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Vagal nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899468/favorable-swallowing-outcomes-following-vagus-nerve-sacrifice-for-vagal-schwannoma-resection
#1
Mira A Patel, Danielle F Eytan, Justin Bishop, Joseph A Califano
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of unilateral vagal sacrifice for vagal schwannoma on postoperative swallowing function. STUDY DESIGN: Case series, chart review. SETTING: Academic medical institution. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ten patients underwent vagus nerve sacrifice for vagal schwannoma resection. Archived pathology records dating from 1985 through 2012 at our institution were retrospectively queried for cases of vagal schwannoma with vagus nerve sacrifice...
November 29, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898202/optimization-of-transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-using-functional-mri
#2
Natalia Yakunina, Sam Soo Kim, Eui-Cheol Nam
OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy, depression, and a number of other disorders. Transcutaneous stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (tVNS) has been considered as a non-invasive alternative. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the effects of tVNS used different stimulation parameters and locations in the ear, which makes it difficult to determine the optimal tVNS methodology...
November 29, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896830/vagal-nerve-endings-in-visceral-pleura-and-triangular-ligaments-of-the-rat-lung
#3
Feng-Bin Wang, Yi-Han Liao, Yao-Chen Wang
The inner thoracic cavity is lined by the parietal pleura, and the lung lobes are covered by the visceral pleura. The parietal and visceral plurae form the pleural cavity that has negative pressure within to enable normal respiration. The lung tissues are bilaterally innervated by vagal and spinal nerves, including sensory and motor components. This complicated innervation pattern has made it difficult to discern the vagal vs. spinal processes in the pulmonary visceral pleura. With and without vagotomy, we identified vagal nerve fibres and endings distributed extensively in the visceral pleura ('P'-type nerve endings) and triangular ligaments ('L'-type nerve endings) by injecting wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase as a tracer into the nucleus of solitary tract or nodose ganglion of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889103/cardiac-autonomic-changes-after-thoracic-sympathectomy-a-prospective-randomized%C3%A2-study
#4
Alfonso Fiorelli, Giovanni Messina, Paolo Chiodini, Saveria Costanzo, Andrea Viggiano, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Vicidomini, Mario Santini
BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether cardiac autonomic changes could be associated with different extent of sympathetic nerve resection in the management of essential palmar hyperhidrosis. METHODS: Sixty patients with essential palmar hyperhidrosis were randomly allocated to undergo excision of T3 ganglia (sympathicectomy group; n = 30) or to interruption of sympathetic chain at the T2 to T3 level with ganglion sparing (sympathicotomy group; n = 30). Time and frequency domains were measured with a 24-Holter monitor during daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour periods at different interval points (7 days before operation; 24 hours; and 1, 3, and 6 months later), and the differences were statistically compared...
November 23, 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878616/effectiveness-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-medication-resistant-epilepsy-comparison-between-patients-with-and-without-medication-changes
#5
María A García-Pallero, Eduardo García-Navarrete, Cristina V Torres, Jesús Pastor, Marta Navas, R G Sola
BACKGROUND: Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) response is not immediate. A progressive decline in seizure frequency is usually found during a period of 12-18 months after implantation. During this time, the patient's medication is usually modified, which can create doubts about whether their clinical improvement is due to medication changes or to VNS itself. Our goal is to compare two groups of patients treated with VNS, with and without changes in their medication. METHODS: We prospectively analyze 85 patients who were treated with VNS in our hospital between 2005 and 2014...
November 23, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873376/extended-long-term-effects-of-cervical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-on-headache-intensity-frequency-and-affective-cognitive-headache-perception-in-drug-resistant-complex-partial-seizure-patients
#6
Bogdan Pintea, Kevin Hampel, Jan Boström, Rainer Surges, Hartmut Vatter, Ilana S Lendvai, Thomas M Kinfe
OBJECTIVES: Invasive vagal nerve stimulation (iVNS) is an established treatment option for drug-resistant focal seizures and has been assumed to diminish frequent co-incidental daily headache/migraine. However, long-term effects on cognitive/affective head pain perception, headache intensity/frequency are lacking. We therefore investigated potential iVNS-induced effects in patients with drug-resistant focal seizure and daily headache/migraine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A clinical database was used to select 325 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy treated by either iVNS plus best medical treatment (BMT) or BMT alone, compared to a healthy control group (HC)...
