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effector secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716827/galectin-1-driven-tolerogenic-programs-aggravate-yersinia-enterocolitica-infection-by-repressing-antibacterial-immunity
#1
Roberto C Davicino, Santiago P Méndez-Huergo, Ricardo J Eliçabe, Juan C Stupirski, Ingo Autenrieth, María S Di Genaro, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715499/helicobacter-pylori-modulates-host-cell-responses-by-cagt4ss-dependent-translocation-of-an-intermediate-metabolite-of-lps-inner-core-heptose-biosynthesis
#2
Saskia C Stein, Eugenia Faber, Simon H Bats, Tatiana Murillo, Yvonne Speidel, Nina Coombs, Christine Josenhans
Highly virulent Helicobacter pylori cause proinflammatory signaling inducing the transcriptional activation and secretion of cytokines such as IL-8 in epithelial cells. Responsible in part for this signaling is the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) that codetermines the risk for pathological sequelae of an H. pylori infection such as gastric cancer. The Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), encoded on the cagPAI, can translocate various molecules into cells, the effector protein CagA, peptidoglycan metabolites and DNA...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714967/architecture-of-the-type-iv-coupling-protein-complex-of-legionella-pneumophila
#3
Mi-Jeong Kwak, J Dongun Kim, Hyunmin Kim, Cheolhee Kim, James W Bowman, Seonghoon Kim, Keehyoung Joo, Jooyoung Lee, Kyeong Sik Jin, Yeon-Gil Kim, Nam Ki Lee, Jae U Jung, Byung-Ha Oh
Many bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, rely on the type IV secretion system to translocate a repertoire of effector proteins into the hosts for their survival and growth. Type IV coupling protein (T4CP) is a hexameric ATPase that links translocating substrates to the transenvelope secretion conduit. Yet, how a large number of effector proteins are selectively recruited and processed by T4CPs remains enigmatic. DotL, the T4CP of L. pneumophila, contains an ATPase domain and a C-terminal extension whose function is unknown...
July 17, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714192/secreted-tumor-antigens-immune-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-and-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Els N Meeusen, Elgene Lim, Suresh Mathivanan
With the advent of immunotherapies for cancer, there is growing interest in the identification of tumor antigens. Tumor antigens are self-molecules altered through genetic mutations (neoantigens), protein truncation, protein misfolding or abnormal post translational modifications. To induce an immune response, tumor antigens need to be secreted into the tumor environment and presented to the immune system in the draining lymph nodes, resulting in the generation of tumor-specific effector cells and antibodies...
July 17, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708051/ralstonia-solanacearum-novel-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-nel-effectors-ripaw-and-ripar-suppress-pattern-triggered-immunity-in-plants
#5
Masahito Nakano, Kenji Oda, Takafumi Mukaihara
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of bacterial wilt in solanaceous crops. This pathogen injects more than 70 effector proteins into host plant cells via the Hrp type III secretion system to cause a successful infection. However, the function of these effectors in plant cells, especially in the suppression of plant immunity, remains largely unknown. In this study, we characterized two Ralstonia solanacearum effectors, RipAW and RipAR, which share homology with the IpaH family of effectors from animal and plant pathogenic bacteria, that have a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase (NEL) domain...
July 15, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#6
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705955/tracking-the-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-system-visualization-of-effector-delivery-using-split-fluorescent-proteins
#7
Jennifer Mach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699103/expansion-of-pathogen-recognition-specificity-in-plants-using-pattern-recognition-receptors-and-artificially-designed-decoys
#8
REVIEW
Lifan Sun, Jun Qin, Kailun Wang, Jie Zhang
Pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) are recognized by plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) localized on the cell surface to activate immune responses. This PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) confers resistance to a broad range of pathogenic microbes and, therefore, has a great potential for genetically engineering broad-spectrum resistance by transferring PRRs across plant families. Pathogenic effectors secreted by phytopathogens often directly target and inhibit key components of PTI signaling pathways via diverse biochemical mechanisms...
