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fungal secreted protein

Guillaume P Robin, Jochen Kleemann, Ulla Neumann, Lisa Cabre, Jean-Félix Dallery, Nicolas Lapalu, Richard J O'Connell
The genome of the hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum higginsianum , encodes a large inventory of putative secreted effector proteins that are sequentially expressed at different stages of plant infection, namely appressorium-mediated penetration, biotrophy and necrotrophy. However, the destinations to which these proteins are addressed inside plant cells are unknown. In the present study, we selected 61 putative effector genes that are highly induced in appressoria and/or biotrophic hyphae. We then used Agrobacterium -mediated transformation to transiently express them as N -terminal fusions with fluorescent proteins in cells of Nicotiana benthamiana for imaging by confocal microscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Salvatore Casarrubia, Stefania Daghino, Annegret Kohler, Emmanuelle Morin, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Yohann Daguerre, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto, Elena Martino
Mutualistic and pathogenic plant-colonizing fungi use effector molecules to manipulate the host cell metabolism to allow plant tissue invasion. Some small secreted proteins (SSPs) have been identified as fungal effectors in both ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but it is currently unknown whether SSPs also play a role as effectors in other mycorrhizal associations. Ericoid mycorrhiza is a specific endomycorrhizal type that involves symbiotic fungi mostly belonging to the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycetes) and plants in the family Ericaceae...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mathias Nottensteiner, Bernd Zechmann, Christopher McCollum, Ralph Hückelhoven
Pathogens overcome plant immunity by the means of secreted effectors. Host effector targets often act in pathogen defense but might also support fungal accommodation or nutrition. The barley ROP GTPase HvRACB is involved in accommodation of fungal haustoria of the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh) in barley epidermal cells. We found that HvRACB interacts with the ROP-interactive peptide 1 (ROPIP1) that is encoded on the active non-long terminal repeat retroelement Eg-R1 of Bgh. Over-expression of ROPIP1 in barley epidermal cells and host-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (HIGS) of ROPIP1 suggested that ROPIP1 is involved in virulence of Bgh...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
N M R Ashwin, Leonard Barnabas, Amalraj Ramesh Sundar, Palaniyandi Malathi, Rasappa Viswanathan, Antonio Masi, Ganesh Kumar Agrawal, Randeep Rakwal
Colletotrichum falcatum, a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, causes one of the major devastating diseases of sugarcane-red rot. C. falcatum secretes a plethora of molecular signatures that might play a crucial role during its interaction with sugarcane. Here, we report the purification and characterization of a novel secreted protein of C. falcatum that elicits defense responses in sugarcane and triggers hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco. The novel protein purified from the culture filtrate of C. falcatum was identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS and designated as C...
May 4, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gerard Sheehan, Gudmundur Bergsson, Noel G McElvaney, Emer P Reeves, Kevin Kavanagh
The pulmonary mucus of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients displays elevated levels of the cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 and the aim of this work was to assess the effect of LL-37 on the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus , a common pathogen of CF patients. Exposure of A. fumigatus to LL-37 and its derived fragment RK-31 (1.95 μg/ml) for 24 hours had a positive effect on growth (199.94 ± 6.172%, p < 0.05) and (218.20 ± 4.63%, p < 0.05) respectively, whereas scrambled LL-37 peptide did not (85.12 ± 2...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Lay-Sun Ma, Lei Wang, Christine Trippel, Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza, Steffen Ullmann, Marino Moretti, Alexander Carsten, Jörg Kahnt, Stefanie Reissmann, Bernd Zechmann, Gert Bange, Regine Kahmann
To cause disease in maize, the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis secretes a large arsenal of effector proteins. Here, we functionally characterize the repetitive effector Rsp3 (repetitive secreted protein 3), which shows length polymorphisms in field isolates and is highly expressed during biotrophic stages. Rsp3 is required for virulence and anthocyanin accumulation. During biotrophic growth, Rsp3 decorates the hyphal surface and interacts with at least two secreted maize DUF26-domain family proteins (designated AFP1 and AFP2)...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
R P Vivek-Ananth, Karthikeyan Mohanraj, Muralidharan Vandanashree, Anupam Jhingran, James P Craig, Areejit Samal