November 22, 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863972/vagus-nerve-stimulator-related-speech-exercise-induced-cough
#7
Charlotte Dandurand, Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Karim Elayoubi, Alexander G Weil, Paul Lespérence, Alain Bouthillier
Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is an effective adjunctive treatment for chronic or recurrent treatment resistant depression. Although considered a safe procedure, increasing output current can be associated with stimulation induced side effects. We report the first case of dry cough induced by speech and mild exercise, occurring in the off mode following implantation of a vagal nerve stimulator (VNSor). We discuss the possible pathophysiology and the potential treatment options of this rare complication...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856418/spinal-afferent-nerve-endings-in-visceral-organs-recent-advances
#8
Nick J Spencer, Vladimir P Zagorodnyuk, Simon J Brookes, Tim James Hibberd
Spinal afferent neurons play a major role in detection and transduction of painful stimuli from internal (visceral) organs. Recent technical advances have made it possible to visualize the endings of spinal afferent axons in visceral organs. Although it is well known that the sensory nerve cell bodies of spinal afferents reside within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), identifying their endings in internal organs has been especially challenging because of a lack of techniques to distinguish them from endings of other extrinsic and intrinsic neurons (sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric)...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854009/autonomic-modulation-with-baroreflex-activation-therapy-in-heart-failure
#9
REVIEW
Edoardo Gronda, Emilio Vanoli
Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) produces a central inhibition of cardiac sympathetic outflow and, concomitantly, an increased cardiac vagal activity via a physiological reflex pathway. In a pilot study in 11 patients with NYHA class III heart failure (HF), BAT produced a persistent significant reduction of muscle sympathetic nerve activity over a 21-month follow-up and a dramatic decrease in the number and length of hospitalizations. In a multinational, prospective, randomized, parallel-controlled, clinical trial in 146 NYHA functional class III HF, BAT produced a significant N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide reduction (p = 0...
November 16, 2016: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852563/effects-of-electroacupuncture-at-st25-and-bl25-in-a-sennae-induced-rat-model-of-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#10
Xianwei Zhu, Zhibin Liu, Wenmin Niu, Yuan Wang, Aimin Zhang, Hongyan Qu, Jing Zhou, Lu Bai, Yong Yang, Jie Li
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) may have a role in the treatment of diarrhoea symptoms. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter and paracrine signalling molecule in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which initiates peristaltic, secretory, vasodilatory, vagal and nociceptive reflexes. In addition, according to the results of our previous report, EA stimulation mediates GI peristalsis by increasing expression of 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). AIM: To investigate the effect of EA at acupuncture points ST25 and BL25 in a rat model of diarrhoea...
November 15, 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852001/reduced-epicardial-vagal-nerve-density-and-impaired-vagal-control-in-a-rat-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure-model
#11
Matthew S Delfiner, John Siano, Ying Li, Eduard I Dedkov, Youhua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Autonomic remodeling, characterized by sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, contributes to heart failure (HF) progression. However, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for vagal withdrawal in HF remain(s) unclear, and whether HF causes epicardial autonomic nerve remodeling is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats, and 10 sham surgery rats served as the control. MI-HF was confirmed 2 months after the surgery by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurement...
October 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844147/acute-ivabradine-treatment-reduces-heart-rate-without-increasing-atrial-fibrillation-inducibility-irrespective-of-underlying-vagal-activity-in-dogs
#12
Kazunori Uemura, Masashi Inagaki, Can Zheng, Toru Kawada, Meihua Li, Masafumi Fukumitsu, Masaru Sugimachi
Ivabradine, a bradycardic agent, has been shown to stably reduce patient's heart rate (HR) in the setting of acute cardiac care. However, an association between atrial fibrillation (AF) risk and acute ivabradine treatment remains a controversial clinical issue, and has not been thoroughly investigated. Bradycardia and abnormal atrial refractoriness induced by ivabradine treatment may enhance vulnerability to AF induction, especially when vagal nerve is concurrently activated. We aimed to experimentally investigate the effects of acute ivabradine treatment with/without concurrent vagal activation on AF inducibility...
November 14, 2016: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829151/a-genetic-screen-identifies-hypothalamic-fgf15-as-a-regulator-of-glucagon-secretion
#13
Alexandre Picard, Josselin Soyer, Xavier Berney, David Tarussio, Simon Quenneville, Maxime Jan, Eric Grouzmann, Frédéric Burdet, Mark Ibberson, Bernard Thorens
The counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, which restores normal blood glucose levels to ensure sufficient provision of glucose to the brain, is critical for survival. To discover underlying brain regulatory systems, we performed a genetic screen in recombinant inbred mice for quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling glucagon secretion in response to neuroglucopenia. We identified a QTL on the distal part of chromosome 7 and combined this genetic information with transcriptomic analysis of hypothalami...
