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toxic secreted protein fungal

Yujie Zhou, Min Liao, Chengguang Zhu, Yao Hu, Ting Tong, Xian Peng, Mingyun Li, Mingye Feng, Lei Cheng, Biao Ren, Xuedong Zhou
The hyphal development of Candida albicans (C. albicans) has been considered as an essential virulent factor for host cell damage. However, the missing link between hyphae and virulence of C. albicans is also been discovered. Here, we identified that the null mutants of ERG3 and ERG11, two key genes in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, can form typical hyphae but failed to cause the oral mucosal infection in vitro and in vivo for the first time. In particular, the erg3Δ/Δ and erg11Δ/Δ strains co-cultured with epithelial cells significantly reduced the adhesion, damage, and cytokine (interleukin-1α (IL-1α)) production, whereas the invasion was not affected in vitro...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Oral Science
Daria Feldman, David J Kowbel, N Louise Glass, Oded Yarden, Yitzhak Hadar
Small secreted proteins (SSPs), along with lignocellulose degrading enzymes, are integral components of the secretome of Pleurotus ostreatus, a white rot fungus. In this study, we identified 3 genes (ssp1, 2 and 3) encoding proteins that are annotated as SSPs and that exhibited of ~4,500- fold expression, 24 hr following exposure to the toxic compound 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Homologues to genes encoding these SSPs are present in the genomes of other basidiomycete fungi, however the role of SSPs is not yet understood...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Graeme J Kettles, Carlos Bayon, Caroline A Sparks, Gail Canning, Kostya Kanyuka, Jason J Rudd
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) disease of wheat leaves. Zymoseptoria tritici secretes many functionally uncharacterized effector proteins during infection. Here, we characterized a secreted ribonuclease (Zt6) with an unusual biphasic expression pattern. Transient expression systems were used to characterize Zt6, and mutants thereof, in both host and non-host plants. Cell-free protein expression systems monitored the impact of Zt6 protein on functional ribosomes, and in vitro assays of cells treated with recombinant Zt6 determined toxicity against bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi...
January 2018: New Phytologist
Blessy George, Dahea You, Melanie S Joy, Lauren M Aleksunes
Renal proximal tubules are targets for toxicity due in part to the expression of transporters that mediate the secretion and reabsorption of xenobiotics. Alterations in transporter expression and/or function can enhance the accumulation of toxicants and sensitize the kidneys to injury. This can be observed when xenobiotic uptake by carrier proteins is increased or efflux of toxicants and their metabolites is reduced. Nephrotoxic chemicals include environmental contaminants (halogenated hydrocarbon solvents, the herbicide paraquat, the fungal toxin ochratoxin, and heavy metals) as well as pharmaceuticals (certain beta-lactam antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and chemotherapeutic drugs)...
July 1, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Christoph Sonderegger, Ádám Fizil, Laura Burtscher, Dorottya Hajdu, Alberto Muñoz, Zoltán Gáspári, Nick D Read, Gyula Batta, Florentine Marx
The cysteine-rich, cationic, antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the culture supernatant of the filamentous Ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum. The five β-strands of PAF form a compact β-barrel that is stabilized by three disulphide bonds. The folding of PAF allows the formation of four surface-exposed loops and distinct charged motifs on the protein surface that might regulate the interaction of PAF with the sensitive target fungus. The growth inhibitory activity of this highly stable protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens provides great potential in antifungal drug research...
2017: PloS One
Dinh Minh Tran, André Clément-Demange, Marine Déon, Dominique Garcia, Vincent Le Guen, Anne Clément-Vidal, Mouman Soumahoro, Aurélien Masson, Philippe Label, Mau Tuy Le, Valérie Pujade-Renaud
An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP...
2016: PloS One
Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianrong Li, Biao Zhang, Honggang Wang, Mingchun Li
The cell wall is an important cell structure in both fungi and bacteria, and hence becomes a common antimicrobial target. The cell wall-perturbing agents disrupt synthesis and function of cell wall components, leading to cell wall stress and consequent cell death. However, little is known about the detailed mechanisms by which cell wall stress renders fungal cell death. In this study, we found that ROS scavengers drastically attenuated the antifungal effect of cell wall-perturbing agents to the model fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these agents caused remarkable ROS accumulation and activation of oxidative stress response (OSR) in this fungus...
October 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marianne Daou, François Piumi, Daniel Cullen, Eric Record, Craig B Faulds
UNLABELLED: The genome of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus includes a large number of genes encoding enzymes implicated in lignin degradation. Among these, three genes are predicted to encode glyoxal oxidase, an enzyme previously isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium The glyoxal oxidase of P. chrysosporium is physiologically coupled to lignin-oxidizing peroxidases via generation of extracellular H2O2 and utilizes an array of aldehydes and α-hydroxycarbonyls as the substrates...
August 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Celia R Carlini, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun
Ureases are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. They were the first enzymes to be crystallized and, with them, the notion that enzymes are proteins became accepted. Novel toxic properties of ureases that are independent of their enzyme activity have been discovered in the last three decades. Since our first description of the neurotoxic properties of canatoxin, an isoform of the jack bean urease, which appeared in Toxicon in 1981, about one hundred articles have been published on "new" properties of plant and microbial ureases...
February 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Mehdi Kabani, Ronald Melki
UNLABELLED: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors several prions that constitute powerful models to investigate the mechanisms of epigenetic structural inheritance. [PSI(+)] is undoubtedly the best-known yeast prion and results from the conversion of the translation termination factor Sup35p into self-perpetuating protein aggregates. Structurally different conformers of Sup35p aggregates can lead to [PSI(+)] strains with weak or strong prion phenotypes. Yeast prions are faithfully transmitted from mother to daughter cells during cell division, upon cytoplasmic mixing during mating, or when Sup35p fibrils made in test tubes are introduced into spheroplasts...
