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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437139/protection-against-common-bean-rust-conferred-by-a-gene-silencing-method
#1
Bret Cooper, Kimberly B Campbell
Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by defeating the plant immune system. Candidate effectors have been identified by DNA sequencing and motif analysis, and some candidates have been observed in infected leaves by mass spectrometry. To assess their roles in pathogenicity, we have inserted small fragments of genes for five candidates into bean pod mottle virus...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430797/effect-of-quinoline-based-1-2-3-triazole-and-its-structural-analogues-on-growth-and-virulence-attributes-of-candida-albicans
#2
Mohammad Irfan, Shadab Alam, Nikhat Manzoor, Mohammad Abid
Candida albicans, along with some other non-albicans Candida species, is a group of yeast, which causes serious infections in humans that can be both systemic and superficial. Despite the fact that extensive efforts have been put into the discovery of novel antifungal agents, the frequency of these fungal infections has increased drastically worldwide. In our quest for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, we had previously synthesized and screened quinoline containing 1,2,3-triazole (3a) as a potent Candida spp inhibitor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425045/soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cell-1-strem-1-a-potential-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Changlin Cao, Jingxian Gu, Jingyao Zhang
Sensitive and useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of infectious diseases have been widely developed. An example of these biomarkers is triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1), which is a cell surface receptor expressed on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. TREM-1 amplifies inflammation by activating the TREM-1/DAP12 pathway. This pathway is triggered by the interaction of TREM-1 with ligands or stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Consequently, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are secreted...
April 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424773/septins-focus-cellular-growth-for-host-infection-by-pathogenic-fungi
#4
REVIEW
Michelle Momany, Nicholas J Talbot
One of the key challenges faced by microbial pathogens is invasion of host tissue. Fungal pathogens adopt a number of distinct strategies to overcome host cell defenses, including the development of specialized infection structures, the secretion of proteins that manipulate host responses or cellular organization, and the ability to facilitate their own uptake by phagocytic mechanisms. Key to many of these adaptations is the considerable morphogenetic plasticity displayed by pathogenic species. Fungal pathogens can, for example, shift their growth habit between non-polarized spores, or yeast-like cells, and highly polarized hyphal filaments...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420736/deciphering-the-regulatory-network-between-the-srebp-pathway-and-protein-secretion-in-neurospora-crassa
#5
Lina Qin, Vincent W Wu, N Louise Glass
Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are conserved from yeast to mammalian cells and function in the regulation of sterol homeostasis. In fungi, the SREBP pathway has been implicated in the adaptation to hypoxia and in virulence. In Neurospora crassa and Trichoderma reesei, the SREBP pathway also negatively regulates protein secretion under lignocellulolytic conditions. Here we utilized global transcriptional profiling combined with genetic and physiological analyses to address the regulatory link between the SREBP pathway and protein secretion in N...
April 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407259/the-verticillium-specific-protein-vdscp7-localizes-to-the-plant-nucleus-and-modulates-immunity-to-fungal-infections
#6
Lisha Zhang, Hao Ni, Xuan Du, Sheng Wang, Xiao-Wei Ma, Thorsten Nürnberger, Hui-Shan Guo, Chenlei Hua
Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399190/expression-of-the-insect-metalloproteinase-inhibitor-impi-in-the-fat-body-of-galleria-mellonella-exposed-to-infection-with-beauveria-bassiana
#7
Lidiia Vertyporokh, Iwona Wojda
The inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) discovered in Galleria mellonella is currently the only specific inhibitor of metalloproteinases found in animals. Its role is to inhibit the activity of metalloproteinases secreted by pathogenic organisms as virulence factors to degrade immune-relevant polypeptides of the infected host. This is a good example of an evolutionary arms race between the insect hosts and their natural pathogens. In this report, we analyze the expression of a gene encoding an inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor (IMPI) in fat bodies of the greater wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella infected with an entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana...
