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Vagal nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320117/use-of-social-media-to-assess-the-effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-dravet-syndrome-a-caregiver-s-perspective
#1
Rushna Ali, Mona Elsayed, Manpreet Kaur, Ellen Air, Naznin Mahmood, Jules Constantinou, Jason Schwalb
BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome (DS) is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome which is particularly pharmacoresistant. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is commonly used in the treatment of DS as an adjunct to medical therapy. A meaningful assessment of post-surgical outcomes with VNS is difficult given the rarity of the condition. OBJECTIVE: In a novel approach, we used social media to contact patients with DS to gather data on post-surgical seizure reduction and overall satisfaction with VNS...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317837/inhibitory-responses-mediated-by-vagal-nerve-stimulation-are-diminished-in-stomachs-of-mice-with-reduced-intramuscular-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#2
Elizabeth A H Beckett, Kenton M Sanders, Sean M Ward
Intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-IM) are closely associated with enteric motor nerve terminals and electrically coupled to smooth muscle cells within the gastric musculature. Previous studies investigating the role of ICC-IM in motor neurotransmission have used indiscriminate electric field stimulation of neural elements within the gastric wall. To determine the role of ICC-IM in transduction of vagally-mediated motor input to gastric muscles electrical and mechanical responses to selective electrical vagal stimulation (EVS) were recorded from gastric fundus and antral regions of wild type and W/W(V) mice, which lack most ICC-IM...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298947/glomus-vagale-tumour-can-it-be-diagnosed-only-on-sonography
#3
Shuchi Bhatt, Pooja Verma, Neha Meena, Anupama Tandon, Nadeem Tanveer, Divya Bansal
Vagal paragangliomas are rare benign tumors accounting for only 3% of head and neck paragangliomas and arise from vagal ganglions, predominately the nodose ganglion in the carotid sheath. Imaging plays an important role in their diagnosis, differentiation from more common lesions presenting in the carotid space, and management. MRI is the method of choice for investigation when paragangliomas are clinically suspected. The typical salt-and-pepper appearance in T1-weighted images is well known but not specific to paragangliomas...
March 2017: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298797/cervical-vagal-schwannoma-anesthetic-concerns
#4
Suman Saini, Nikki Sabharwal, Nidhi Agrawal, Bhupender Singh
Schwannomas arising from cervical vagus nerve is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. The majority of patients present with insidiously growing lateral neck mass without neurological deficit. We report a case of symptomatic cervical vagal nerve schwannoma in a 32-year-old female. Complete surgical resection is the treatment of choice. However, anesthetic management of these tumors can be challenging. We describe here the complications experienced during the management of the patient.
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298036/efficacy-and-safety-of-corpus-callosotomy-after-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#5
Jennifer Hong, Atman Desai, Vijay M Thadani, David W Roberts
OBJECTIVE Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) and corpus callosotomy (CC) have both been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. Recent case series have reviewed the efficacy of VNS in patients who have undergone CC, with encouraging results. There are few data, however, on the use of CC following VNS therapy. METHODS The records of all patients at the authors' center who underwent CC following VNS between 1998 and 2015 were reviewed. Patient baseline characteristics, operative details, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295242/an-update-on-non-pharmacological-neuromodulation-for-the-acute-and-preventive-treatment-of-migraine
#6
Francesca Puledda, Peter J Goadsby
OBJECTIVE: To review current neuromodulation treatments available for migraine therapy, both in the acute and preventive setting. METHODS: The published literature was reviewed for studies reporting the effects of different neuromodulation strategies in migraine with and without aura. The use of non-invasive: single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation, supraorbital nerve stimulation, and transcranial direct current stimulation, as well as invasive methods such as occipital nerve stimulation and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, are assessed...
