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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736862/genetic-determinism-of-sensitivity-to-corynespora-cassiicola-exudates-in-rubber-tree-hevea-brasiliensis
#1
Dinh Minh Tran, André Clément-Demange, Marine Déon, Dominique Garcia, Vincent Le Guen, Anne Clément-Vidal, Mouman Soumahoro, Aurélien Masson, Philippe Label, Mau Tuy Le, Valérie Pujade-Renaud
An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650297/endoplasmic-reticulum-derived-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-is-involved-in-toxicity-of-cell-wall-stress-to-candida-albicans
#2
Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianrong Li, Biao Zhang, Honggang Wang, Mingchun Li
The cell wall is an important cell structure in both fungi and bacteria, and hence becomes a common antimicrobial target. The cell wall-perturbing agents disrupt synthesis and function of cell wall components, leading to cell wall stress and consequent cell death. However, little is known about the detailed mechanisms by which cell wall stress renders fungal cell death. In this study, we found that ROS scavengers drastically attenuated the antifungal effect of cell wall-perturbing agents to the model fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these agents caused remarkable ROS accumulation and activation of oxidative stress response (OSR) in this fungus...
September 17, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260365/heterologous-production-and-characterization-of-two-glyoxal-oxidases-from-pycnoporus-cinnabarinus
#3
Marianne Daou, François Piumi, Daniel Cullen, Eric Record, Craig B Faulds
UNLABELLED: The genome of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus includes a large number of genes encoding enzymes implicated in lignin degradation. Among these, three genes are predicted to encode glyoxal oxidase, an enzyme previously isolated from Phanerochaete chrysosporium The glyoxal oxidase of P. chrysosporium is physiologically coupled to lignin-oxidizing peroxidases via generation of extracellular H2O2 and utilizes an array of aldehydes and α-hydroxycarbonyls as the substrates...
August 15, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26690979/ureases-as-multifunctional-toxic-proteins-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Celia R Carlini, Rodrigo Ligabue-Braun
Ureases are metalloenzymes that hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. They were the first enzymes to be crystallized and, with them, the notion that enzymes are proteins became accepted. Novel toxic properties of ureases that are independent of their enzyme activity have been discovered in the last three decades. Since our first description of the neurotoxic properties of canatoxin, an isoform of the jack bean urease, which appeared in Toxicon in 1981, about one hundred articles have been published on "new" properties of plant and microbial ureases...
February 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26286691/sup35p-in-its-soluble-and-prion-states-is-packaged-inside-extracellular-vesicles
#5
Mehdi Kabani, Ronald Melki
UNLABELLED: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbors several prions that constitute powerful models to investigate the mechanisms of epigenetic structural inheritance. [PSI(+)] is undoubtedly the best-known yeast prion and results from the conversion of the translation termination factor Sup35p into self-perpetuating protein aggregates. Structurally different conformers of Sup35p aggregates can lead to [PSI(+)] strains with weak or strong prion phenotypes. Yeast prions are faithfully transmitted from mother to daughter cells during cell division, upon cytoplasmic mixing during mating, or when Sup35p fibrils made in test tubes are introduced into spheroplasts...
2015: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25912088/assessing-gene-expression-during-pathogenesis-use-of-qrt-pcr-to-follow-toxin-production-in-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-during-infection-and-immune-response-of-the-insect-host-triatoma-infestans
#6
Luciana S Lobo, Christian Luz, Éverton K K Fernandes, M Patricia Juárez, Nicolás Pedrini
Entomopathogenic fungi secrete toxic secondary metabolites during the invasion of the insect hemocoel as part of the infection process. Although these compounds have been frequently mentioned as virulence factors, the roles of many of them remain poorly understood, including the question of whether they are expressed during the infection process. A major hurdle to this issue remains the low sensitivity of biochemical detection techniques (e.g., HPLC) within the complex samples that may contain trace quantities of fungal molecules inside the insect...
June 2015: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25436594/the-cap-protein-superfamily-function-in-sterol-export-and-fungal-virulence
#7
Roger Schneiter, Antonio Di Pietro
CAP superfamily proteins, also known as sperm-coating proteins, are found in all kingdoms of life and have been implicated in a variety of physiological contexts, including immune defense in plants and mammals, sperm maturation and fertilization, fungal virulence, and toxicity of insect and reptile venoms as well as prostate and brain cancer. CAP family members are mostly secreted glycoproteins that are highly stable in the extracellular fluid. All members of the superfamily share a common CAP domain of approximately 150 amino acids, which adopts a unique α-β-α sandwich fold...