Aspergillus fumigatus and multiple other Aspergillus species cause a wide range of lung infections, collectively termed aspergillosis. Aspergilli are ubiquitous in environment with healthy immune systems routinely eliminating inhaled conidia, however, Aspergilli can become an opportunistic pathogen in immune-compromised patients. The aspergillosis mortality rate and emergence of drug-resistance reveals an urgent need to identify novel targets. Secreted and cell membrane proteins play a critical role in fungal-host interactions and pathogenesis...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenhui Zheng, Yahong Lin, Wenqin Fang, Xu Zhao, Yi Lou, Guanghui Wang, Huawei Zheng, Qifu Liang, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Stefan Olsson, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang
Endosomal sorting machineries regulate the transport of their cargoes among intracellular compartments. However, the molecular nature of such intracellular trafficking processes in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. Here, we dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of two sorting nexin proteins and their cargoes in endosomal recycling in Fusarium graminearum using high-resolution microscopy and high-throughput co-immunoprecipitation strategies. We show that the sorting nexins, FgSnx41 and FgSnx4, interact with each other and assemble into a functionally interdependent heterodimer through their respective BAR domains...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
Robert King, Neil Andrew Brown, Martin Urban, Kim E Hammond-Kosack
BACKGROUND: The soil dwelling saprotrophic non-pathogenic fungus Fusarium venenatum, routinely used in the commercial fermentation industry, is phylogenetically closely related to the globally important cereal and non-cereal infecting pathogen F. graminearum. This study aimed to sequence, assemble and annotate the F. venenatum (strain A3/5) genome, and compare this genome with F. graminearum. RESULTS: Using shotgun sequencing, a 38,660,329 bp F. venenatum genome was assembled into four chromosomes, and a 78,618 bp mitochondrial genome...
April 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Rafael Sentandreu, Antonio Caminero, Itzel Rentería, Claudia León-Ramirez, Luis González-de-la-Vara, Eulogio Valentin-Gomez, José Ruiz-Herrera
The walls of both, yeast and mycelial cells of Candida albicans possess a species specific antigen that is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb 3H8). This antigen can be extracted in the form of a very high Mr complex, close or over 106 Da, by treatment, with β-1,3 glucanase, β mercaptoethanol or dithothreitol, or mild alkali, but not by saturated HF in pyridine, suggesting that the complex is bound to wall β-1,3 glucans, and to proteins by disulfide bonds, but not to β-1,6 glucans. Through its sensitivity to trypsin and different deglycosylation procedures, it was concluded that the epitope is associated to a glycoprotein containing N-glycosidic, but not O-glycosidic mannan moieties...
April 10, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Karoline M V Nogueira, Renato Graciano de Paula, Amanda Cristina Campos Antoniêto, Thaila F Dos Reis, Cláudia Batista Carraro, Alinne Costa Silva, Fausto Almeida, Carem Gledes Vargas Rechia, Gustavo H Goldman, Roberto N Silva
Background: Trichoderma reesei is a saprophytic fungus implicated in the degradation of polysaccharides present in the cell wall of plants. T. reesei has been recognized as the most important industrial fungus that secretes and produces cellulase enzymes that are employed in the production of second generation bioethanol. A few of the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of biomass deconstruction by T. reesei ; in particular, the effect of sugar transporters and induction of xylanases and cellulases expression are yet to be known...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Maria T E Prauße, Teresa Lehnert, Sandra Timme, Kerstin Hünniger, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Marc Thilo Figge
Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Funso Emmanuel Ogunmolu, Inderjeet Kaur, Nandita Pasari, Mayank Gupta, Syed Shams Yazdani
Filamentous fungi respond to the need to secure utilisable carbon from their growth milieu by secreting unique extracellular proteins depending upon the types of polymeric substrates. We have here profiled the variations in the secretome pattern of a non-model hypercellulolytic fungus - Penicillium funiculosum, grown in minimal media containing four different polymeric cellulase inducers, i.e., Avicel, wheat bran, ammonium-pretreated wheat straw and Avicel & wheat bran, and glucose over its early and late log phases of growth...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Zhen Zeng, Hui Sun, Eeva J Vainio, Tommaso Raffaello, Andriy Kovalchuk, Emmanuelle Morin, Sébastien Duplessis, Fred O Asiegbu
BACKGROUND: Heterobasidion parviporum is an economically most important fungal forest pathogen in northern Europe, causing root and butt rot disease of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and virulence of this species remain elusive. No reference genome to facilitate functional analysis is available for this species. RESULTS: To better understand the virulence factor at both phenotypic and genomic level, we characterized 15 H...
