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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096056/common-issues-in-the-management-of-patients-on-the-waiting-list-and-after-liver-transplantation-hcv-hbv-alcoholic-liver-disease-immunosuppression
#1
REVIEW
Patrizia Burra, Luca Saverio Belli, Stefano Ginanni Corradini, Riccardo Volpes, Marco Marzioni, Edoardo Giannini, Pierluigi Toniutto
The present document contains the recommendations of an expert panel of transplant hepatologists, appointed by the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver (AISF), on how to manage the most common aspects of liver transplantation: the topics covered include: new treatments for HCV in patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation; antiviral treatments in patients with HCV recurrence after liver transplantation; prophylaxis for HBV recurrence after liver transplantation; indications for liver transplantation in alcoholic liver disease; and Immunosuppressive therapy...
December 31, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075394/coffee-intake-is-associated-with-a-lower-liver-stiffness-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-hepatitis-c-and-hepatitis-b
#2
Alexander Hodge, Sarah Lim, Evan Goh, Ophelia Wong, Philip Marsh, Virginia Knight, William Sievert, Barbora de Courten
There is emerging evidence for the positive effects or benefits of coffee in patients with liver disease. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study on patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to determine the effects of coffee intake on a non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis: liver stiffness assessed by transient elastography (TE). We assessed coffee and tea intake and measured TE in 1018 patients with NAFLD, HCV, and HBV (155 with NAFLD, 378 with HCV and 485 with HBV)...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071205/long-term-liver-diseases-after-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-hbv-or-hcv-coinfection
#3
Sithakom Phusanti, Kwanhatai Manosudprasit, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) with HIV is common and associated with increased mortality and increased risk of progression to chronic liver disease. We aimed to study long-term liver diseases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients with and without HBV or HCV coinfection. A retrospective cohort of 92 patients (32 patients with HBV and/or HCV coinfection) was analyzed. Overall mean age was 38.3 years, and 54.3% were males. Immunological and virological responses were similar between the 2 groups ( P > ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060834/estimating-the-cost-effectiveness-of-one-time-screening-and-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-in-korea
#4
Do Young Kim, Kwang-Hyub Han, Byungyool Jun, Tae Hyun Kim, Sohee Park, Thomas Ward, Samantha Webster, Phil McEwan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aims to investigate the cost-effectiveness of a one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening and treatment program in South Korea where hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevails, in people aged 40-70, compared to current practice (no screening). METHODS: A published Markov model was used in conjunction with a screening and treatment decision tree to model patient cohorts, aged 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years, distributed across chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and compensated cirrhosis (CC) health states (82...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058287/impact-of-il-27-on-hepatocyte-antiviral-gene-expression-and-function
#5
Narayan Ramamurthy, Sara Boninsegna, Rebecca Adams, Natasha Sahgal, Helen Lockstone, Dilair Baban, Emanuele Marchi, Paul Klenerman
Background: Interleukin (IL)-27 is a member of the IL-6/IL-12 family of cytokines. It is a potent cytokine, with potential antiviral impact, and has been shown to play a role in modulating functions of diverse cell types, including Th1, Th2, and NK and B cells, demonstrating both pro- and anti-inflammatory roles.  In hepatocytes, it is capable of inducing signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1, STAT3 and interferon-stimulated genes. Methods: To address its role in viral hepatitis, the antiviral activity of IL-27 against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) was tested in vitro using cell-culture-derived infectious HCV (HCVcc) cell culture system and the HepaRG HBV cell culture model...
November 17, 2016: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052618/the-future-of-liver-transplantation-for-viral-hepatitis
#6
REVIEW
François Durand, Claire Francoz
In hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, transplantation can be justified by decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or both. During the last decade, HCV infection accounted for about 30% of the indications for transplantation in Europe and North America. Direct antiviral agents (DAAs) are highly effective at curing HCV, even in patients with end-stage cirrhosis. In the future, the incidence of HCV-related decompensated cirrhosis will continue to decrease. The incidence of HCC will also decrease, but a large cohort of patients with cirrhosis will still be at risk of developing HCC even after HCV has been cured...
January 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050767/impact-of-viral-etiology-on-postoperative-de-novo-recurrence-after-hepatectomy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-cirrhotic-patients
#7
Kazunari Sasaki, Junichi Shindoh, Yujiro Nishioka, Georgios A Margonis, Toshitaka Sugawara, Nikolaos Andreatos, Masaji Hashimoto, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are associated with viral hepatitis, especially hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Whether differences exist in postoperative de novo carcinogenesis from established cirrhosis according to viral etiology remains unclear. METHODS: Data from 313 LC patients with viral hepatitis (HBV-LC, n = 108 and HCV-LC, n = 205) who underwent curative-intent hepatectomy for HCC were retrospectively collected...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042136/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-thailand
#8
REVIEW
Soonthorn Chonprasertsuk, Ratha-Korn Vilaichone
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most frequent type of malignant liver tumor in Thailand. The high incidence rate of HCC reflects from chronic HBV infection in this endemic area. Some patients are asymptomatic at presentation whereas many of them presented at advanced stage of HCC with limited treatment options and grave outcome. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system and management allocation for HCC is widely accepted and used in many international guidelines including Thailand. Curative treatment is expected in early stage of HCC while palliative treatment, combination treatment and best supportive care are offered to advanced stage of HCC...
