, reduced graphene oxide-CdTe quantum dots (RGO-CdTe QDs) and carboxyl-conjugated polymer dots (PFO dots) were chosen as cathodic and anodic ECL emitters, and the reactant (dissolved O2) and the product (H2O2) in enzymatic reactions served as their coreactants, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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