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acetylcholinesterase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334784/testing-the-ret-and-sema3d-genetic-interaction-in-mouse-enteric-nervous-system-development
#1
Ashish Kapoor, Dallas R Auer, Dongwon Lee, Sumantra Chatterjee, Aravinda Chakravarti
For most multigenic disorders, clinical manifestation (penetrance) and presentation (expressivity) are likely to be an outcome of genetic interaction between multiple susceptibility genes. Here, using gene knockouts in mice we evaluated genetic interaction between loss of Ret and loss of Sema3d, two Hirschsprung disease susceptibility genes. We intercrossed Ret and Sema3d double null heterozygotes to generate mice with the nine possible genotypes and assessed survival by counting various genotypes, myenteric plexus presence by acetylcholinesterase staining and embryonic day 12...
March 7, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334147/variations-in-acetylcholinesterase-activity-within-human-cortical-pyramidal-neurons-across-age-and-cognitive-trajectories
#2
Monica Janeczek, Tamar Gefen, Mehrnoosh Samimi, Garam Kim, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen Bigio, Emily Rogalski, M-Marsel Mesulam, Changiz Geula
We described an extensive network of cortical pyramidal neurons in the human brain with abundant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Emergence of these neurons during childhood/adolescence, attainment of highest density in early adulthood, and virtual absence in other species led us to hypothesize involvement of AChE within these neurons in higher cortical functions. The current study quantified the density and staining intensity of these neurons using histochemical procedures. Few faintly stained AChE-positive cortical pyramidal neurons were observed in children/adolescents...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332760/cytotoxic-essential-oils-from-eryngium-campestre-and-eryngium-amethystinum-apiaceae-growing-in-central-italy
#3
Kevin Cianfaglione, Evy E Blomme, Luana Quassinti, Massimo Bramucci, Giulio Lupidi, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Filippo Maggi
Eryngium campestre and E. amethystinum are thorny herbs belonging to the Apiaceae family and spontaneously growing in stony pastures and dry meadows, preferentially on calcareous substrates. In the Mediterranean countries, these plants have been used as a food or traditional remedies to treat various ailments. In the present work, we have analysed the chemical composition of the essential oils distilled from the aerial parts by GC-FID and GC-MS, and evaluated their cytotoxic effects on a panel of human cancer cells, namely A375 (human malignant melanoma), MDA-MB 231 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma) and HCT116 cells (human colon carcinoma), by the MTT assay...
March 23, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332138/benzo-a-pyrene-exposure-causes-genotoxic-and-biochemical-changes-in-the-midge-larvae-of-chironomus-sancticaroli-strixino-strixino-diptera-chironomidae
#4
M Vicentini, G S Morais, D Rebechi-Baggio, V S Richardi, G S Santos, M M Cestari, M A Navarro-Silva
Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, also found in nature due to human activities. BaP adheres to sediments showing toxic effects on benthic organisms, including midge larvae of the family Chironomidae. We tested for toxic effects of benzo(a)pyrene on Chironomus sancticaroli Strixino & Strixino 1981 using biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers, to identify changes in metabolic and antioxidant pathways, besides neurotoxic and DNA damage. Enzyme activity was compared by exposing larvae to four nominal concentrations (0...
March 22, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329845/spatiotemporal-progression-and-remission-of-lesions-in-the-rat-brain-following-acute-intoxication-with-diisopropylfluorophosphate
#5
Sílvia Sisó, Brad A Hobson, Danielle J Harvey, Donald A Bruun, Douglas J Rowland, Joel R Garbow, Pamela J Lein
Similar to organophosphate (OP) nerve agents, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) rapidly and irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase, leading to convulsions that can progress to status epilepticus (SE). However, in contrast to the OP nerve agents, the long-term consequences of DFP-induced SE are not well known. Thus, we characterized the spatiotemporal profile of neuropathology during the first two months following acute DFP intoxication. Adult, male Sprague Dawley rats administered pyridostigmine bromide (0...