January 1, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040498/cyp1a2-is-a-predictor-of-hcc-recurrence-in-hcv-related-chronic-liver-disease-a-retrospective-multicentric-validation-study
#9
Amedeo Sciarra, Bogdan Pintea, Ji Hae Nahm, Matteo Donadon, Emanuela Morenghi, Marco Maggioni, Jean Frederic Blanc, Guido Torzilli, Matthew Yeh, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Young Nyun Park, Massimo Roncalli, Luca Di Tommaso
BACKGROUND: Although hepatic resection is a potentially curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), post-operative prognosis remains unsatisfactory due to the high incidence of recurrence. Several clinicopathological markers have been associated with HCC recurrence, but none has been validated. Extratumoral expression of cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2) was recently proposed as predictor of HCC recurrence. AIMS: To validate extratumoral CYP1A2 as predictor of HCC recurrence and to determine its applicability to pretreatment liver biopsy...
December 16, 2016: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035208/regulatory-t-cells-in-hepatitis-b-and-c-virus-infections
#10
REVIEW
Min Kyung Jung, Eui-Cheol Shin
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are hepatotropic viruses that establish chronic persistent infection by effectively escaping the host immune response and can cause immune-mediated liver injury. It has recently become apparent that regulatory T (Treg) cells, specifically CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells, modulate viral diseases by suppressing antiviral immune responses and regulating inflammatory host injury. The roles of Treg cells in HBV and HCV infections range from suppressing antiviral T cell responses to protecting the liver from immune-mediated damage...
December 2016: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013117/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-the-most-common-indication-for-liver-transplantation-and-placement-on-the-waitlist-in-the-united-states
#11
Ju Dong Yang, Joseph J Larson, Kymberly D Watt, Alina M Allen, Russell H Wiesner, Gregory J Gores, Lewis R Roberts, Julie A Heimbach, Michael D Leise
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Management strategies for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have changed, along with liver allocation policies based on model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. We investigated etiologic-specific trends in liver transplantation in the United States (US) during different time periods. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study, using the United Network for Organ Sharing/ Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry data to identify all adult patients registered for liver transplantation in the US from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2015...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012674/impact-of-occult-hepatitis-b-on-the-clinical-outcomes-of-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-10-year-follow-up
#12
Hsing-Yu Chen, Tung-Hung Su, Tai-Chung Tseng, Wan-Ting Yang, Ting-Chih Chen, Pei-Jer Chen, Ding-Shinn Chen, Jia-Horng Kao, Chun-Jen Liu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Occult hepatitis B infection (OHB) is not rare in countries that are endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Notably, OHB has been shown to play a role in the progression of liver diseases, including the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the data is inconsistent. We aim to clarify the contribution of concurrent OHB to the progression of liver diseases in a long-term cohort of patients with HCV infection and to investigate the value of total anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody as a surrogate OHB biomarker...
December 21, 2016: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012259/reduction-in-liver-transplant-wait-listing-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy
#13
Jennifer A Flemming, W Ray Kim, Carol L Brosgart, Norah A Terrault
: Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, recently approved for patients with decompensated cirrhosis (DC) secondary to hepatitis C virus (HCV), is associated with improved hepatic function. We analyzed trends in liver transplant (LT) wait-listing (WL) to explore potential impact of effective medical therapy on WL registration. This is a cohort study using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database from 2003 to 2015. A total of 47,591 adults wait-listed for LT from HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) were identified...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995739/survival-in-patients-with-child-pugh-class-c-cirrhosis-analysis-of-the-liver-transplant-registry-in-japan
#14
Takuya Genda, Takafumi Ichida, Shotaro Sakisaka, Eiji Tanaka, Satoshi Mochida, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Ayano Inui, Hiroto Egawa, Koji Umeshita, Hiroyuki Furukawa, Seiji Kawasaki, Yukihiro Inomata
AIM: To clarify the survival and prognostic factors in patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh class C (CTP-C) cirrhosis. METHODS: From all candidates for deceased donor liver transplantation in Japan between 2007 and 2015, 1014 adult patients with CTP-C cirrhosis were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Hazard ratio (HR) of factors associated with mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard model. The survival probabilities were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test...