April 11, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393921/characterization-of-a-basidiomycota-hydrophobin-reveals-the-structural-basis-for-a-high-similarity-class-i-subdivision
#8
Julie-Anne Gandier, David N Langelaan, Amy Won, Kylie O'Donnell, Julie L Grondin, Holly L Spencer, Philip Wong, Elisabeth Tillier, Christopher Yip, Steven P Smith, Emma R Master
Class I hydrophobins are functional amyloids secreted by fungi. They self-assemble into organized films at interfaces producing structures that include cellular adhesion points and hydrophobic coatings. Here, we present the first structure and solution properties of a unique Class I protein sequence of Basidiomycota origin: the Schizophyllum commune hydrophobin SC16 (hyd1). While the core β-barrel structure and disulphide bridging characteristic of the hydrophobin family are conserved, its surface properties and secondary structure elements are reminiscent of both Class I and II hydrophobins...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383143/recognition-of-corn-defense-chitinases-by-fungal-polyglycine-hydrolases
#9
Todd A Naumann, Erica L Bakota, Neil P J Price
Polyglycine hydrolases (PGH)s are secreted fungal endoproteases that cleave peptide bonds in the polyglycine interdomain linker of ChitA chitinase, an antifungal protein from domesticated corn (Zea mays ssp. mays). These target-specific endoproteases are unusual because they do not cut a specific peptide bond but select one of many Gly-Gly bonds within the polyglycine region. Some Gly-Gly bonds are cleaved frequently while others are never cleaved. Moreover, we have previously shown that PGHs from different fungal pathogens prefer to cleave different Gly-Gly peptide bonds...
April 6, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382652/a-new-promising-phylogenetic-marker-to-study-the-diversity-of-fungal-communities-the-glycoside-hydrolase-63-gene
#10
L Pérez-Izquierdo, E Morin, J P Maurice, F Martin, A Rincón, M Buée
In molecular ecology, the development of efficient molecular markers for fungi remains an important research domain. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was proposed as universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi, but this marker was criticized for idel-induced alignment problems and its potential lack of phylogenetic resolution. Our main aim was to develop a new phylogenetic gene and a putative functional marker, from single-copy gene, to describe fungal diversity. Thus, we developed a series of primers to amplify a polymorphic region of the Glycoside Hydrolase GH63 gene, encoding exo-acting α-glucosidases, in Basidiomycetes...
April 6, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372538/cross-talk-of-the-biotrophic-pathogen-claviceps-purpurea-and-its-host-secale-cereale
#11
Birgitt Oeser, Sabine Kind, Selma Schurack, Thomas Schmutzer, Paul Tudzynski, Janine Hinsch
BACKGROUND: The economically important Ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea is an interesting biotrophic model system because of its strict organ specificity (grass ovaries) and the lack of any detectable plant defense reactions. Though several virulence factors were identified, the exact infection mechanisms are unknown, e.g. how the fungus masks its attack and if the host detects the infection at all. RESULTS: We present a first dual transcriptome analysis using an RNA-Seq approach...
April 4, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367141/functional-investigation-of-iron-responsive-microsomal-proteins-including-mirc-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#12
Eoin D Mulvihill, Nicola M Moloney, Rebecca A Owens, Stephen K Dolan, Lauren Russell, Sean Doyle
The functionality of many microsome-associated proteins which exhibit altered abundance in response to iron limitation in Aspergillus fumigatus is unknown. Here, we generate and characterize eight gene deletion strains, and of most significance reveal that MirC (AFUA_2G05730) contributes to the maintenance of intracellular siderophore [ferricrocin (FC)] levels, augments conidiation, confers protection against oxidative stress, exhibits an intracellular localization and contributes to fungal virulence in the Galleria mellonella animal model system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360889/small-luggage-for-a-long-journey-transfer-of-vesicle-enclosed-small-rna-in-interspecies-communication
#13
REVIEW
Fabio A Lefebvre, Eric Lécuyer
In the evolutionary arms race, symbionts have evolved means to modulate each other's physiology, oftentimes through the dissemination of biological signals. Beyond small molecules and proteins, recent evidence shows that small RNA molecules are transferred between organisms and transmit functional RNA interference signals across biological species. However, the mechanisms through which specific RNAs involved in cross-species communication are sorted for secretion and protected from degradation in the environment remain largely enigmatic...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356329/effectors-of-filamentous-plant-pathogens-commonalities-amid-diversity
#14
REVIEW
Marina Franceschetti, Abbas Maqbool, Maximiliano J Jiménez-Dalmaroni, Helen G Pennington, Sophien Kamoun, Mark J Banfield
Fungi and oomycetes are filamentous microorganisms that include a diversity of highly developed pathogens of plants. These are sophisticated modulators of plant processes that secrete an arsenal of effector proteins to target multiple host cell compartments and enable parasitic infection. Genome sequencing revealed complex catalogues of effectors of filamentous pathogens, with some species harboring hundreds of effector genes. Although a large fraction of these effector genes encode secreted proteins with weak or no sequence similarity to known proteins, structural studies have revealed unexpected similarities amid the diversity...
