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effector secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051538/identification-and-characterization-of-a-putative-protein-disulfide-isomerase-hspdi-as-an-alleged-effector-of-heterodera-schachtii
#1
Samer S Habash, Miroslaw Sobczak, Shahid Siddique, Boris Voigt, Abdelnaser Elashry, Florian M W Grundler
The plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is an obligate biotroph that induces syncytial feeding sites in roots of its hosts. Nematodes produce effectors that are secreted into the host and facilitate infection process. Here we identified H. schachtii protein disulphide isomerase (HsPDI) as a putative effector that interferes with the host's redox status. In situ hybridization showed that HsPdi is specifically localized within esophageal glands of pre-parasitic second stage juveniles (J2). HsPdi is up-regulated in the early parasitic J2s...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046680/smart-parasitic-nematodes-use-multifaceted-strategies-to-parasitize-plants
#2
REVIEW
Muhammad A Ali, Farrukh Azeem, Hongjie Li, Holger Bohlmann
Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046115/bone-and-the-immune-system
#3
M Neale Weitzmann
Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, a cause of crippling morbidity and mortality. The immunoskeletal interface (ISI) is a centralization of cell and cytokine effectors shared between skeletal and immune systems. Consequently, the immune system mediates powerful effects on bone turnover. Physiologically, B cells secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG), a potent anti-osteoclastogenic factor that preserves bone mass. However, activated T cells and B cells secrete pro-osteoclastogenic factors including receptor activator of Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) ligand (RANKL), Interleukin (IL)-17A, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoting bone loss in inflammatory states such as rheumatoid arthritis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042496/structural-basis-of-type-2-secretion-system-engagement-between-the-inner-and-outer-bacterial-membranes
#4
Iain D Hay, Matthew J Belousoff, Trevor Lithgow
Sophisticated nanomachines are used by bacteria for protein secretion. In Gram-negative bacteria, the type 2 secretion system (T2SS) is composed of a pseudopilus assembly platform in the inner membrane and a secretin complex in the outer membrane. The engagement of these two megadalton-sized complexes is required in order to secrete toxins, effectors, and hydrolytic enzymes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has at least two T2SSs, with the ancestral nanomachine having a secretin complex composed of XcpQ. Until now, no high-resolution structural information was available to distinguish the features of this Pseudomonas-type secretin, which varies greatly in sequence from the well-characterized Klebsiella-type and Vibrio-type secretins...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040466/outer-inflammatory-protein-a-oipa-of-helicobacter-pylori-is-regulated-by-host-cell-contact-and-mediates-caga-translocation-and-interleukin-8-response-only-in-the-presence-of-a-functional-cag-pathogenicity-island-type-iv-secretion-system
#5
Danielle N Horridge, Allison A Begley, June Kim, Neeraja Aravindan, Kexin Fan, Mark H Forsyth
OipA is a phase variable virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. Mutations in oipA to turn the gene phase on in a cag pathogenicity island (PAI) negative strain of H. pylori (J68), or phase off in a cag PAI positive strain (26695) demonstrated that phase on oipA alleles in both strains had both increased oipA mRNA and AGS cell adherence compared to isogenic oipA phase off mutants. An oipA phase off mutant of H. pylori 26695 demonstrated decreased IL-8 secretion by AGS cells and failure to translocate the cag PAI effector, CagA...
October 12, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034957/a-root-knot-nematode-small-glycine-and-cysteine-rich-secreted-effector-misgcr1-is-involved-in-plant-parasitism
#6
Chinh-Nghia Nguyen, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch, Michaël Quentin, Jianlong Zhao, Marc Magliano, Nathalie Marteu, Martine Da Rocha, Nicolas Nottet, Pierre Abad, Bruno Favery
Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are obligate endoparasites that maintain a biotrophic relationship with their hosts. They infect roots as microscopic vermiform second-stage juveniles, and establish specialized feeding structures called 'giant-cells', from which they withdraw water and nutrients. The nematode effector proteins secreted in planta are key elements in the molecular dialogue of parasitism. Here, we compared Illumina RNA-seq transcriptomes for M. incognita obtained at various points in the lifecycle, and identified 31 genes more strongly expressed in parasitic stages than in preparasitic juveniles...
October 16, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033963/convergent-evolution-of-pathogen-effectors-toward-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling-networks-in-plants
#7
REVIEW
Nam-Soo Jwa, Byung Kook Hwang
Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030870/the-competitive-nature-of-stat-complex-formation-drives-phenotype-switching-of-t-cells
#8
Ildar I Sadreev, Michael Z Q Chen, Yoshinori Umezawa, Vadim N Biktashev, Claudia Kemper, Diana V Salakhieva, Gavin I Welsh, Nikolay V Kotov
Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are key molecular determinants of T cell fate and effector function. Several inflammatory diseases are characterized by an altered balance of T cell phenotypes and cytokine secretion. STATs, therefore, represent viable therapeutic targets in numerous pathologies. However, the underlying mechanisms by which the same STAT proteins regulate both the development of different T cell phenotypes and their plasticity during changes in extracellular conditions remain unclear...
