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Vagal nerve

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719827/mixed-evidence-for-the-potential-of-non-invasive-transcutaneous-vagal-nerve-stimulation-to-improve-the-extinction-and-retention-of-fear
#1
A M Burger, B Verkuil, H Fenlon, L Thijs, L Cools, H C Miller, B Vervliet, I Van Diest
Extinction memories are fragile and their formation has been proposed to partially rely on vagus nerve activity. We tested whether stimulating the auricular branch of the vagus (transcutaneous VNS; tVNS) accelerates extinction and reduces spontaneous recovery of fear. Forty-two healthy students participated in a 3-day fear conditioning study, where we tested fear acquisition (day 1), fear extinction (day 2) and the retention of the extinction memory (day 3). During extinction, participants were randomly allocated to receive tVNS or sham stimulation concurrently with each CS presentation...
July 8, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717527/vagal-paraganglioma-presenting-as-a-neck-mass-associated-with-cough-on-palpation
#2
Richard Heyes, Nizar Taki, Miriam A O'Leary
A 70-year-old female presented with a neck mass and sporadic dry cough, often leading to fits of coughing severe enough to cause vomiting. The patient reported that touching the mass triggered the cough. On examination, a 2.5 cm right-sided level two neck mass deep to the sternocleidomastoid was present. Palpation of the mass immediately triggered coughing. Cross-sectional imaging proposed vagal paraganglioma as the chief differential, which was confirmed following surgical excision. The patient reported complete resolution of her severe dry cough after surgery...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705925/management-of-hiccups-in-palliative-care-patients
#3
REVIEW
Yong Suk Jeon, Alison Mary Kearney, Peter Graham Baker
Persistent hiccups are a frustrating experience for palliative care patients, and can have a profound impact on their quality of life. This article provides an evidence-based approach overview of the causes and treatment of this not infrequently debilitating condition for such patients, with a management algorithm. In situations where no readily reversible cause is identified, or where simple physical manoeuvres, such as breath holding have failed, a systematic approach is required. Hiccups can be broadly divided into central and peripheral types...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705842/facial-palsy-and-atrial-fibrillation-a-special-case-of-ramsay-hunt-syndrome
#4
Fares Ayoub, Dhruv Mahtta, Roland-Austin Federico, Michael Kaufmann
Ramsay Hunt syndrome (herpes zoster oticus) is a rare complication of latent Varicella Zoster virus infection. It can be complicated by permanent hearing loss, loss of taste and postherpetic neuralgia. Although Ramsay Hunt syndrome most prominently involves the facial nerve, a number of other cranial nerves can be involved such as the vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal and the vagus nerve. We report on a case of Ramsay Hunt syndrome with cranial polyneuritis complicated by atrial fibrillation. Vagal involvement as evidenced by physical examination and MRI findings was present in our patient...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703308/odors-generated-from-the-maillard-reaction-affect-autonomic-nervous-activity-and-decrease-blood-pressure-through-the-olfactory-system
#5
Lanxi Zhou, Motoko Ohata, Chisato Owashi, Katsuya Nagai, Issei Yokoyama, Keizo Arihara
BACKGROUND: Systolic blood pressure of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. In the current study, we identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. RESULTS: Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone and 5-methylpyrazine-2-methanol decreased systolic blood pressure significantly...
July 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701913/common-hepatic-branch-of-vagus-nerve-dependent-expression-of-immediate-early-genes-in-the-mouse-brain-by-intraportal-l-arginine-comparison-with-cholecystokinin-8
#6
Daisuke Yamada, Peter Koppensteiner, Saori Odagiri, Megumi Eguchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideki Katagiri, Keiji Wada, Masayuki Sekiguchi
Information from the peripheral organs is thought to be transmitted to the brain by humoral factors and neurons such as afferent vagal or spinal nerves. The common hepatic branch of the vagus (CHBV) is one of the main vagus nerve branches, and consists of heterogeneous neuronal fibers that innervate multiple peripheral organs such as the bile duct, portal vein, paraganglia, and gastroduodenal tract. Although, previous studies suggested that the CHBV has a pivotal role in transmitting information on the status of the liver to the brain, the details of its central projections remain unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694158/implication-of-the-vagus-nerve-in-breathing-pattern-during-sequential-swallowing-in-rats
#7
Yacine Ouahchi, Celia Duclos, Jean Paul Marie, Eric Verin
The ventilatory pattern during sequential swallowing is influenced by the vagal activity. As the vagus nerve is paired and mixed, we aimed (1) to determine if vagal implication in swallowing and breathing coordination is symmetric. (2) to study the importance of vagal afferences in swallowing and breathing coordination. Sixty two Wistar rats (7-11weeks, 260-400g) were studied by barometric plethysmography. In the first part of the study, we determined the effects of a right cervical vagotomy and the effects of a left cervical vagotomy on ventilatory pattern at rest and during sequential swallowing (14 rats with right vagotomy, 14 rats with left vagotomy and 14 rats with sham surgery)...