December 20, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975312/highly-sensitive-detection-of-hbv-rna-in-liver-tissue-by-in-situ-hybridization
#15
Diego Calabrese, Stefan F Wieland
As soon as HBV was identified, HBV localization at the cellular level became instrumental in studying HBV infection. Multiple methodologies for detection of viral antigens and nucleic acids at the cellular level, not only in patient derived liver biopsy samples, but also in many other experimental systems, have been developed over the years. Recently, the development of highly sensitive and specific in situ hybridization systems enabled detection of cellular mRNAs at the single copy level. Adaptation of such a system (ViewRNA ISH Tissue Assay; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) for the detection of viral RNAs allowed us to reliably identify hepatitis C virus RNA positive cells in the liver of HCV infected patients...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957239/oxidative-stress-and-liver-cancer-etiology-and-therapeutic-targets
#16
REVIEW
Zhanpeng Wang, Zhuonan Li, Yanshuo Ye, Lijuan Xie, Wei Li
Accumulating evidence has indicated that oxidative stress (OS) is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Normally, OS occurs when the body receives any danger signal-from either an internal or external source-and further induces DNA oxidative damage and abnormal protein expression, placing the body into a state of vulnerability to the development of various diseases such as cancer. There are many factors involved in liver carcinogenesis, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, alcohol abuse, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955711/hcv-co-infection-and-markers-of-liver-injury-and-fibrosis-among-hiv-positive-childbearing-women-in-ukraine-results-from-a-cohort-study
#17
Heather Bailey, Nataliya Nizova, Violeta Martsynovska, Alla Volokha, Ruslan Malyuta, Mario Cortina-Borja, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Ukraine's injecting drug use-driven HIV epidemic is among the most severe in Europe with high burden of HCV co-infection. HIV/HCV co-infected individuals are at elevated risk of HCV-related morbidity, but little is known about burden of liver disease and associated factors in the HIV-positive population in Ukraine, particularly among women. METHODS: Characteristics of 2050 HIV-positive women enrolled into the Ukrainian Study of HIV-infected Childbearing Women were described by HCV serostatus...
December 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925409/more-improvement-than-progression-of-liver-fibrosis-following-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-longitudinal-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-or-without-hbv-and-hcv-co-infections
#18
Yingying Ding, Song Duan, Runhua Ye, Yuecheng Yang, Shitang Yao, Jibao Wang, Dongdong Cao, Xing Liu, Lin Lu, Manhong Jia, Zunyou Wu, Na He
We examined the effect of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on liver fibrosis among HIV-infected patients with or without Hepatitis B (HBV) or C virus (HCV) co-infection. This was a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients receiving cART during 2004-2016. Liver fibrosis was assessed using Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score with 3 classifications: Class 1, < 1.45; Class 2, 1.45-3.25; Class 3, > 3.25. Of 3,900 participants, 68.6% were HIV mono-infected, 5.3% were HIV/HBV co-infected, 23.8% were HIV/HCV co-infected and 2...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924779/hepatic-safety-of-maraviroc-in-patients-with-hiv-1-and-hepatitis-c-and-or-b-virus-144-week-results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Juergen K Rockstroh, Frank Plonski, Meena Bansal, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Catherine B Small, David M Asmuth, Gilles Pialoux, Rebecca Zhang-Roper, Ronnie Wang, Juan A Pineda, Jayvant Heera
BACKGROUND: In the primary 48-week analysis of a hepatic safety trial in patients with HIV-1 co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV), maraviroc-containing treatment regimens were not associated with increased hepatotoxicity. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study, patients received maraviroc twice daily (n=70) or placebo (n=67) with concomitant antiretroviral therapy for 144 weeks (clinicaltrials...
December 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902444/oncolytic-reovirus-as-a-combined-antiviral-and-anti-tumour-agent-for-the-treatment-of-liver-cancer
#20
Adel Samson, Matthew J Bentham, Karen Scott, Gerard Nuovo, Abigail Bloy, Elizabeth Appleton, Robert A Adair, Rajiv Dave, Adam Peckham-Cooper, Giles Toogood, Seishi Nagamori, Matthew Coffey, Richard Vile, Kevin Harrington, Peter Selby, Fiona Errington-Mais, Alan Melcher, Stephen Griffin
OBJECTIVE: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent promising, proinflammatory cancer treatments. Here, we explored whether OV-induced innate immune responses could simultaneously inhibit HCV while suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, we extended this exemplar to other models of virus-associated cancer. DESIGN AND RESULTS: Clinical grade oncolytic orthoreovirus (Reo) elicited innate immune activation within primary human liver tissue in the absence of cytotoxicity and independently of viral genome replication...
November 15, 2016: Gut
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