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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336199/the-rust-fungus-melampsora-larici-populina-expresses-a-conserved-genetic-program-and-distinct-sets-of-secreted-protein-genes-during-infection-of-its-two-host-plants-larch-and-poplar
#1
Cécile Lorrain, Clémence Marchal, Stéphane Hacquard, Christine Delaruelle, Jérémy Pétrowski, Benjamin Petre, Arnaud Hecker, Pascal Frey, Sebastien Duplessis
Mechanisms required for broad spectrum or specific host colonization of plant parasites are poorly understood. As a perfect illustration, heteroecious rust fungi require two alternate host plants to complete their life cycles. Melampsora larici populina infects two taxonomically unrelated plants, larch on which sexual reproduction is achieved and poplar on which clonal multiplication occurs leading to severe epidemics in plantations. We applied deep RNA sequencing to three key developmental stages of M. larici-populina infection on larch: basidia, pycnia and aecia; and we performed comparative transcriptomics of infection on poplar and larch hosts using available expression data...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316319/protein-profile-in-aspergillus-nidulans-recombinant-strains-overproducing-heterologous-enzymes
#2
Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Marcelo Ventura Rubio, Any Elisa de Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Jaqueline Aline Gerhardt, Rolf Alexander Prade, André Ricardo de Lima Damasio
Filamentous fungi are robust cell factories and have been used for the production of large quantities of industrially relevant enzymes. However, the production levels of heterologous proteins still need to be improved. Therefore, this article aimed to investigate the global proteome profiling of Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains in order to understand the bottlenecks of heterologous enzymes production. About 250, 441 and 424 intracellular proteins were identified in the control strain Anid_pEXPYR and in the recombinant strains Anid_AbfA and Anid_Cbhl respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315638/comparative-genomics-and-transcriptomics-depict-ericoid-mycorrhizal-fungi-as-versatile-saprotrophs-and-plant-mutualists
#3
Elena Martino, Emmanuelle Morin, Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Alan Kuo, Annegret Kohler, Stefania Daghino, Kerrie W Barry, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Rhyan B Dockter, Matthieu Hainaut, Rita C Kuo, Kurt LaButti, Björn D Lindahl, Erika A Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Jon Magnuson, Claude Murat, Robin A Ohm, Steven W Singer, Joseph W Spatafora, Mei Wang, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto
Some soil fungi in the Leotiomycetes form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) symbioses with Ericaceae. In the harsh habitats in which they occur, ERM plant survival relies on nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter (SOM) by their fungal partners. The characterization of the fungal genetic machinery underpinning both the symbiotic lifestyle and SOM degradation is needed to understand ERM symbiosis functioning and evolution, and its impact on soil carbon (C) turnover. We sequenced the genomes of the ERM fungi Meliniomyces bicolor, M...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305699/forward-genetics-screen-coupled-with-whole-genome-resequencing-identifies-novel-gene-targets-for-improving-heterologous-enzyme-production-in-aspergillus-niger
#4
Morgann C Reilly, Joonhoon Kim, Jed Lynn, Blake A Simmons, John M Gladden, Jon K Magnuson, Scott E Baker
Plant biomass, once reduced to its composite sugars, can be converted to fuel substitutes. One means of overcoming the recalcitrance of lignocellulose is pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. However, currently available commercial enzyme cocktails are inhibited in the presence of residual pretreatment chemicals. Recent studies have identified a number of cellulolytic enzymes from bacteria that are tolerant to pretreatment chemicals such as ionic liquids. The challenge now is generation of these enzymes in copious amounts, an arena where fungal organisms such as Aspergillus niger have proven efficient...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305178/high-yield-production-of-fungal-manganese-peroxidases-by-e-coli-through-soluble-expression-and-examination-of-the-activities
#5
Meng-I Lin, Takashi Nagata, Masato Katahira
Oxidative enzymes of white-rot fungi play a key role in lignin biodegradation. Among those fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora degrades lignin before cellulose in wood; C. subvermispora is the only fungus that secretes all known types of manganese peroxidases (CsMnPs). Utilization of lignin-degrading peroxidases has been limited so far due to the lack of efficient preparation methods and intensive characterization. In this study, we developed a highly efficient method to prepare active CsMnPs through soluble expression by E...
