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fungal secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223991/the-comparison-of-expressed-candidate-secreted-proteins-from-two-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-unravels-common-and-specific-molecular-tools-to-invade-different-host-plants
#1
Laurent Kamel, Nianwu Tang, Mathilde Malbreil, Hélène San Clemente, Morgane Le Marquer, Christophe Roux, Nicolas Frei Dit Frey
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), belonging to the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, form mutualistic symbioses with roots of almost 80% of land plants. The release of genomic data from the ubiquitous AMF Rhizophagus irregularis revealed that this species possesses a large set of putative secreted proteins (RiSPs) that could be of major importance for establishing the symbiosis. In the present study, we aimed to identify SPs involved in the establishment of AM symbiosis based on comparative gene expression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217138/using-population-and-comparative-genomics-to-understand-the-genetic-basis-of-effector-driven-fungal-pathogen-evolution
#2
REVIEW
Clémence Plissonneau, Juliana Benevenuto, Norfarhan Mohd-Assaad, Simone Fouché, Fanny E Hartmann, Daniel Croll
Epidemics caused by fungal plant pathogens pose a major threat to agro-ecosystems and impact global food security. High-throughput sequencing enabled major advances in understanding how pathogens cause disease on crops. Hundreds of fungal genomes are now available and analyzing these genomes highlighted the key role of effector genes in disease. Effectors are small secreted proteins that enhance infection by manipulating host metabolism. Fungal genomes carry 100s of putative effector genes, but the lack of homology among effector genes, even for closely related species, challenges evolutionary and functional analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192532/role-of-arf-gtpases-in-fungal-morphogenesis-and-virulence
#3
Hayet Labbaoui, Stéphanie Bogliolo, Vikram Ghugtyal, Norma V Solis, Scott G Filler, Robert A Arkowitz, Martine Bassilana
Virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans depends on the switch from budding to filamentous growth, which requires sustained membrane traffic and polarized growth. In many organisms, small GTPases of the Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) family regulate membrane/protein trafficking, yet little is known about their role in fungal filamentous growth. To investigate these GTPases in C. albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3...
February 13, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168773/characterization-of-an-entomopathogenic-fungi-target-integument-protein-bombyx-mori-single-domain-von-willebrand-factor-type-c-in-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#4
F Han, A Lu, Y Yuan, W Huang, B T Beerntsen, J Huang, E Ling
The insect cuticle works as the first line of defence to protect insects from pathogenic infections and water evaporation. However, the old cuticle must be shed in order to enter the next developmental stage. During each ecdysis, moulting fluids are produced and secreted into the area among the old and new cuticles. In a previous study, the protein Bombyx mori single domain von Willebrand factor type C (BmSVWC; BGIBMGA011399) was identified in the moulting fluids of Bo. mori and demonstrated to regulate ecdysis...
February 7, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154008/eng1-and-exg8-are-the-major-%C3%AE-glucanases-secreted-by-the-fungal-pathogen-histoplasma-capsulatum
#5
Andrew L Garfoot, Kacey L Dearing, Andrew D VanSchoiack, Vicki H Wysocki, Chad A Rappleye
Fungal cell walls contain β-glucan polysaccharides which stimulate immune responses when recognized by host immune cells. The fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum minimizes detection of β-glucan by host cells through at least two mechanisms: concealment of β-glucans beneath α-glucans and enzymatic removal of any exposed β-glucan polysaccharides by the secreted glucanase Eng1. Histoplasma yeasts also secrete the putative glucanase Exg8, which may serve a similar role as Eng1 in removing exposed β-glucans from the yeast cell surface...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149293/the-antifungal-activity-of-lactoferrin-and-its-derived-peptides-mechanisms-of-action-and-synergy-with-drugs-against-fungal-pathogens
#6
REVIEW
Kenya E Fernandes, Dee A Carter
Lactoferrin is a multifunctional iron-binding glycoprotein belonging to the transferrin family. It is found abundantly in milk and is present as a major protein in human exocrine secretions where it plays a role in the innate immune response. Various antifungal functions of lactoferrin have been reported including a wide spectrum of activity across yeasts and molds and synergy with other antifungal drugs in combination therapy, and various modes of action have been proposed. Bioactive peptides derived from lactoferrin can also exhibit strong antifungal activity, with some surpassing the potency of the whole protein...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143479/droplet-based-microfluidic-high-throughput-screening-of-heterologous-enzymes-secreted-by-the-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#7
Thomas Beneyton, Stéphane Thomas, Andrew D Griffiths, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Antoine Drevelle, Tristan Rossignol
BACKGROUND: Droplet-based microfluidics is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to microtiter plate techniques for enzymatic high-throughput screening (HTS), especially for exploring large diversities with lower time and cost footprint. In this case, the assayed enzyme has to be accessible to the substrate within the water-in-oil droplet by being ideally extracellular or displayed at the cell surface. However, most of the enzymes screened to date are expressed within the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli cells, which means that a lysis step must take place inside the droplets for enzyme activity to be assayed...