March 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328690/the-first-use-of-pralidoxime-in-a-child-with-rivastigmine-poisoning
#6
Eylem Ulaş Saz, Ali Yurtseven, Mehmet Arda Kilinç, Yusuf Sari, Hasan Ağin
The aim of this report is to describe the successful use of pralidoxime in a pediatric patient who accidentally ingested 12 mg of rivastigmine and presented to the emergency department with weakness, drowsiness, hyporeactivity to environmental stimuli, and full cholinergic syndrome. CASE: The patient presented to the emergency department 2 hours after a suspected ingestion of rivastigmine. He was sleepy but oriented and cooperative, hypotonic, and hyporeflexic and has a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13 (E3M6V4)...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326625/alantolactone-and-isoalantolactone-prevent-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-induced-toxicity-in-mouse-cortical-neurons-and-scopolamine-induced-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#7
Ji Yeon Seo, Soon Sung Lim, Jiyoung Kim, Ki Won Lee, Jong-Sang Kim
Given the evidence for detoxifying/antioxidant enzyme-inducing activities by alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AL and IAL on Aβ25-35 -induced cell death in mouse cortical neuron cells and to determine their effects on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Our data demonstrated that both compounds effectively attenuated the cytotoxicity of Aβ25-35 (10 μM) in neuronal cells derived from the mouse cerebral cortex. It was also found that the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion induced by Aβ25-35 , was inhibited...
March 21, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326602/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-difluoropyrido-4-3-b-indoles-as-potential-agents-for-acetylcholinesterase-and-antiamnesic-activity
#8
Malavalli Madaiah, Bidarur K Jayanna, Arakere S Manu, Maralekere K Prashanth, Hosakere D Revanasiddappa, Bantal Veeresh
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are currently the most widely prescribed drugs for Alzheimer's disease. The high potential of indole compounds in medicinal chemistry led us to discover a novel series of fluoroindole compounds. The synthesis and pharmacological analysis of the difluoropyrido[4,3-b]indoles 11-34 are described. Compounds 11-34 were tested for AChE inhibition activity using a rat brain homogenate. Compounds 25-29 display a promising in vitro profile with an IC50 value range of 46-51.6 nM and show significant protective effect on scopolamine-induced amnesia...
March 22, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326552/biogenesis-assembly-and-trafficking-of-acetylcholinesterase
#9
REVIEW
Richard L Rotundo
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is expressed as several homomeric and heterooligomeric forms in a wide variety of tissues such as neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and their targets including skeletal muscle, endocrine and exocrine glands. In addition, glycolipid-anchored forms are expressed in erythropoietic and lymphopoietic cells. While transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is important for determining which AChE oligomeric forms are expressed in a given tissue, translational and post-translational regulatory mechanisms at the level of protein folding, assembly and sorting play equally important roles in assuring that the AChE molecules reach their intended sites on the cell surface in the appropriate numbers...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326549/the-three-finger-toxin-fold-a-multifunctional-structural-scaffold-able-to-modulate-cholinergic-functions
#10
REVIEW
Pascal Kessler, Pascale Marchot, Marcela Silva, Denis Servent
Three-finger fold toxins are miniproteins frequently found in Elapidae snake venoms. This fold is characterized by three distinct loops rich in β-strands and emerging from a dense, globular core reticulated by four highly conserved disulfide bridges. The number and diversity of receptors, channels, and enzymes identified as targets of three-finger fold toxins is increasing continuously. Such manifold diversity highlights the specific adaptability of this fold for generating pleiotropic functions. Although this toxin superfamily disturbs many biological functions by interacting with a large diversity of molecular targets, the most significant target is the cholinergic system...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326544/personalized-genetics-of-the-cholinergic-blockade-of-neuroinflammation
#11
REVIEW
Alon Simchovitz, Michael T Heneka, Hermona Soreq
Acetylcholine signaling is essential for cognitive functioning and blocks inflammation. To maintain homeostasis, cholinergic signaling is subjected to multi-leveled and bidirectional regulation by both proteins and non-coding microRNAs ('CholinomiRs'). CholinomiRs coordinate the cognitive and inflammatory aspects of cholinergic signaling by targeting major cholinergic transcripts including the acetylcholine hydrolyzing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Notably, AChE inhibitors are the only currently approved line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease patients...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324616/optimization-of-diazinon-biodegradation-from-aqueous-solutions-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-using-response-surface-methodology
#12
Mohammad H Ehrampoush, Abbas Sadeghi, Mohammad T Ghaneian, Ziaeddin Bonyadi
Diazinon is an organophosphate compound that inhibits the activity of acetylcholinesterase. Standards of the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency for diazinon concentration in water are 0.1 and 9 × 10(-6) mg/L, respectively. The aim of this study was the optimization of diazinon biodegradation from aqueous solutions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the response surface methodology (RSM). Harvested cells of S. cerevisiae were locally purchased from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321581/neurobehavioural-toxicity-of-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-in-mice
#13
Vasanth Dhakshinamoorthy, Vijayprakash Manickam, Ekambaram Perumal
Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) are widely used in various biomedical applications, extremely in neurotheranostics. Simultaneously, Fe2O3-NP usage is of alarming concern, as its exposure to living systems causes deleterious effects due to its redox potential. However, study on the neurobehavioural impacts of Fe2O3-NPs is very limited. In this regard, adult male mice were intraperitoneally administered with Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) once a week for 4 weeks. A significant change in locomotor behaviour and spatial memory was observed in Fe2O3-NP-treated animals...