March 13, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294385/potential-excitatory-role-of-nitric-oxide-on-2-deoxy-d-glucose-induced-gastric-motility-in-rats
#7
A M Sevgili, Z D Balkanci, A Erdem
Previous studies have shown that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) increases gastric motility via the vagus nerve, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in gastric motility, a possible interplay between 2-DG and NO can be suggested. In the present study, Wistar rats (250-350 g) of both sexes were intravenously injected with 2-DG (200 mg·kg(-1) ), and the effects of the intravenous injection of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors; nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 mg·kg(-1) ) and N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 10 mg·kg(-1) ) were investigated...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291514/synchronous-ganglioneuroma-and-schwannoma-of-the-vagal-inferior-ganglion
#9
Shaolong Yang, Danhui Zhao, Jie Wei, Peifeng Li
Neurogenic neoplasms resulting from autonomic nerves are considerably rare. In this paper, we report a case of a 41-year-old woman with composite tumor of synchronous ganglioneuroma and schwannoma in the vagal inferior ganglion. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a well-defined mass, which extruded from the internal and external carotid arteries. Two tumors were closely attached but with an evident boundary. The small tumor was composed of spindle cells and numerous mature ganglion cells, and the large one consisted entirely of differentiated neoplastic Schwann cells...
March 14, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288124/c1-neurons-mediate-a-stress-induced-anti-inflammatory-reflex-in-mice
#10
Chikara Abe, Tsuyoshi Inoue, Mabel A Inglis, Kenneth E Viar, Liping Huang, Hong Ye, Diane L Rosin, Ruth L Stornetta, Mark D Okusa, Patrice G Guyenet
C1 neurons, located in the medulla oblongata, mediate adaptive autonomic responses to physical stressors (for example, hypotension, hemorrhage and presence of lipopolysaccharides). We describe here a powerful anti-inflammatory effect of restraint stress, mediated by C1 neurons: protection against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Restraint stress or optogenetic C1 neuron (C1) stimulation (10 min) protected mice from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The protection was reproduced by injecting splenic T cells that had been preincubated with noradrenaline or splenocytes harvested from stressed mice...
March 13, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271333/non-invasive-neuromodulation-in-primary-headaches
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Miller, Manjit Matharu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is growing interest in neuromodulation for primary headache conditions. Invasive modalities such as occipital nerve stimulation, deep brain stimulation and sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation are reserved for the most severe and intractable patients. Non-invasive options such as vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS), supraorbital nerve stimulation (nSONS) and transcranial magnetic nerve stimulation (TMS) have all emerged as potentially useful headache treatments. This review examines the evidence base for non-invasive neuromodulation in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and migraine...
March 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270794/antagonistic-and-synergistic-activation-of-cardiovascular-vagal-and-sympathetic-motor-outflows-in-trigeminal-reflexes
#12
REVIEW
Bruno Buchholz, Jazmín Kelly, Eduardo A Bernatene, Nahuel Méndez Diodati, Ricardo J Gelpi
The trigeminal nerve and heart are strongly related through somato-autonomic nervous reflexes that induce rapid changes in cardiovascular function. Several trigeminal reflexes have been described, but the diving and trigeminocardiac reflexes are the most studied. The heart is a target organ dually innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. Thus, how cardiac function is regulated during the trigeminal reflexes is the result of the combination of an increased parasympathetic response and increased, decreased, or unaltered sympathetic activity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259536/disruption-of-re-intake-after-partial-withdrawal-of-gastric-food-contents-in-rats-lesioned-in-the-gelatinous-part-of-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#13
María A Zafra, Antonio D Agüera, Filomena Molina, Amadeo Puerto
Sensory information from the upper gastrointestinal tract is critical in food intake regulation. Signals from different levels of the digestive system are processed to the brain, among other systems, via the vagus nerve, which mainly projects towards the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). The objective of this study was to analyze the participation of the gelatinous part (SolG) of the NST in short-term food intake. One-third of the stomach food content was withdrawn at 5 min after the end of a meal, and food was then available ad libitum for different time periods...
March 2, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251589/neurostimulation-devices-used-in-treatment-of-epilepsy
#14
REVIEW
Evren Burakgazi Dalkilic
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder frequently requiring lifelong treatment. In 70% of epilepsy patients, seizures are well controlled by antiepileptic medications. About 30% of epilepsy patients remain refractory to medical treatments and may need surgical interventions for better seizure control. Unfortunately and not infrequently, surgical intervention is not feasible due to various reasons such as multiple seizure foci, not resectable focus because of eloquent cortex location, or inability to tolerate surgery due to ongoing concomitant medical conditions...