July 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693820/central-glucagon-like-peptide-1-inhibits-reflex-swallowing-elicited-by-the-superior-laryngeal-nerve-via-caudal-brainstem-in-the-rat
#8
Motoi Kobashi, Satoshi Mizutani, Masako Fujita, Yoshihiro Mitoh, Yuichi Shimatani, Ryuji Matsuo
The effects of glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on reflex swallowing were examined using anaesthetized rats. GLP-1 was injected into the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) using glass micropipettes. Swallowing was induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the central cut end of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) and was identified by the electromyogram lead penetrated in the mylohyoide muscle through bipolar electrodes. Microinjection of GLP-1 into the medial DVC (M-DVC) increased the frequency of swallowing during the electrical stimulation of the SLN and extended the latency of the first swallowing...
July 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690686/vagus-nerve-stimulation-as-a-potential-adjuvant-to-behavioral-therapy-for-autism-and-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Crystal T Engineer, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard
BACKGROUND: Many children with autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders undergo expensive, time-consuming behavioral interventions that often yield only modest improvements. The development of adjunctive interventions that can increase the benefit of rehabilitation therapies is essential in order to improve the lives of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. MAIN TEXT: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an FDA approved therapy that is safe and effective in reducing seizure frequency and duration in individuals with epilepsy...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688875/diagnostic-surgical-and-postoperative-challenges-of-neuroendocrine-tumors-of-the-neck-clinical-experience-and-literature-review
#10
Mohammad Mussadaq Khan, Mohammad Iqbal Khan, Hussan Ali, Tehreem Kazmi, Hania Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors of the neck are rare swellings, which constitute about 0.03% of all tumors. Most are sporadically arising paragangliomas. Over 50% arise from the carotid bodies and pose difficulties in diagnosis and surgical management, which may result in disabling complications. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic, surgical and postoperative challenges, and how to overcome them, in the management of neuroendocrine tumors of the neck. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive case series...
July 5, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685024/bugs-guts-and-brains-and-the-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#11
REVIEW
M K Hamilton, H E Raybould
The microbiota-gut-brain axis is currently being explored in many types of rodent models, including models of behavioral, neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. Our laboratory is interested in determining the mechanisms and consequences of activation of vagal afferent neurons that lead to activation of parasympathetic reflexes and changes in feeding behavior in the context of obesity. Obesity is associated with microbial dysbiosis, decreased intestinal barrier function, gut inflammation, metabolic endotoxemia, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and desensitization of vagal afferent nerves...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683511/-extracranial-schwannomas-of-the-head-and-neck-clinical-approach-based-on-20-cases
#12
Benedikt Höing, Boris A Stuck, Benjamin Kansy, Timon Hussain, Anke Schlüter, Laura Holtmann, Adrian Ringelstein, Stefan Mattheis, Stephan Lang, Nina Dominas
Background Schwannomas are rare benign tumors originating from the perineural cells forming the myelin layer in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). While well established therapeutic concepts exist for intracranial schwannomas, there is a lack of consistent clinical standards for extracranial schwannomas. Method This retrospective study describes the clinical pathway of 20 patients with histologically proven extracranial schwannomas of the head and neck. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for schwannomas are discussed with special emphasis on localization and functional outcome...
July 6, 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681708/influence-of-autonomic-nervous-system-dysfunction-in-the-genesis-of-sleep-disorders-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#13
Maurizio Rizzi, Dejan Radovanovic, Pierachille Santus, Andrea Airoldi, Francesca Frassanito, Silvia Vanni, Andrea Cristiano, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by chronic musculoskeletal pain, autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction, and disturbed sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ANS dysfunction on the genesis of sleep disorders. METHODS: Fifty female FM patients and 45 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and body mass index underwent a clinical, polysomnographic and autonomic profile evaluation at rest and during a tilt test in order to determine muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), plasma catecholamine levels, and the spectral indices of cardiac sympathetic (LFRR) and vagal (HFRR) modulation computed by means of the spectrum analysis of RR during sleep...
May 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671789/-esophago-gastric-complications-after-ablation-in-atrial-fibrillation
#14
Pierrette Gast, Jean-Philippe Loly, Philippe Leclercq, Édouard Louis
Atrial-esophageal fistula (AOF) after ablation in atrial fibrillation has a fatal outcome. Fully documented in 2004, AOF has never completely disappeared despite technological evolvements. Survival depends on early recognition and treatment. Gastroscopy allows early detection of esophageal lesions. We summarize here AOF mechanisms, evoking symptoms and treatment ; contribution of gastroscopy in early detection ; and finally symptoms from vagal and phrenic nerve injuries. This information is useful for emergency doctors, gastroenterologists / endoscopists, and general practitioners...