January 2, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298673/analysis-of-the-hybrid-genomes-of-two-field-isolates-of-the-soil-borne-fungal-species-verticillium-longisporum
#6
Johan Fogelqvist, Georgios Tzelepis, Sarosh Bejai, Jonas Ilbäck, Arne Schwelm, Christina Dixelius
BACKGROUND: Brassica plant species are attacked by a number of pathogens; among them, the ones with a soil-borne lifestyle have become increasingly important. Verticillium stem stripe caused by Verticillium longisporum is one example. This fungal species is thought to be of a hybrid origin, having a genome composed of combinations of lineages denominated A and D. In this study we report the draft genomes of 2 V. longisporum field isolates sequenced using the Illumina technology. Genomic characterization and lineage composition, followed by selected gene analysis to facilitate the comprehension of its genomic features and potential effector categories were performed...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277996/a-structural-and-functional-role-for-disulfide-bonds-in-a-class-ii-hydrophobin
#7
Nathanael D Sallada, Kerri J Dunn, Bryan W Berger
Hydrophobins are highly surface-active proteins produced in filamentous fungi and are identifiable by 8 conserved cysteine residues, which form 4 disulfide bridges and perform a wide range of functions in fungal development. These proteins can be subdivided into two classes based on their hydropathy profiles, solubility, and structures formed upon interfacial assembly. Disulfide bridges play important roles in the class I hydrophobins in monomer solubility, protein stability, and proper secretion and localization, but they are not key determinants of surface activity or solution self-assembly...
December 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277938/tools-of-the-crook-infection-strategies-of-fungal-plant-pathogens
#8
Luis Rodriguez-Moreno, Malaika K Ebert, Melvin D Bolton, Bart P H J Thomma
Fungi represent an ecologically diverse group of microorganisms that includes plant pathogenic species able to cause considerable yield loses in crop production systems worldwide. In order to establish compatible interactions with their hosts, pathogenic fungi rely on the secretion of molecules of diverse nature during host colonization to modulate host physiology, manipulate other environmental factors or provide self-defence. These molecules, collectively known as effectors, are typically small secreted cysteine-rich proteins, but may also comprise secondary metabolites and sRNAs...
December 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274705/prostaglandin-e2-as-a-regulator-of-immunity-to-pathogens
#9
REVIEW
Giovanny J Martínez-Colón, Bethany B Moore
The body is exposed to foreign pathogens every day, but remarkably, most pathogens are effectively cleared by the innate immune system without the need to invoke the adaptive immune response. Key cellular components of the innate immune system include macrophages and neutrophils and the recruitment and function of these cells are tightly regulated by chemokines and cytokines in the tissue space. Innate immune responses are also known to regulate development of adaptive immune responses often via the secretion of various cytokines...
December 21, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243824/apoplastp-prediction-of-effectors-and-plant-proteins-in-the-apoplast-using-machine-learning
#10
Jana Sperschneider, Peter N Dodds, Karam B Singh, Jennifer M Taylor
The plant apoplast is integral to intercellular signalling, transport and plant-pathogen interactions. Plant pathogens deliver effectors both into the apoplast and inside host cells, but no computational method currently exists to discriminate between these localizations. We present ApoplastP, the first method for predicting whether an effector or plant protein localizes to the apoplast. ApoplastP uncovers features of apoplastic localization common to both effectors and plant proteins, namely depletion in glutamic acid, acidic amino acids and charged amino acids and enrichment in small amino acids...
December 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216817/characterization-of-sulfhydryl-oxidase-from-aspergillus-tubingensis
#11
Outi Nivala, Greta Faccio, Mikko Arvas, Perttu Permi, Johanna Buchert, Kristiina Kruus, Maija-Liisa Mattinen
BACKGROUND: Despite of the presence of sulfhydryl oxidases (SOXs) in the secretomes of industrially relevant organisms and their many potential applications, only few of these enzymes have been biochemically characterized. In addition, basic functions of most of the SOX enzymes reported so far are not fully understood. In particular, the physiological role of secreted fungal SOXs is unclear. RESULTS: The recently identified SOX from Aspergillus tubingensis (AtSOX) was produced, purified and characterized in the present work...
December 8, 2017: BMC Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213115/modulation-of-immune-signaling-and-metabolism-highlights-host-and-fungal-transcriptional-responses-in-mouse-models-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#12
Shiv D Kale, Tariq Ayubi, Dawoon Chung, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Andrew Leber, Ha X Dang, Saikumar Karyala, Raquel Hontecillas, Christopher B Lawrence, Robert A Cramer, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Incidences of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, an infection caused predominantly by Aspergillus fumigatus, have increased due to the growing number of immunocompromised individuals. While A. fumigatus is reliant upon deficiencies in the host to facilitate invasive disease, the distinct mechanisms that govern the host-pathogen interaction remain enigmatic, particularly in the context of distinct immune modulating therapies. To gain insights into these mechanisms, RNA-Seq technology was utilized to sequence RNA derived from lungs of 2 clinically relevant, but immunologically distinct murine models of IPA on days 2 and 3 post inoculation when infection is established and active disease present...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197821/penicillium-purpurogenum-produces-a-novel-endo-1-5-arabinanase-active-on-debranched-arabinan-short-arabinooligosaccharides-and-on-the-artificial-substrate-p-nitrophenyl-arabinofuranoside
#13
Felipe Vilches, María Cristina Ravanal, Felipe Bravo-Moraga, Danilo Gonzalez-Nilo, Jaime Eyzaguirre
Penicillium purpurogenum secretes numerous lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, including four arabinofuranosidases and an exo-arabinanase. In this work, the biochemical properties of an endo-arabinanase (ABN1) are presented. A gene, coding for a potential ABN was mined from the genome. It includes three introns. The cDNA is 975 bp long and codes for a mature protein of 324 residues. The cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The enzyme is active on debranched arabinan and arabinooligosaccharides. In contrast to other characterized ABNs, inactive on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPAra), ABN1 is active on this substrate...