July 10, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694803/comparative-genomics-identifies-a-novel-conserved-protein-hpat-in-proteobacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-that-do-not-possess-the-putative-translocon-protein-hrpf
#9
Céline Pesce, Jonathan M Jacobs, Edwige Berthelot, Marion Perret, Taca Vancheva, Claude Bragard, Ralf Koebnik
Xanthomonas translucens is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, the most common bacterial disease of wheat and barley. To cause disease, most xanthomonads depend on a highly conserved type III secretion system, which translocates type III effectors into host plant cells. Mutagenesis of the conserved type III secretion gene hrcT confirmed that the X. translucens type III secretion system is required to cause disease on the host plant barley and to trigger a non-host hypersensitive response (HR) in pepper leaves...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691114/structure-and-dynamics-of-type-iii-secretion-effector-protein-exou-as-determined-by-sdsl-epr-spectroscopy-in-conjunction-with-de-novo-protein-folding
#10
Axel W Fischer, David M Anderson, Maxx H Tessmer, Dara W Frank, Jimmy B Feix, Jens Meiler
ExoU is a 74 kDa cytotoxin that undergoes substantial conformational changes as part of its function, that is, it has multiple thermodynamically stable conformations that interchange depending on its environment. Such flexible proteins pose unique challenges to structural biology: (1) not only is it often difficult to determine structures by X-ray crystallography for all biologically relevant conformations because of the flat energy landscape (2) but also experimental conditions can easily perturb the biologically relevant conformation...
June 30, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691020/mir-200c-accelerates-hepatic-stellate-cell-induced-liver-fibrosis-via-targeting-the-fog2-pi3k-pathway
#11
Tengfei Ma, Xiuqin Cai, Zifeng Wang, Li Huang, Chang Wang, Songshan Jiang, Yunpeng Hua, Quentin Liu
BACKGROUND: Although expression of miR-200s is aberrant in liver fibrosis, its role in liver fibrogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of miR-200c in the activation of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and induction of liver fibrosis. METHODS: We engineered human HSCs (LX2 cell line) to stably express miR-200c (LX2-200c) or empty vector control (LX2-nc). RESULTS: miR-200c expression upregulated α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin, enhanced HSCs growth and migration, increased expression of collagen type I (a main component of ECM) gene and secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and upregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, a downstream effector of the PI3K pathway...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688280/synthesis-of-sulfamoylbenzamide-derivatives-as-hbv-capsid-assembly-effector
#12
Ozkan Sari, Sebastien Boucle, Bryan D Cox, Tugba Ozturk, Olivia Ollinger Russell, Leda Bassit, Franck Amblard, Raymond F Schinazi
The synthesis of novel series of sulfamoylbenzamides as HBV capsid assembly effector is reported. The structure was divided into five parts which were independently modified as part of our lead optimization. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-HBV activity and toxicity in human hepatocytes, lymphocytes and other cells. Additionally, we assessed their effect on HBV cccDNA formation in an HBeAg reporter cell-based assay. Among the 27 compounds reported, several analogs exhibited submicromolar activities and significant reduction of HBeAg secretion...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687734/hpab-dependent-secretion-of-type-iii-effectors-in-the-plant-pathogens-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria
#13
Fabien Lonjon, David Lohou, Anne-Claire Cazalé, Daniela Büttner, Barbara Gomes Ribeiro, Claire Péanne, Stéphane Genin, Fabienne Vailleau
Plant pathogenic bacteria exerts their pathogenicity through the injection of large repertoires of type III effectors (T3Es) into plant cells, a mechanism controlled in part by type III chaperones (T3Cs). In Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of bacterial wilt, little is known about the control of type III secretion at the post-translational level. Here, we provide evidence that the HpaB and HpaD proteins do act as bona fide R. solanacearum class IB chaperones that associate with several T3Es. Both proteins can dimerize but do not interact with each other...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677296/pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000-polymutants-deploying-coronatine-and-two-type-iii-effectors-produce-quantifiable-chlorotic-spots-from-individual-bacterial-colonies-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-leaves
#14
Suma Chakravarthy, Jay N Worley, Adriana Montes-Rodriguez, Alan Collmer
Primary virulence factors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 include the phytotoxin coronatine (COR) and a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system (T3SS). DC3000 derivatives differentially producing COR, the T3SS machinery, and subsets of key effectors were constructed and assayed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Bacteria were inoculated by dipping of whole plants and assayed for population growth and production of chlorotic spots on leaves. The strains fell into three classes...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675355/induction-of-interferon-and-interferon-induced-antiviral-effector-genes-following-a-primary-bovine-herpesvirus-1-bhv-1-respiratory-infection
#15
Rahwa Osman, Patricia Gonzalez-Cano, Robert Brownlie, Philip J Griebel
Invitro investigations have identified a variety of mechanisms by which herpesviruses evade interferon-stimulated antiviral effector mechanisms. However, these immune evasion mechanisms have not been evaluated during a bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) infection. This study investigated the transcription and secretion of type I and II interferons (IFNs) and the transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) during a primary BHV-1 infection of the upper respiratory tract (URT) in naïve calves. IFN-α, -β and -γ transcription in nasal turbinates and protein levels in nasal secretions increased following infection...