October 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024267/novel-t3ss-effector-esek-in-edwardsiella-piscicida-is-chaperoned-by-esch-and-escs-to-express-virulence
#9
Huifang Cao, Cuiting Yang, Shu Quan, Tianjian Hu, Lingzhi Zhang, Yuanxing Zhang, Dahai Yang, Qin Liu
Bacterium usually utilizes type III secretion systems (T3SS) to deliver effectors directly into host cells with the aids of chaperones. Hence, it is very important to identify bacterial T3SS effectors and chaperones for better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. Edwardsiella piscicida is an invasive enteric bacterium, which infects a wide range of hosts from fish to human. Given E. piscicida encodes a functional T3SS to promote infection, very few T3SS effectors and chaperones have been identified in this bacterium so far...
October 11, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023190/effector-biology-in-focus-a-primer-for-computational-prediction-and-functional-characterization
#10
Ronaldo J D Dalio, John Herlihy, Tiago Silva Oliveira, John M McDowell, Marcos Antonio Antonio Machado
Plant-pathogen interactions are controlled by a multilayered immune system, which is activated by pathogen recognition in the host. Pathogens secrete effector molecules to interfere with the immune recognition/signaling network and reprogram cell structure or metabolism. Understanding the effector repertoires of diverse pathogens will contribute to unravelling the molecular mechanism of virulence and developing sustainable disease-control strategies for crops and natural ecosystems. Effector functionality has been investigated extensively only in a small number of pathogen species...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021973/brucella-rough-mutant-induce-macrophage-death-via-activating-ire1%C3%AE-pathway-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-enhanced-t4ss-secretion
#11
Peng Li, Mingxing Tian, Yanqing Bao, Hai Hu, Jiameng Liu, Yi Yin, Chan Ding, Shaohui Wang, Shengqing Yu
Brucella is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the worldwide zoonosis, known as brucellosis. Brucella virulence relies mostly on its ability to invade and replicate within phagocytic cells. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) and lipopolysaccharide are two major Brucella virulence factors. Brucella rough mutants reportedly induce the death of infected macrophages, which is T4SS dependent. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, the T4SS secretion capacities of Brucella rough mutant and its smooth wild-type strain were comparatively investigated, by constructing the firefly luciferase fused T4SS effector, BPE123 and VceC...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021252/a-chemical-and-biological-toolbox-for-type-vd-secretion-characterization-of-the-phospholipase-a1-autotransporter-fpla-from-fusobacterium-nucleatum
#12
Michael A Casasanta, Christopher C Yoo, Hans B Smith, Alison J Duncan, Kyla Cochrane, Ann C Varano, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Daniel J Slade
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral pathogen that is linked to multiple human infections and colorectal cancer. Strikingly, F. nucleatum achieves virulence in the absence of large, multi-protein secretion systems (Type I, II, III, IV, and VI) which are widely used by Gram-negative bacteria for pathogenesis. By contrast, F. nucleatum strains contain genomic expansions of Type V secreted effectors (autotransporters) that are critical for host cell adherence, invasion, and biofilm formation. Here we present the first characterization of a F...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020037/a-conserved-fungal-glycosyltransferase-facilitates-pathogenesis-of-plants-by-enabling-hyphal-growth-on-solid-surfaces
#13
Robert King, Martin Urban, Rebecca P Lauder, Nichola Hawkins, Matthew Evans, Amy Plummer, Kirstie Halsey, Alison Lovegrove, Kim Hammond-Kosack, Jason J Rudd
Pathogenic fungi must extend filamentous hyphae across solid surfaces to cause diseases of plants. However, the full inventory of genes which support this is incomplete and many may be currently concealed due to their essentiality for the hyphal growth form. During a random T-DNA mutagenesis screen performed on the pleomorphic wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici, we acquired a mutant unable to extend hyphae specifically when on solid surfaces. In contrast "yeast-like" growth, and all other growth forms, were unaffected...
October 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018126/systematic-identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis%C3%A2-effectors-reveals-that-bfrb-suppresses-innate-immunity
#14
Xiang He, He-Wei Jiang, Hong Chen, Hainan Zhang, Yin Liu, Zhao-Wei Xu, Fanlin Wu, Shu-Juan Guo, Jing-Li Hou, Mingkun Yang, Wei Yan, Jiaoyu Deng, Lijun Bi, Xian-En Zhang, Sheng-Ce Tao
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved multiple strategies to counter the human immune system. The effectors of Mtb play important roles in the interactions with the host. However, due to the lack of highly efficient strategies, there are only a handful of known Mtb effectors, thus hampering our understanding of Mtb pathogenesis. In this study, we probed Mtb proteome microarray with biotinylated whole-cell lysates of human macrophages, identifying 27 Mtb membrane proteins and secreted proteins that bind to macrophage proteins...