2015: MBio
Luciana S Lobo, Christian Luz, Éverton K K Fernandes, M Patricia Juárez, Nicolás Pedrini
Entomopathogenic fungi secrete toxic secondary metabolites during the invasion of the insect hemocoel as part of the infection process. Although these compounds have been frequently mentioned as virulence factors, the roles of many of them remain poorly understood, including the question of whether they are expressed during the infection process. A major hurdle to this issue remains the low sensitivity of biochemical detection techniques (e.g., HPLC) within the complex samples that may contain trace quantities of fungal molecules inside the insect...
June 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Roger Schneiter, Antonio Di Pietro
CAP superfamily proteins, also known as sperm-coating proteins, are found in all kingdoms of life and have been implicated in a variety of physiological contexts, including immune defense in plants and mammals, sperm maturation and fertilization, fungal virulence, and toxicity of insect and reptile venoms as well as prostate and brain cancer. CAP family members are mostly secreted glycoproteins that are highly stable in the extracellular fluid. All members of the superfamily share a common CAP domain of approximately 150 amino acids, which adopts a unique α-β-α sandwich fold...
October 2013: Biomolecular Concepts
Kai Heimel
The unfolded protein response (UPR) represents a mechanism to preserve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis that is conserved in eukaryotes. ER stress caused by the accumulation of potentially toxic un- or misfolded proteins in the ER triggers UPR activation and the induction of genes important for protein folding in the ER, ER expansion, and transport from and to the ER. Along with this adaptation, the overall capacity for protein secretion is markedly increased by the UPR. In filamentous fungi, various approaches to employ the UPR for improved production of homologous and heterologous proteins have been investigated...
January 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Michael Kitching, Meghana Ramani, Enrico Marsili
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals...
November 2015: Microbial Biotechnology
Afua Nyarko, Kiran K Singarapu, Melania Figueroa, Viola A Manning, Iovanna Pandelova, Thomas J Wolpert, Lynda M Ciuffetti, Elisar Barbar
Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Ptr ToxB (ToxB) is a proteinaceous host-selective toxin produced by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (P. tritici-repentis), a plant pathogenic fungus that causes the disease tan spot of wheat. One feature that distinguishes ToxB from other host-selective toxins is that it has naturally occurring homologs in non-pathogenic P. tritici-repentis isolates that lack toxic activity. There are no high-resolution structures for any of the ToxB homologs, or for any protein with >30% sequence identity, and therefore what underlies activity remains an open question...
September 12, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Angelique C W Franken, Beatrix E Lechner, Ernst R Werner, Hubertus Haas, B Christien Lokman, Arthur F J Ram, Cees A M J J van den Hondel, Sandra de Weert, Peter J Punt
Iron is an essential metal for many organisms, but the biologically relevant form of iron is scarce because of rapid oxidation resulting in low solubility. Simultaneously, excessive accumulation of iron is toxic. Consequently, iron uptake is a highly controlled process. In most fungal species, siderophores play a central role in iron handling. Siderophores are small iron-specific chelators that can be secreted to scavenge environmental iron or bind intracellular iron with high affinity. A second high-affinity iron uptake mechanism is reductive iron assimilation (RIA)...
November 2014: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Iran Malavazi, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Neil Andrew Brown
In the external environment, or within a host organism, filamentous fungi experience sudden changes in nutrient availability, osmolality, pH, temperature and the exposure to toxic compounds. The fungal cell wall represents the first line of defense, while also performing essential roles in morphology, development and virulence. A polarized secretion system is paramount for cell wall biosynthesis, filamentous growth, nutrient acquisition and interactions with the environment. The unique ability of filamentous fungi to secrete has resulted in their industrial adoption as fungal cell factories...
November 2014: Briefings in Functional Genomics
François Piumi, Anthony Levasseur, David Navarro, Simeng Zhou, Yann Mathieu, David Ropartz, Roland Ludwig, Craig B Faulds, Eric Record
Data on glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are scarce and availability of these enzymes for application purposes is limited. This paper describes a new GDH from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 that is the first reported GDH from a white-rot fungus belonging to the Basidiomycota. The enzyme was recombinantly produced in Aspergillus niger, a well-known fungal host producing an array of homologous or heterologous enzymes for industrial applications. The full-length gene that encodes GDH from P. cinnabarinus (PcGDH) consists of 2,425 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 620 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 62...
December 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
John R Collette, Huaijin Zhou, Michael C Lorenz
Macrophages and neutrophils generate a potent burst of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as a key aspect of the antimicrobial response. While most successful pathogens, including the fungus Candida albicans, encode enzymes for the detoxification of these compounds and repair of the resulting cellular damage, some species actively modulate immune function to suppress the generation of these toxic compounds. We report here that C. albicans actively inhibits macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO). NO production was blocked in a dose-dependent manner when live C...
2014: PloS One
Anikó Várnai, Campbell Tang, Oskar Bengtsson, Andrew Atterton, Geir Mathiesen, Vincent G H Eijsink
BACKGROUND: Plant-derived biomass is a potential alternative to fossil feedstocks for a greener economy. Enzymatic saccharification of biomass has been studied extensively and endoglucanases have been found to be a prerequisite for quick initial liquefaction of biomass under industrial conditions. Pichia pastoris, widely used for heterologous protein expression, can be utilized for fungal endoglucanase production. The recently marketed PichiaPink™ expression system allows for rapid clone selection, and employs the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter to ensure high protein expression levels...
2014: Microbial Cell Factories
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