March 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Tian Zeng, Rens Holmer, Jan Hontelez, Bas Te Lintel-Hekkert, Lucky Marufu, Thijs de Zeeuw, Fangyuan Wu, Elio Schijlen, Ton Bisseling, Erik Limpens
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form the most wide-spread endosymbiosis with plants. There is very little host-specificity in this interaction, however host preferences as well as varying symbiotic efficiencies have been observed. We hypothesize that secreted proteins (SPs) may act as fungal effectors to control symbiotic efficiency in a host-dependent manner. Therefore, we studied whether AM fungi adjust their secretome in a host- and stage-dependent manner to contribute to their extremely wide host-range. We investigated the expression of SP-encoding genes of Rhizophagus irregularis in three evolutionary distantly-related plant species, Medicago truncatula, Nicotiana benthamiana and Allium schoenoprasum...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jana Sperschneider, Peter N Dodds, Donald M Gardiner, Karam B Singh, Jennifer M Taylor
Plant-pathogenic fungi secrete effector proteins to facilitate infection. We describe extensive improvements to EffectorP, the first machine learning classifier for fungal effector prediction. EffectorP 2.0 is now trained on a larger set of effectors and utilizes a different approach based on an ensemble of classifiers trained on different subsets of negative data, offering different views on classification. EffectorP 2.0 achieves accuracy of 89%, compared to 82% for EffectorP 1.0 and 59.8% for a small size classifier...
March 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kevin K Fuller, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
Regulatable promoters are important genetic tools, particularly for assigning function to essential and redundant genes. They can also be used to control the expression of enzymes that influence metabolic flux or protein secretion, thereby optimizing product yield in bioindustry. This review will focus on regulatable systems for use in filamentous fungi, an important group of organisms whose members include key research models, devastating pathogens of plants and animals, and exploitable cell factories. Though we will begin by cataloging those promoters that are controlled by nutritional or chemical means, our primary focus will rest on those who can be controlled by a literal flip-of-the-switch: promoters of light-regulated genes...
March 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Wasin Sakulkoo, Miriam Osés-Ruiz, Ely Oliveira Garcia, Darren M Soanes, George R Littlejohn, Christian Hacker, Ana Correia, Barbara Valent, Nicholas J Talbot
Blast disease destroys up to 30% of the rice crop annually and threatens global food security. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae invades plant tissue with hyphae that proliferate and grow from cell to cell, often through pit fields, where plasmodesmata cluster. We showed that chemical genetic inhibition of a single fungal mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, Pmk1, prevents M. oryzae from infecting adjacent plant cells, leaving the fungus trapped within a single plant cell. Pmk1 regulates expression of secreted fungal effector proteins implicated in suppression of host immune defenses, preventing reactive oxygen species generation and excessive callose deposition at plasmodesmata...
March 23, 2018: Science
Yingbo Liang, Shichun Cui, Xiaoli Tang, Yi Zhang, Dewen Qiu, Hongmei Zeng, Lihua Guo, Jingjing Yuan, Xiufen Yang
PevD1 is a fungal protein secreted by Verticillium dahliae . Our previous researches showed that this protein could induce hypersensitive responses-like necrosis and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in cotton and tobacco. To understand immune activation mechanisms whereby PevD1 elicits defense response, the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay was performed to explore interacting protein of PevD1 in Arabidopsis thaliana , and a partner AtNRP (At5g42050) was identified. Here, AtNRP homolog in Nicotiana benthamiana was identified and designated as Nbnrp1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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