October 10, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993456/phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-dependent-oligomerization-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-cytotoxin-exou
#15
Angelica Zhang, Jeffrey L Veesenmeyer, Alan R Hauser
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system delivers effector proteins directly into target cells, allowing the bacterium to modulate host cell functions. ExoU is the most cytotoxic of the known effector proteins and has been associated with more severe infections in humans. ExoU is a patatin-like A2 phospholipase requiring the cellular host factors phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and ubiquitin for its activation in vitro We demonstrated that PI(4,5)P2 also induces oligomerization of ExoU and that this PI(4,5)P2-mediated oligomerization does not require ubiquitin...
October 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992048/comparative-whole-genome-analysis-reveals-artificial-selection-effects-on-ustilago-esculenta-genome
#16
Zihong Ye, Yao Pan, Yafen Zhang, Haifeng Cui, Gulei Jin, Alice C McHardy, Longjiang Fan, Xiaoping Yu
Ustilago esculenta, infects Zizania latifolia, and induced host stem swollen to be a popular vegetable called Jiaobai in China. It is the long-standing artificial selection that maximizes the occurrence of favourable Jiaobai, and thus maintaining the plant-fungi interaction and modulating the fungus evolving from plant pathogen to entophyte. In this study, whole genome of U. esculenta was sequenced and transcriptomes of the fungi and its host were analysed. The 20.2 Mb U. esculenta draft genome of 6,654 predicted genes including mating, primary metabolism, secreted proteins, shared a high similarity to related Smut fungi...
July 19, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988715/self-transducible-bimodal-pdx1-foxp3-protein-lifts-insulin-secretion-and-curbs-autoimmunity-boosting-tregs-in-type-1-diabetic-mice
#17
Christina Amatya, Ilian A Radichev, Jacob Ellefson, Mark Williams, Alexei Y Savinov
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by massive destruction of insulin-producing β cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes, arising via defective immune tolerance. Therefore, effective anti-T1D therapeutics should combine autoimmunity-preventing and insulin production-restoring properties. We constructed a cell-permeable PDX1-FOXP3-TAT fusion protein (FP) composed of two transcription factors: forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), the master regulator of differentiation and functioning of self-tolerance-promoting Tregs, and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1), the crucial factor supporting β cell development and maintenance...
September 7, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985305/genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomics-reveal-the-potential-pathogenic-mechanism-of-cercospora-sojina-hara-on-soybean
#18
Xuming Luo, Jidong Cao, Junkai Huang, Zongyi Wang, Zhengyan Guo, Yihua Chen, Shumei Ma, Jun Liu
Frogeye leaf spot, caused by Cercospora sojina Hara, is a common disease of soybean in most soybean-growing countries of the world. In this study, we report a high-quality genome sequence of C. sojina by Single Molecule Real-Time sequencing method. The 40.8-Mb genome encodes 11,655 predicated genes, and 8,474 genes are revealed by RNA sequencing. Cercospora sojina genome contains large numbers of gene clusters that are involved in synthesis of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins and pigments. However, much less carbohydrate-binding module protein encoding genes are identified in C...
September 18, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982978/defining-the-interaction-of-the-protease-cpaa-with-its-type-ii-secretion-chaperone-cpab-and-its-contribution-to-virulence-in-acinetobacter-species
#19
Rachel L Kinsella, Juvenal Lopez, Lauren D Palmer, Nichole D Salinas, Eric P Skaar, Niraj H Tolia, Mario F Feldman
Acinetobacter baumannii, A. nosocomialis, and A. pittii are a frequent cause of multi-drug resistant, healthcare-associated infections. Our previous work demonstrated that A. nosocomialis M2 possesses a functional Type II secretion system (T2SS) that is required for full virulence. Further, we identified the metallo-endopeptidase CpaA, which had been previously shown to cleave human factor V and deregulate blood coagulation, as the most abundant Type II-secreted effector protein. We also demonstrated that its secretion is dependent on CpaB, a membrane-bound chaperone...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981574/an-account-of-in-silico-identification-tools-of-secreted-effector-proteins-in-bacteria-and-future-challenges
#20
Cong Zeng, Lingyun Zou
Bacterial pathogens secrete numerous effector proteins via six secretion systems, type I to type VI secretion systems, to adapt to new environments or to promote virulence by bacterium-host interactions. Many computational approaches have been used in the identification of effector proteins before the subsequent experimental verification because they tolerate laborious biological procedures and are genome scale, automated and highly efficient. Prevalent examples include machine learning methods and statistical techniques...
July 19, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
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