January 31, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117833/a-fungal-wheat-pathogen-evolved-host-specialization-by-extensive-chromosomal-rearrangements
#8
Fanny E Hartmann, Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Bruce A McDonald, Daniel Croll
Fungal pathogens can rapidly evolve virulence towards resistant crops in agricultural ecosystems. Gains in virulence are often mediated by the mutation or deletion of a gene encoding a protein recognized by the plant immune system. However, the loci and the mechanisms of genome evolution enabling rapid virulence evolution are poorly understood. We performed genome-wide association mapping on a global collection of 106 strains of Zymoseptoria tritici, the most damaging pathogen of wheat in Europe, to identify polymorphisms linked to virulence on two wheat varieties...
January 24, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117435/movrp1-a-putative-verprolin-protein-is-required-for-asexual-development-and-infection-in-the-rice-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#9
Lin Huang, Shengpei Zhang, Ziyi Yin, Muxing Liu, Bing Li, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaobo Zheng, Ping Wang, Zhengguang Zhang
Endocytosis is a crucial cellular process in eukaryotic cells which involves clathrin and/or adaptor proteins, lipid kinases, phosphatases and the actin cytoskeleton. Verprolin proteins, such as Vrp1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are conserved family proteins that regulate actin binding and endocytosis. Here, we identified and characterized MoVrp1 as the yeast Vrp1 homolog in Magnaporthe oryzae. Deletion of the MoVRP1 gene resulted in defects in vegetative growth, asexual development, and infection of the host plant...
January 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111348/xenobiotic-transporters-and-kidney-injury
#10
REVIEW
Blessy George, Dahea You, Melanie S Joy, Lauren M Aleksunes
Renal proximal tubules are targets for toxicity due in part to the expression of transporters that mediate the secretion and reabsorption of xenobiotics. Alterations in transporter expression and/or function can enhance the accumulation of toxicants and sensitize the kidneys to injury. This can be observed when xenobiotic uptake by carrier proteins is increased or efflux of toxicants and their metabolites is reduced. Nephrotoxic chemicals include environmental contaminants (halogenated hydrocarbon solvents, the herbicide paraquat, the fungal toxin ochratoxin, and heavy metals) as well as pharmaceuticals (certain beta-lactam antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and chemotherapeutic drugs)...
January 20, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110962/%C3%AE-l-rhamnosidase-selective-for-rutin-to-isoquercitrin-transformation-from-penicillium-griseoroseum-mtcc-9224
#11
Sarita Yadav, Sudha Yadava, Kapil D S Yadav
An α-l-rhamnosidase secreting fungal strain has been isolated from the decaying goose berry (Emblica officinalis) fruit peel. The fungal strain has been identified as Penicillium greoroseum MTCC-9224. The α-l-rhamnosidase of this fungal strain has been purified to homogeneity using a simple procedure involving concentration by ultra filtration and an anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzyme gave a single protein band corresponding to molecular mass of 97kDa in SDS-PAGE analysis...
January 5, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107425/using-an-inducible-promoter-of-a-gene-encoding-penicillium-verruculosum-glucoamylase-for-production-of-enzyme-preparations-with-enhanced-cellulase-performance
#12
Alexander G Bulakhov, Pavel V Volkov, Aleksandra M Rozhkova, Alexander V Gusakov, Vitaly A Nemashkalov, Aidar D Satrutdinov, Arkady P Sinitsyn
BACKGROUND: Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. RESULTS: Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100297/transcriptional-analysis-of-mating-and-pre-infection-stages-of-the-anther-smut-microbotryum-lychnidis-dioicae
#13
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae is an obligate biotrophic parasite of the wildflower species, Silene latifolia. This dikaryotic fungus, commonly known as an anther smut, requires that haploid, yeast-like sporidia of opposite mating types fuse and differentiate into dikaryotic hyphae that penetrate host tissue as part of the fungal lifecycle. Mating occurs under conditions of cool temperatures and limited nutrients. Further development requires host cues or chemical mimics, including a variety of lipids, e.g...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096492/identification-of-glutaminyl-cyclase-genes-involved-in-pyroglutamate-modification-of-fungal-lignocellulolytic-enzymes
#14
Vincent W Wu, Craig M Dana, Anthony T Iavarone, Douglas S Clark, N Louise Glass
: The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. Currently, enzymes produced from filamentous fungi are used for deconstructing plant cell wall polysaccharides into fermentable sugars for biorefinery applications. A post-translational N-terminal pyroglutamate modification observed in some of these enzymes occurs when N-terminal glutamine or glutamate is cyclized to form a five-membered ring. This modification has been shown to confer resistance to thermal denaturation for CBH-1 and EG-1 cellulases...