June 2017: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303575/isoform-localization-of-dectin-1-regulates-the-signaling-quality-of-anti-fungal-immunity
#15
Mike Fischer, Jörg P Müller, Bärbel Spies-Weisshart, Christine Gräfe, Oliver Kurzai, Kerstin Hünniger, Andreas Hochhaus, Sebastian Scholl, Ulf Schnetzke
Dectin-1 is recognized as a major receptor for fungal ß-glucans and contributes to anti-fungal immunity. Human monocyte populations express Dectin-1 isoforms A and B, which differ by the presence of a stalk region and its N-linked glycosylation site. Here, we analyzed the expression of both isoforms in human monocyte-derived cells. The cellular localization on cell lines stably expressing either Dectin-1 isoform A or B was studied by flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Intracellular protein signaling and cytokine production were analyzed by immunoblotting and cytometric bead array, respectively...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301519/lignin-degrading-peroxidases-in-white-rot-fungus-trametes-hirsuta-072-absolute-expression-quantification-of-full-multigene-family
#16
Daria V Vasina, Konstantin V Moiseenko, Tatiana V Fedorova, Tatiana V Tyazhelova
Ligninolytic heme peroxidases comprise an extensive family of enzymes, which production is characteristic for white-rot Basidiomycota. The majority of fungal heme peroxidases are encoded by multigene families that differentially express closely related proteins. Currently, there were very few attempts to characterize the complete multigene family of heme peroxidases in a single fungus. Here we are focusing on identification and characterization of peroxidase genes, which are transcribed and secreted by basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta 072, an efficient lignin degrader...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282450/secretory-proteins-are-delivered-to-the-septin-organized-penetration-interface-during-root-infection-by-verticillium-dahliae
#17
Ting-Ting Zhou, Yun-Long Zhao, Hui-Shan Guo
Successful infection of the host requires secretion of effector proteins to evade or suppress plant immunity. Secretion of effectors in root-infecting fungal pathogens, however, remains unexplored. We previously reported that Verticillium dahliae, a root-infecting phytopathogenic fungus, develops a penetration peg from a hyphopodium to infect cotton roots. In this study, we report that a septin ring, requiring VdSep5, partitions the hyphopodium and the invasive hypha and form the specialized fungus-host interface...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281888/medium-ph-in-submerged-cultivation-modulates-differences-in-the-intracellular-protein-profile-of-fusarium-oxysporum-urm-7401
#18
Nathália Gonsales da Rosa-Garzon, Hélen Julie Laure, Cristina Maria de Souza-Motta, José César Rosa, Hamilton Cabral
Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus that damages a wide range of plants and thus causes severe crop losses. In fungal pathogens, the genes and proteins involved in virulence are known to be controlled by environmental pH. Here, we report the influence of culture-medium pH (5, 6, 7, and 8) on the production of degradative enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of F. oxysporum URM 7401 and on the 2D-electrophoresis profile of intracellular proteins in this fungus. F. oxysporum URM 7401 was grown in acidic, neutral, and alkaline culture media in a submerged bioprocess...
March 10, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276124/two-eisosome-proteins-play-opposite-roles-in-autophagic-control-and-sustain-cell-integrity-function-and-pathogenicity-in-beauveria-bassiana
#19
Long-Bin Zhang, Li Tang, Sheng-Hua Ying, Ming-Guang Feng
Pil1A and Pil1B are two core eisosome proteins that are homologous to yeast Pil1/Lsp1 or filamentous fungal Pil1A/Pil1B but have been unexplored in entomopathogenic fungi. Here we examined subcellular localization and functions of Pil1A and Pil1B in Beauveria bassiana, a fungal insect pathogen. Either localization or co-localization experiments of the two proteins demonstrated that Pil1A and Pil1B were simultaneously localized at the periphery of hyphal cells for formation of stable, punctuate spots in B. bassiana...
March 9, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267415/botrytis-small-rna-bc-sir37-suppresses-plant-defense-genes-by-cross-kingdom-rnai
#20
Ming Wang, Arne Weiberg, Exequiel Dellota, Daniel Yamane, Hailing Jin
Pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress host immune responses. Recently, we showed that an aggressive plant fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea can also deliver small RNA effectors into host cells to suppress host immunity. B. cinerea sRNAs (Bc-sRNAs) translocate into host plants and hijack the plant RNAi machinery to induce cross-kingdom RNAi of host immune responsive genes. Here, we functionally characterized another Bc-sRNA effector Bc-siR37 that is predicted to target at least 15 Arabidopsis genes, including WRKY transcription factors, receptor-like kinases, and cell wall-modifying enzymes...
March 7, 2017: RNA Biology
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