November 26, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196814/identification-of-candidate-pathogenicity-determinants-of-rhizoctonia-solani-ag1-ia-which-causes-sheath-blight-disease-in-rice
#14
Srayan Ghosh, Poonam Kanwar, Gopaljee Jha
Sheath blight disease is one of the predominant diseases of rice and it is caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. The mechanistic insight about its widespread success as a broad host range pathogen is limited. In this study, we endeavor to identify pathogenicity determinants of R. solani during infection process in rice. Through RNAseq analysis, we identified a total of 65 and 232 R. solani (strain BRS1) genes to be commonly upregulated in three different rice genotypes (PB1, Tetep, and TP309) at establishment and necrotrophic phase, respectively...
December 1, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196496/pas-de-deux-an-intricate-dance-of-anther-smut-and-its-host
#15
Su San Toh, Zehua Chen, Eric C Rouchka, David J Schultz, Christina A Cuomo, Michael H Perlin
The successful interaction between pathogen/parasite and host requires a delicate balance between fitness of the former and survival of the latter. To optimize fitness a parasite/pathogen must effectively create an environment conducive to reproductive success, while simultaneously avoiding or minimizing detrimental host defense response. The association between Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae and its host, Silene latifolia, serves as an excellent model to examine such interactions. This fungus is part of a species complex that infects species of the Caryophyllaceae, replacing pollen with the fungal spores...
December 1, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165363/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-the-effectors-of-an-anther-smut-fungus-and-potential-host-target-proteins
#16
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158777/combined-genome-and-transcriptome-sequencing-to-investigate-the-plant-cell-wall-degrading-enzyme-system-in-the-thermophilic-fungus-malbranchea-cinnamomea
#17
Silvia Hüttner, Thanh Thuy Nguyen, Zoraide Granchi, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Dag Ahrén, Johan Larsbrink, Vu Nguyen Thanh, Lisbeth Olsson
Background: Genome and transcriptome sequencing has greatly facilitated the understanding of biomass-degrading mechanisms in a number of fungal species. The information obtained enables the investigation and discovery of genes encoding proteins involved in plant cell wall degradation, which are crucial for saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass in second-generation biorefinery applications. The thermophilic fungus Malbranchea cinnamomea is an efficient producer of many industrially relevant enzymes and a detailed analysis of its genomic content will considerably enhance our understanding of its lignocellulolytic system and promote the discovery of novel proteins...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146248/phosphatidylcholine-absence-affects-the-secretion-of-lipodepsipeptide-phytoxins-in-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-syringae-van-hall-cfcc-1336
#18
Fang Cao, Min Xiong, Shunyi Li, Huawan Cai, Yufang Sun, Sheng Yang, Xin Liu, Rong Zhu, Xuejing Yu, Xingguo Wang
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hall CFCC 1336 (Pss 1336) is the causal agent of bacterial disease of stone fruit trees, and also able to elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host tobacco. It is known that this pathogen uses PCS-pathway to synthesize phosphatidylcholine (PC), and mutation of the pcs gene abolishes bacterial PC synthesis. Previous study also found that the 1336 pcs(-) mutant lacking PC in its membrane phospholipids was unable to secrete HrpZ harpin and elicit HR in non-host plants...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131484/the-major-cellulases-cbh-1-and-cbh-2-of-neurospora-crassa-rely-on-distinct-er-cargo-adaptors-for-efficient-er-exit
#19
Trevor Starr, A Pedro Gonçalves, Neeka Meshgin, N Louise Glass
Filamentous fungi are native secretors of lignocellulolytic enzymes and are used as protein-producing factories in the industrial biotechnology sector. Despite the importance of these organisms in industry, relatively little is known about the filamentous fungal secretory pathway or how it might be manipulated for improved protein production. Here we use Neurospora crassa as a model filamentous fungus to interrogate the requirements for trafficking of cellulase enzymes from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119000/comparing-the-physiochemical-parameters-of-three-celluloses-reveals-new-insights-into-substrate-suitability-for-fungal-enzyme-production
#20
Lara Hassan, Manfred J Reppke, Nils Thieme, Steffen A Schweizer, Carsten W Mueller, J Philipp Benz
Background: The industrial applications of cellulases are mostly limited by the costs associated with their production. Optimized production pathways are therefore desirable. Based on their enzyme inducing capacity, celluloses are commonly used in fermentation media. However, the influence of their physiochemical characteristics on the production process is not well understood. In this study, we examined how physical, structural and chemical properties of celluloses influence cellulase and hemicellulase production in an industrially-optimized and a non-engineered filamentous fungus: Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Neurospora crassa...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
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