January 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087464/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-fungal-protease-induced-inflammatory-responses
#15
Yun Hee Kim, Seung-Hyo Lee
Epidemiological studies have shown that fungal infections are a main cause of respiratory tract diseases, such as asthma, bronchopneumonia, intoxication, and invasive fungal disease. Fungi such as Aspergillus and Candida species have become increasingly important pathogens as the global climate changes. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the toxicological potential of Aspergillus protease in the lower respiratory tract. Exposure of Aspergillus protease to A549 cells induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 mRNAs and increased production of interleukin (IL)-8 and MCP-1 protein through enhanced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and activator protein (AP)-1...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079053/molecular-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-a-polygalacturonase-inhibiting-protein-ghpgip1-in-enhanced-resistance-to-verticillium-and-fusarium-wilts-in-cotton
#16
Nana Liu, Xueyan Zhang, Yun Sun, Ping Wang, Xiancai Li, Yakun Pei, Fuguang Li, Yuxia Hou
Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), belonging to a group of plant defence proteins, specifically inhibits endopolygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Herein, we showed that purified GhPGIP1 is a functional inhibitor of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the two fungal pathogens causing cotton wilt. Transcription of GhPGIP1 was increased in cotton upon infection, wounding, and treatment with defence hormone and H2O2. Resistance by GhPGIP1 was examined by its virus-induced gene silencing in cotton and overexpression in Arabidopsis...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076886/the-ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete-hebeloma-cylindrosporum-undergoes-early-waves-of-transcriptional-reprogramming-prior-to-symbiotic-structures-differentiation
#17
Jeanne Doré, Annegret Kohler, Audrey Dubost, Hope Hundley, Vasanth Singan, Yi Peng, Alan Kuo, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Roland Marmeisse, And Gilles Gay
To clarify the early molecular interaction between ectomycorrhizal partners, we performed a RNA-Seq study of transcriptome reprogramming of the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum before symbiotic structure differentiation with Pinus pinaster. Mycorrhiza transcriptome was studied for comparison. By reference to asymbiotic mycelium, 47 and 46 genes were specifically up-regulated over five-fold (p≤0.05) upon rhizosphere colonization and root adhesion respectively. Other 45 were up-regulated throughout the symbiotic interaction, from rhizosphere colonization to differentiated mycorrhizas, whereas 274 were specifically up-regulated in mycorrhizas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074041/transcription-factor-xpp1-is-a-switch-between-primary-and-secondary-fungal-metabolism
#18
Christian Derntl, Bernhard Kluger, Christoph Bueschl, Rainer Schuhmacher, Robert L Mach, Astrid R Mach-Aigner
Fungi can produce a wide range of chemical compounds via secondary metabolism. These compounds are of major interest because of their (potential) application in medicine and biotechnology and as a potential source for new therapeutic agents and drug leads. However, under laboratory conditions, most secondary metabolism genes remain silent. This circumstance is an obstacle for the production of known metabolites and the discovery of new secondary metabolites. In this study, we describe the dual role of the transcription factor Xylanase promoter binding protein 1 (Xpp1) in the regulation of both primary and secondary metabolism of Trichoderma reesei Xpp1 was previously described as a repressor of xylanases...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073340/a-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-putative-pathogenicity-genes-in-the-host-specific-sibling-species-colletotrichum-graminicola-and-colletotrichum-sublineola
#19
E A S Buiate, K V Xavier, N Moore, M F Torres, M L Farman, C L Schardl, L J Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072824/d19s-mutation-of-the-cationic-cysteine-rich-protein-paf-novel-insights-into-its-structural-dynamics-thermal-unfolding-and-antifungal-function
#20
Christoph Sonderegger, Ádám Fizil, Laura Burtscher, Dorottya Hajdu, Alberto Muñoz, Zoltán Gáspári, Nick D Read, Gyula Batta, Florentine Marx
The cysteine-rich, cationic, antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the culture supernatant of the filamentous Ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum. The five β-strands of PAF form a compact β-barrel that is stabilized by three disulphide bonds. The folding of PAF allows the formation of four surface-exposed loops and distinct charged motifs on the protein surface that might regulate the interaction of PAF with the sensitive target fungus. The growth inhibitory activity of this highly stable protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens provides great potential in antifungal drug research...
2017: PloS One
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