October 2013: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25384707/unfolded-protein-response-in-filamentous-fungi-implications-in-biotechnology
#8
REVIEW
Kai Heimel
The unfolded protein response (UPR) represents a mechanism to preserve endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis that is conserved in eukaryotes. ER stress caused by the accumulation of potentially toxic un- or misfolded proteins in the ER triggers UPR activation and the induction of genes important for protein folding in the ER, ER expansion, and transport from and to the ER. Along with this adaptation, the overall capacity for protein secretion is markedly increased by the UPR. In filamentous fungi, various approaches to employ the UPR for improved production of homologous and heterologous proteins have been investigated...
January 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25154648/fungal-biosynthesis-of-gold-nanoparticles-mechanism-and-scale-up
#9
REVIEW
Michael Kitching, Meghana Ramani, Enrico Marsili
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are a widespread research tool because of their oxidation resistance, biocompatibility and stability. Chemical methods for AuNP synthesis often produce toxic residues that raise environmental concern. On the other hand, the biological synthesis of AuNPs in viable microorganisms and their cell-free extracts is an environmentally friendly and low-cost process. In general, fungi tolerate higher metal concentrations than bacteria and secrete abundant extracellular redox proteins to reduce soluble metal ions to their insoluble form and eventually to nanocrystals...
November 2015: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25063993/solution-nmr-structures-of-pyrenophora-tritici-repentis-toxb-and-its-inactive-homolog-reveal-potential-determinants-of-toxin-activity
#10
Afua Nyarko, Kiran K Singarapu, Melania Figueroa, Viola A Manning, Iovanna Pandelova, Thomas J Wolpert, Lynda M Ciuffetti, Elisar Barbar
Pyrenophora tritici-repentis Ptr ToxB (ToxB) is a proteinaceous host-selective toxin produced by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (P. tritici-repentis), a plant pathogenic fungus that causes the disease tan spot of wheat. One feature that distinguishes ToxB from other host-selective toxins is that it has naturally occurring homologs in non-pathogenic P. tritici-repentis isolates that lack toxic activity. There are no high-resolution structures for any of the ToxB homologs, or for any protein with >30% sequence identity, and therefore what underlies activity remains an open question...
September 12, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25062661/genome-mining-and-functional-genomics-for-siderophore-production-in-aspergillus-niger
#11
Angelique C W Franken, Beatrix E Lechner, Ernst R Werner, Hubertus Haas, B Christien Lokman, Arthur F J Ram, Cees A M J J van den Hondel, Sandra de Weert, Peter J Punt
Iron is an essential metal for many organisms, but the biologically relevant form of iron is scarce because of rapid oxidation resulting in low solubility. Simultaneously, excessive accumulation of iron is toxic. Consequently, iron uptake is a highly controlled process. In most fungal species, siderophores play a central role in iron handling. Siderophores are small iron-specific chelators that can be secreted to scavenge environmental iron or bind intracellular iron with high affinity. A second high-affinity iron uptake mechanism is reductive iron assimilation (RIA)...
November 2014: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25060881/the-importance-of-connections-between-the-cell-wall-integrity-pathway-and-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-filamentous-fungi
#12
REVIEW
Iran Malavazi, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Neil Andrew Brown
In the external environment, or within a host organism, filamentous fungi experience sudden changes in nutrient availability, osmolality, pH, temperature and the exposure to toxic compounds. The fungal cell wall represents the first line of defense, while also performing essential roles in morphology, development and virulence. A polarized secretion system is paramount for cell wall biosynthesis, filamentous growth, nutrient acquisition and interactions with the environment. The unique ability of filamentous fungi to secrete has resulted in their industrial adoption as fungal cell factories...
November 2014: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24965558/a-novel-glucose-dehydrogenase-from-the-white-rot-fungus-pycnoporus-cinnabarinus-production-in-aspergillus-niger-and-physicochemical-characterization-of-the-recombinant-enzyme
#13
François Piumi, Anthony Levasseur, David Navarro, Simeng Zhou, Yann Mathieu, David Ropartz, Roland Ludwig, Craig B Faulds, Eric Record
Data on glucose dehydrogenases (GDHs) are scarce and availability of these enzymes for application purposes is limited. This paper describes a new GDH from the fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus CIRM BRFM 137 that is the first reported GDH from a white-rot fungus belonging to the Basidiomycota. The enzyme was recombinantly produced in Aspergillus niger, a well-known fungal host producing an array of homologous or heterologous enzymes for industrial applications. The full-length gene that encodes GDH from P. cinnabarinus (PcGDH) consists of 2,425 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 620 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 62...
December 2014: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24755669/candida-albicans-suppresses-nitric-oxide-generation-from-macrophages-via-a-secreted-molecule
#14
John R Collette, Huaijin Zhou, Michael C Lorenz
Macrophages and neutrophils generate a potent burst of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as a key aspect of the antimicrobial response. While most successful pathogens, including the fungus Candida albicans, encode enzymes for the detoxification of these compounds and repair of the resulting cellular damage, some species actively modulate immune function to suppress the generation of these toxic compounds. We report here that C. albicans actively inhibits macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO). NO production was blocked in a dose-dependent manner when live C...