March 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320270/role-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-plasticity-of-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons
#14
REVIEW
N K Isaev, E V Stelmashook, E E Genrikhs
Neuronal plastic rearrangements during the development and functioning of neurons are largely regulated by trophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF). NGF is also involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In the brain, NGF is produced in structures innervated by basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and retrogradely transported along the axons to the bodies of cholinergic neurons. NGF is essential for normal development and functioning of the basal forebrain; it affects formation of the dendritic tree and modulates the activities of choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in basal forebrain neurons...
March 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316633/medicinal-plants-from-northeastern-brazil-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Alexandre Batista Penido, Selene Maia De Morais, Alan Bezerra Ribeiro, Daniela Ribeiro Alves, Ana Livya Moreira Rodrigues, Leonardo Hunaldo Dos Santos, Jane Eire Silva Alencar de Menezes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315791/neurotoxic-effects-molecular-responses-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-linnaeus-1758-exposed-to-verapamil
#16
Malachy N O Ajima, Pramod K Pandey, Kundan Kumar, Nalini Poojary
Pharmaceutical drugs and their metabolites are detected in aquatic ecosystems and have been reported to cause ecotoxicological consequences to resident aquatic organisms The study investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to verapamil on activities of acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes as well as mRNA expression of stress-related genes in brain and muscle tissues of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The 96h LC50 of verapamil to O. niloticus was 2.29mgL(-1). Exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of verapamil (0...
March 16, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314104/ginsenoside-re-ameliorates-brain-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mice
#17
Jong Min Kim, Chang Hyeon Park, Seon Kyeong Park, Tae Wan Seung, Jin Yong Kang, Jeong Su Ha, Du Sang Lee, Uk Lee, Dae-Ok Kim, Ho Jin Heo
The ameliorating effects of ginsenoside Re (G Re) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice were investigated to assess its physiological function. In the results of behavioral tests, G Re improved cognitive dysfunction in diabetic mice using Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. G Re also significantly recovered hyperglycemia and fasting blood glucose level. In the results of serum analysis, G Re decreased triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCHO), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and increased the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC)...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304399/chemical-profiling-analysis-of-maca-using-uhplc-esi-orbitrap-ms-coupled-with-uhplc-esi-qqq-ms-and-the-neuroprotective-study-on-its-active-ingredients
#18
Yanyan Zhou, Peng Li, Adelheid Brantner, Hongjie Wang, Xinbin Shu, Jian Yang, Nan Si, Lingyu Han, Haiyu Zhao, Baolin Bian
Lepidium meyenii (Maca), originated from Peru, has been cultivated widely in China as a popular health care food. However, the chemical and effective studies of Maca were less in-depth, which restricted its application seriously. To ensure the quality of Maca, a feasible and accurate strategy was established. One hundred and sixty compounds including 30 reference standards were identified in 6 fractions of methanol extract of Maca by UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap MS. Among them, 15 representative active compounds were simultaneously determined in 17 samples by UHPLC-ESI-QqQ MS...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303588/dietary-consumption-of-monosodium-l-glutamate-induces-adaptive-response-and-reduction-in-the-life-span-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Amos O Abolaji, Charles O Olaiya, Oluwagbenga J Oluwadahunsi, Ebenezer O Farombi
Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime...
March 16, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303372/ellagic-acid-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-an-exploration-of-underlying-mechanisms
#20
Zahra Kiasalari, Rana Heydarifard, Mohsen Khalili, Siamak Afshin-Majd, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Elham Zahedi, Ashkan Sanaierad, Mehrdad Roghani
RATIONALE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with irreversible loss of intellectual abilities. Current therapies for AD are still insufficient. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the effect of ellagic acid on learning and memory deficits was evaluated in intrahippocampal amyloid beta (Aβ25-35)-microinjected rats and its modes of action were also explored. METHODS: AD rat model was induced by bilateral intrahippocampal microinjection of Aβ25-35 and ellagic acid was daily administered (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg), and learning, recognition memory, and spatial memory were evaluated in addition to histochemical assessment, oxidative stress, cholinesterases activity, and level of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)...
March 16, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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