August 24, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669932/cough-and-airway-disease-the-role-of-ion-channels
#15
REVIEW
Sara J Bonvini, Maria G Belvisi
Cough is the most common reason for patients to visit a primary care physician, yet it remains an unmet medical need. It can be idiopathic in nature but can also be a troublesome symptom across chronic lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Chronic cough affects up to 12% of the population and yet there are no safe and effective therapies. The cough reflex is regulated by vagal, sensory afferent nerves which innervate the airway. The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family of ion channels are expressed on sensory nerve terminals, and when activated can evoke cough...
June 29, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663046/long-term-vagal-stimulation-for-heart-failure-eighteen-month-results-from-the-neural-cardiac-therapy-for-heart-failure-nectar-hf-trial
#16
Gaetano M De Ferrari, Craig Stolen, Anton E Tuinenburg, D Jay Wright, Josep Brugada, Christian Butter, Helmut Klein, Petr Neuzil, Cornelis Botman, Maria Angeles Castel, Antonio D'Onofrio, Gert J de Borst, Scott Solomon, Kenneth M Stein, Bernd Schubert, Kevin Stalsberg, Nicholas Wold, Stephen Ruble, Faiez Zannad
BACKGROUND: The NECTAR-HF study evaluated safety and feasibility of vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the treatment of heart failure patients. The first six-month randomized phase of the study did not show improvement in left ventricular remodelling in response to VNS. This study reports the 18-month results and provides novel findings aiming to understand the lack of efficacy of VNS, including a new technique assessing the effects of VNS. METHODS: Ninety-six patients were randomized 2:1 to active or inactive VNS for 6months, thereafter VNS was activated for all patients...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659824/hypersensitivity-of-vagal-pulmonary-afferents-induced-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-mice
#17
Ruei-Lung Lin, Qihai Gu, Lu-Yuan Lee
Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. Inhalation of TNFα also induces airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy human subjects, and the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A recent study reported that TNFα caused airway inflammation and a sustained elevation of pulmonary chemoreflex responses in mice, suggesting a possible involvement of heightened sensitivity of vagal pulmonary C-fibers. To investigate this possibility, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of a pretreatment with TNFα on the sensitivity of vagal pulmonary afferents in anesthetized mice...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648089/evidence-of-activation-of-vagal-afferents-by-non-invasive-vagus-nerve-stimulation-an-electrophysiological-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Romain Nonis, Kevin D'Ostilio, Jean Schoenen, Delphine Magis
Background Benefits of cervical non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) devices have been shown in episodic cluster headache and preliminarily suggested in migraine, but direct evidence of vagus nerve activation using such devices is lacking. Vagal somatosensory evoked potentials (vSEPs) associated with vagal afferent activation have been reported for invasive vagus nerve stimulation (iVNS) and non-invasive auricular vagal stimulation. Here, we aimed to show and characterise vSEPs for cervical nVNS. Methods vSEPs were recorded for 12 healthy volunteers who received nVNS over the cervical vagus nerve, bipolar electrode/DS7A stimulation over the inner tragus, and nVNS over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643050/application-of-transoral-continuous-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-in-natural-orifice-transluminal-endoscopic-surgery-for-thyroid-disease-a-preliminary-study
#19
Han-Kun Chen, Chun-Liang Chen, Kuo-Shan Wen, Yi-Feng Lin, Kai-Yuan Lin, Yih-Huei Uen
BACKGROUND: The novel concept of continuous intraoperative neuromonitoring (Cont-IONM) through stimulation of the vagal nerve has been used in thyroidectomies to prevent imminent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). This article reports on this technology and the results of using transoral Cont-IONM in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery for thyroid disease. METHODS: Cont-IONM of the RLN was achieved through automatic cyclical stimulation of the vagal nerve using a C2 monitor and delta stimulating electrode...
June 22, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641950/cholinergic-signaling-plasticity-maintains-viscerosensory-responses-during-aspiculuris-tetraptera-infection-in-mice-small-intestine
#20
Egina C Villalobos-Hernández, Carlos Barajas-López, Elizabeth A Martínez-Salazar, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Marcela Miranda-Morales
Intestinal parasites alter gastrointestinal (GI) functions like the cholinergic function. Aspiculuris tetraptera is a pinworm frequently observed in laboratory facilities, which infests the mice cecum and proximal colon. However, little is known about the impact of this infection on the GI sensitivity. Here, we investigated possible changes in spontaneous mesenteric nerve activity and on the mechanosensitivity function of worm-free regions of naturally infected mice with A. tetraptera. Infection increased the basal firing of mesenteric afferent nerves in jejunum...
June 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
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