February 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245992/overt-and-subclinical-baroreflex-dysfunction-following-bilateral-carotid-body-tumor-resection-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-implications-for-management
#15
REVIEW
Michael G Z Ghali, Visish M Srinivasan, Ehab Hanna, Franco DeMonte
Carotid body paragangliomas are rare, usually benign, tumors arising from glomus cells of the carotid body. Bilateral involvement is present in ∼5% of sporadic cases and up to one-third of familial cases. In the majority of patients undergoing bilateral resection of carotid body tumors (CBTs), a condition known as baroreflex failure syndrome (BFS) develops following resection of the second tumor characterized by headache, anxiety, emotional lability, orthostatic lightheadedness, hypertension, and tachycardia...
February 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242182/desipramine-increases-cardiac-parasympathetic-activity-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-mechanism-in-rats
#16
Toru Kawada, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Atsunori Kamiya, Masaru Sugimachi
Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α2-adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg(-1)) were examined in anesthetized rats...
February 17, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238966/managing-lafora-body-disease-with-vagal-nerve-stimulation
#17
Mohamad A Mikati, Faysal Tabbara
A 17-year-old female, of consanguineous parents, presented with a history of seizures and cognitive decline since the age of 12 years. She had absence, focal dyscognitive, generalized myoclonic, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures, all of which were drug resistant. The diagnosis of Lafora body disease was made based on a compatible clinical, EEG, seizure semiology picture and a disease-causing homozygous mutation in the EPM2A gene. A vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) was inserted and well tolerated with a steady decrease and then stabilization in seizure frequency during the six months following insertion (months 1-6)...
February 22, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238218/vagal-nerve-stimulation-reduces-infarct-size-via-a-mechanism-involving-the-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-and-down-regulation-of-cardiac-and-vascular-arginase
#18
Attila Kiss, Yahor Tratsiakovich, Ali Mahdi, Jiangning Yang, Adrian T Gonon, Bruno K Podesser, John Pernow
AIMS: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) protects from myocardial and vascular injury following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR) via a mechanism involving activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) and reduced inflammation. Arginase is involved in development of myocardial IR injury driven by inflammatory mediators. The aim of the study was to clarify whether VNS downregulates myocardial and vascular arginase via a mechanism involving activation of α7 nAChR following myocardial IR METHODS: Anaesthetized rats were randomized to (1) sham operated, (2) control IR (30 min ischemia and 2 h reperfusion, (3) VNS throughout IR, (4) the arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA+IR, (5) nor-NOHA+VNS+IR, (6) selective α7 nAChR blockade by methyllycaconitine (MLA) followed by VNS throughout IR and (7) MLA+IR...
February 26, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222576/may-a-unitary-autonomic-index-help-assess-autonomic-cardiac-regulation-in-elite-athletes-preliminary-observations-on-the-national-italian-olympic-committee-team
#19
Roberto Sala, Mara Malacarne, Fabio Tosi, Manuela Benzi, Nadia Solaro, Stefano Tamorri, Antonio Spataro, Massimo Pagani, Daniela Lucini
BACKGROUND: Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of Heart Rate Variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213131/nerp-2-regulates-gastric-acid-secretion-and-gastric-emptying-via-the-orexin-pathway
#20
Cherl Namkoong, Koji Toshinai, T M Zaved Waise, Hideyuki Sakoda, Kazuki Sasaki, Yoichi Ueta, Min-Seon Kim, Naoto Minamino, Masamitsu Nakazato
Neuroendocrine regulatory peptide (NERP)-2 is derived from a distinct region of VGF, a neurosecretory protein originally identified as a product of a nerve growth factor-responsive gene in rat PC12 cells. Colocalization of NERP-2 with orexin-A in the lateral hypothalamus increases orexin-A-induced feeding and energy expenditure in both rats and mice. Orexigenic and anorectic peptides in the hypothalamus modulate gastric function. In this study, we investigated the effect of NERP-2 on gastric function in rats...
April 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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