November 8, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816306/intravenous-electrical-vagal-nerve-stimulation-prior-to-coronary-reperfusion-in-a-canine-ischemia-reperfusion-model-markedly-reduces-infarct-size-and-prevents-subsequent-heart-failure
#14
Takahiro Arimura, Keita Saku, Takamori Kakino, Takuya Nishikawa, Takeshi Tohyama, Takafumi Sakamoto, Kazuo Sakamoto, Takuya Kishi, Tomomi Ide, Kenji Sunagawa
BACKGROUND: Reducing myocardial damage is a prerequisite to prevent chronic heart failure after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) has been repeatedly demonstrated to have potent anti-infarct effect, technical difficulties have precluded its clinical application. We developed a novel therapeutic strategy of intravenous VNS (iVNS) and examined whether iVNS administered prior to coronary reperfusion in a canine AMI model reduces infarct size and prevents heart failure...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807496/schwannomatosis-of-cervical-vagus-nerve
#15
Faheem Ahmed Abdulla, M P Sasi
Cervical vagal schwannoma is a rare entity among lesions presenting as a neck mass. They are usually slow-growing benign lesions closely associated with the vagus nerve. They are usually solitary and asymptomatic. Multiple schwannomas occurring in patients without neurofibromatosis (NF) are rare and have recently been referred to as schwannomatosis. Here, we present a case of a neck mass that had imaging features suggestive of vagal schwannoma and was operated upon. Intraoperatively, it was discovered to be a case of multiple vagal cervical schwannoma, all directly related to the right vagus nerve, and could be resected from the nerve in toto preserving the function of the vagus nerve...
2016: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779303/-evaluation-of-the-vagal-nerve-in-a-patient-with-hereditary-motor-sensory-neuropathy-type-1a
#16
J M Pardal-Fernandez, B Godes-Medrano, A Grande, T Segura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779300/-results-of-vagal-nerve-stimulation-in-patients-with-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-a-national-epilepsy-referral-centre
#17
P Roldan-Ramos, L A Reyes-Figueroa, J Rumia, E Martinez-Lizana, A Donaire, M Carreno-Martinez
AIM: To describe clinical results and complications derived from vagal nerve stimulation therapy in drug resistant epileptic patients unsuitable for other surgical treatments, since the first implant in an epilepsy national referral centre. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the patients implanted in our centre was held. Data related to baseline characteristics of their epilepsy and therapy complications was collected. RESULTS: 32 new implants in 31 patients are included, mean age of 34 years, 29...
November 1, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776979/chronic-kidney-disease-impairs-renal-nerve-and-haemodynamic-reflex-responses-to-vagal-afferent-input-through-a-central-mechanism
#18
REVIEW
Ibrahim M Salman, Cara M Hildreth, Jacqueline K Phillips
We investigated age- and sex-related changes in reflex renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and haemodynamic responses to vagal afferent stimulation in a rodent model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using anaesthetised juvenile (7-8weeks) and adult (12-13weeks) Lewis Polycystic Kidney (LPK) and Lewis control rats of either sex (n=63 total), reflex changes in RSNA, heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) to vagal afferent stimulation (5-s train, 4.0V, 2.0-ms pulses, 1-16Hz) were measured. In all groups, stimulation of the vagal afferents below 16Hz produced frequency-dependent reductions in RSNA, HR and MAP, while a 16Hz stimulus produced an initial sympathoinhibition followed by sympathoexcitation...
October 11, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757479/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-parapharyngeal-space-tumors
#19
F Bootz, S Greschus, T van Bremen
The parapharyngeal space extends from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx. It is bordered medially by the pharyngeal wall and the constrictor pharyngis muscles, and laterally by the mandible. One distinguishes between a pre- and a poststyloid space. Tumors of the parapharyngeal space are rare and represent less than 1 % of all head and neck neoplasms. Benign (70-80 %) as well as malignant (20-30 %) tumors arise from different structures of the parapharyngeal space, mainly from salivary glands and nerve structures...
October 18, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755164/an-update-on-the-status-of-nerve-monitoring-for-thyroid-parathyroid-surgery
#20
Ho-Sheng Lin, David J Terris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is one of the most common and serious complications associated with thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Although routine visual identification of the RLN is considered the current standard of care, the role of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) of the RLN is more controversial. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite initial enthusiasm that IONM might substantially reduce the rate of RLN injury, most studies failed to show a significant difference in the rate of RLN injury when the use of IONM was compared with visualization of the RLN alone...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
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