2014: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24742273/expression-of-endoglucanases-in-pichia-pastoris-under-control-of-the-gap-promoter
#15
Anikó Várnai, Campbell Tang, Oskar Bengtsson, Andrew Atterton, Geir Mathiesen, Vincent G H Eijsink
BACKGROUND: Plant-derived biomass is a potential alternative to fossil feedstocks for a greener economy. Enzymatic saccharification of biomass has been studied extensively and endoglucanases have been found to be a prerequisite for quick initial liquefaction of biomass under industrial conditions. Pichia pastoris, widely used for heterologous protein expression, can be utilized for fungal endoglucanase production. The recently marketed PichiaPink™ expression system allows for rapid clone selection, and employs the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter to ensure high protein expression levels...
2014: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24726365/structure-mechanism-and-specificity-of-a-eukaryal-trna-restriction-enzyme-involved-in-self-nonself-discrimination
#16
Anupam K Chakravarty, Paul Smith, Radhika Jalan, Stewart Shuman
tRNA restriction by anticodon nucleases underlies cellular stress responses and self-nonself discrimination in a wide range of taxa. Anticodon breakage inhibits protein synthesis, which, in turn, results in growth arrest or cell death. The eukaryal ribotoxin PaT secreted by Pichia acaciae inhibits growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae via cleavage of tRNA(Gln(UUG)). We find that recombinant PaT incises a synthetic tRNA(Gln(UUG)) stem-loop RNA by transesterification at a single site 3' of the wobble uridine, yielding 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends...
April 24, 2014: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24654977/an-atp-binding-cassette-pleiotropic-drug-transporter-protein-is-required-for-xenobiotic-tolerance-and-antagonism-in-the-fungal-biocontrol-agent-clonostachys-rosea
#17
Mukesh K Dubey, Dan Funck Jensen, Magnus Karlsson
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate active efflux of natural and synthetic toxicants and are considered to be important for drug tolerance in microorganisms. In biological control agents (BCA), ABC transporters can play important roles in antagonism by providing protection against toxins derived from the fungal prey and by mediating the secretion of endogenous toxins. In the present study, we generated deletion and complementation strains of the ABC transporter abcG5 in the fungal BCA Clonostachys rosea to study its role in xenobiotic tolerance and antagonism...
July 2014: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24626284/environmentally-relevant-level-of-aflatoxin-b1-dysregulates-human-dendritic-cells-through-signaling-on-key-toll-like-receptors
#18
Azam Mohammadi, Jalil Mehrzad, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Marion Schneider
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly hazardous fungal biometabolites usually present in feeds and foods. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic and a known carcinogen. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), highly expressed by myeloid dendritic cells (DC), are key innate immune-surveillance molecules. Toll-like receptors not only sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns but also contribute to infections and cancer. To assess AFB1-TLR interactions on human myeloid DC, pure CD11c(+) DC were generated from monocytes isolated from healthy individuals and then exposed to relevant level of AFB1 for 2 hours...
May 2014: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24411669/secretory-expression-of-lentinula-edodes-intracellular-laccase-by-yeast-high-cell-density-system-sub-milligram-production-of-difficult-to-express-secretory-protein
#19
Takeshi Kurose, Yuta Saito, Koichi Kimata, Yuko Nakagawa, Akira Yano, Keisuke Ito, Yasuaki Kawarasaki
While a number of heterologous expression systems have been reported for extracellular laccases, there are few for the intracellular counterparts. The Lentinula edodes intracellular laccase Lcc4 is an industrially potential enzyme with its unique substrate specificity. The heterologous production of the intracellular laccase, however, had been difficult because of its expression-dependent toxicity. We previously demonstrated that recombinant yeast cells synthesized and, interestingly, secreted Lcc4 only when they were suspended to an inducing medium in a high cell-density (J...
June 2014: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24320078/ablation-of-the-crea-regulator-results-in-amino-acid-toxicity-temperature-sensitivity-pleiotropic-effects-on-cellular-development-and-loss-of-virulence-in-the-filamentous-fungus-beauveria-bassiana
#20
Zhibing Luo, Yuqi Qin, Yan Pei, Nemat O Keyhani
For most organisms, carbon and nitrogen uptake are essential for growth, development and, where applicable, pathogenesis. The role of the carbon catabolite repressor transcription factor homologue BbcreA in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana was investigated. Deletion of BbcreA resulted in pleiotropic effects, including nutrient toxicity, leading to a novel cell lytic phenotype. Fungal growth in rich media and minimal media containing select amino acids/peptides was severely compromised, with microscopic examination revealing conidial-base germ tube degeneration and cell lysis occurring during growth, a phenomenon exacerbated at higher temperatures (32°C)...
April 2014: Environmental Microbiology
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