July 5, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674938/herbaspirillum-rubrisubalbicans-a-mild-pathogen-impairs-growth-of-rice-by-augmenting-ethylene-levels
#16
Glaucio Valdameri, Dayane Alberton, Vivian Rotuno Moure, Thiago Borba Kokot, Caroline Kukolj, Liziane Cristina Campos Brusamarello-Santos, Rose Adele Monteiro, Fabio de Oliveira Pedrosa, Emanuel Maltempi de Souza
Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans decreases growth of rice. Inoculation of rice with H. rubrisubalbicans increased the ACCO mRNA levels and ethylene production. The H. rubrisubalbicans rice interactions were further characterized by proteomic approach. Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans is a well-known growth-promoting rhizobacteria that can also act as a mild phyto-pathogen. During colonisation of rice, RT-qPCR analyses showed that H. rubrisubalbicans up-regulates the methionine recycling pathway as well as phyto-siderophore synthesis genes...
July 3, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674187/pras40-connects-microenvironmental-stress-signaling-to-exosome-mediated-secretion
#17
Jiacong Guo, Priya Jayaprakash, Jian Dan, Petra Wise, Gyu-Beom Jang, Chengyu Liang, Mei Chen, David T Woodley, Muller Fabbri, Wei Li
Secreted exosomes carrying lipids, proteins and nucleic acids conduct cell-cell communications within the microenvironment of both physiological and pathological conditions. Exosome secretion is triggered by extracellular or intracellular stress signals. Little is known, however, about the signal transduction between stress cues and exosome secretion. To identify the linker protein, we took advantage of a unique finding in human keratinocytes. In these cells, although TGFα and EGF share the same EGF receptor and previously indistinguishable intracellular signaling networks, only TGFα stimulation causes exosome-mediated secretion...
July 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673326/therapeutic-effect-of-a-novel-histone-deacetylase-6-inhibitor-ckd-l-on-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-vivo-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-in-vitro
#18
Bo Ram Oh, Dong-Hyeon Suh, Daekwon Bae, Nina Ha, Young Il Choi, Hyun Jung Yoo, Jin Kyun Park, Eun Young Lee, Eun Bong Lee, Yeong Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has recently been reported to have a therapeutic effect as an anti-inflammatory agent in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We investigated the therapeutic effect of a new selective HDAC6 inhibitor, CKD-L, compared to ITF 2357 or Tubastatin A on CIA and regulatory T (Treg) cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: CIA was induced by bovine type II collagen (CII) in DBA/1 J mice. Mice were treated with HDAC inhibitor for 18 days...
July 3, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671993/epithelial-cells-detect-functional-type-iii-secretion-system-of-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-through-a-novel-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#19
Yael Litvak, Shir Sharon, Meirav Hyams, Li Zhang, Simi Kobi, Naama Katsowich, Shira Dishon, Gabriel Nussbaum, Na Dong, Feng Shao, Ilan Rosenshine
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), a common cause of infant diarrhea, is associated with high risk of mortality in developing countries. The primary niche of infecting EPEC is the apical surface of intestinal epithelial cells. EPEC employs a type three secretion system (TTSS) to inject the host cells with dozens of effector proteins, which facilitate attachment to these cells and successful colonization. Here we show that EPEC elicit strong NF-κB activation in infected host cells. Furthermore, the data indicate that active, pore-forming TTSS per se is necessary and sufficient for this NF-κB activation, regardless of any specific effector or protein translocation...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670324/complex-interactions-between-fungal-avirulence-genes-and-their-corresponding-plant-resistance-genes-and-consequences-for-disease-resistance-management
#20
REVIEW
Yohann Petit-Houdenot, Isabelle Fudal
During infection, pathogens secrete an arsenal of molecules, collectively called effectors, key elements of pathogenesis which modulate innate immunity of the plant and facilitate infection. Some of these effectors can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance (R) proteins from the plant and are then called avirulence (AVR) proteins. This recognition usually triggers defense responses including the hypersensitive response and results in resistance of the plant. R-AVR gene interactions are frequently exploited in the field to control diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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