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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236274/comparative-pan-genome-analysis-of-oral-prevotella-species-implicated-in-periodontitis
#1
Maziya Ibrahim, Ahalyaa Subramanian, Sharmila Anishetty
Prevotella is part of the oral bacterial community implicated in periodontitis. Pan genome analyses of eight oral Prevotella species, P. dentalis, P. enoeca, P. fusca, P. melaninogenica, P. denticola, P. intermedia 17, P. intermedia 17-2 and P. sp. oral taxon 299 are presented in this study. Analysis of the Prevotella pan genome revealed features such as secretion systems, resistance to oxidative stress and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems that enable the bacteria to adapt to the oral environment...
February 24, 2017: Functional & Integrative Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223991/the-comparison-of-expressed-candidate-secreted-proteins-from-two-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-unravels-common-and-specific-molecular-tools-to-invade-different-host-plants
#2
Laurent Kamel, Nianwu Tang, Mathilde Malbreil, Hélène San Clemente, Morgane Le Marquer, Christophe Roux, Nicolas Frei Dit Frey
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), belonging to the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, form mutualistic symbioses with roots of almost 80% of land plants. The release of genomic data from the ubiquitous AMF Rhizophagus irregularis revealed that this species possesses a large set of putative secreted proteins (RiSPs) that could be of major importance for establishing the symbiosis. In the present study, we aimed to identify SPs involved in the establishment of AM symbiosis based on comparative gene expression analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218958/cd137-is-a-useful-marker-for-identifying-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Zhuo-Hong Yan, Xiao-Fang Zheng, Ling Yi, Jing Wang, Xiao-Jue Wang, Pan-Jian Wei, Hong-Yan Jia, Li-Jun Zhou, Yan-Lin Zhao, Hong-Tao Zhang
Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumor antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 25 healthy donors...
February 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217742/piericidin-a1-blocks-yersinia-ysc-type-iii-secretion-system-needle-assembly
#4
Jessica M Morgan, Miles C Duncan, Kevin S Johnson, Andreas Diepold, Hanh Lam, Allison J Dupzyk, Lexi R Martin, Weng Ruh Wong, Judith P Armitage, Roger G Linington, Victoria Auerbuch
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial virulence factor expressed by dozens of Gram-negative pathogens but largely absent from commensals. The T3SS is an attractive target for antimicrobial agents that may disarm pathogenic bacteria while leaving commensal populations intact. We previously identified piericidin A1 as an inhibitor of the Ysc T3SS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Piericidins were first discovered as inhibitors of complex I of the electron transport chain in mitochondria and some bacteria...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217138/using-population-and-comparative-genomics-to-understand-the-genetic-basis-of-effector-driven-fungal-pathogen-evolution
#5
REVIEW
Clémence Plissonneau, Juliana Benevenuto, Norfarhan Mohd-Assaad, Simone Fouché, Fanny E Hartmann, Daniel Croll
Epidemics caused by fungal plant pathogens pose a major threat to agro-ecosystems and impact global food security. High-throughput sequencing enabled major advances in understanding how pathogens cause disease on crops. Hundreds of fungal genomes are now available and analyzing these genomes highlighted the key role of effector genes in disease. Effectors are small secreted proteins that enhance infection by manipulating host metabolism. Fungal genomes carry 100s of putative effector genes, but the lack of homology among effector genes, even for closely related species, challenges evolutionary and functional analyses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217133/a-perspective-on-crn-proteins-in-the-genomics-age-evolution-classification-delivery-and-function-revisited
#6
REVIEW
Tiago M M M Amaro, Gaëtan J A Thilliez, Graham B Motion, Edgar Huitema
Plant associated microbes rely on secreted virulence factors (effectors) to modulate host immunity and ensure progressive infection. Amongst the secreted protein repertoires defined and studied in pathogens to date, the CRNs (for CRinkling and Necrosis) have emerged as one of only a few highly conserved protein families, spread across several kingdoms. CRN proteins were first identified in plant pathogenic oomycetes where they were found to be modular factors that are secreted and translocated inside host cells by means of a conserved N-terminal domain...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216607/the-cell-death-triggered-by-the-nuclear-localized-rxlr-effector-pitg_22798-from-phytophthora-infestans-is-suppressed-by-the-effector-avr3b
#7
Hongyang Wang, Yajuan Ren, Jing Zhou, Juan Du, Juan Hou, Rui Jiang, Haixia Wang, Zhendong Tian, Conghua Xie
Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, potentially secrete many RxLR effector proteins into plant cells to modulate plant immune responses and promote colonization. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these RxLR effectors suppress plant immune responses are largely unknown. Here we describe an RxLR effector PITG_22798 (Gene accession: XM_002998349) that was upregulated during early infection of potato by P. infestans. By employment of agroinfiltration, we observed that PITG_22798 triggers cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214100/nlrp6-a-multifaceted-innate-immune-sensor
#8
REVIEW
Maayan Levy, Hagit Shapiro, Christoph A Thaiss, Eran Elinav
NLRP6, a member of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) innate immune receptor family, regulates inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. Similar to other NLRs, NLRP6 not only participates in inflammasome formation, but is also involved in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling regulation and facilitation of gastrointestinal antiviral effector functions. Additionally, NLRP6 contributes to the regulation of mucus secretion and antimicrobial peptide production, thereby impacting intestinal microbial colonization and associated microbiome-related infectious, autoinflammatory, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209897/host-cell-attachment-elicits-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-infecting-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#9
Naama Katsowich, Netanel Elbaz, Ritesh Ranjan Pal, Erez Mills, Simi Kobi, Tamar Kahan, Ilan Rosenshine
The mechanisms by which pathogens sense the host and respond by remodeling gene expression are poorly understood. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the cause of severe intestinal infection, employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into intestinal epithelial cells. These effectors subvert host cell processes to promote bacterial colonization. We show that the T3SS also functions to sense the host cell and to trigger in response posttranscriptional remodeling of gene expression in the bacteria...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205647/microcin-pdi-regulation-and-proteolytic-cleavage-are-unique-among-known-microcins
#10
Zhe Zhao, Lisa H Orfe, Jinxin Liu, Shao-Yeh Lu, Thomas E Besser, Douglas R Call
Microcin PDI inhibits a diversity of pathogenic Escherichia coli through the action of an effector protein, McpM. In this study we demonstrated that expression of the inhibitory phenotype is induced under low osmolarity conditions and expression is primarily controlled by the EnvZ/OmpR two-component regulatory system. Functional, mutagenesis and complementation experiments were used to empirically demonstrate that EnvZ is required for the inhibitory phenotype and that regulation of mcpM is dependent on binding of the phosphorylated OmpR to the mcpM promoter region...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204957/insights-into-the-role-of-opioid-receptors-in-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#11
James J Galligan, Catia Sternini
Opioid drugs are prescribed extensively for pain treatment but when used chronically they induce constipation that can progress to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction. Opioid drugs interact with three classes of opioid receptors: mu opioid receptors (MORs), delta opioid receptors (DOR), and kappa opioid receptors (KORs), but opioid drugs mostly target the MORs. Upon stimulation, opioid receptors couple to inhibitory Gi/Go proteins that activate or inhibit downstream effector proteins. MOR and DOR couple to inhibition of adenylate cyclase and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and to activation of K(+) channels resulting in reduced neuronal activity and neurotransmitter release...
February 16, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198592/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomes-promote-survival-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-through-mirna-dependent-mechanisms
#12
Ben Mead, Stanislav Tomarev
The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons is one of the leading causes of blindness and includes traumatic (optic neuropathy) and degenerative (glaucoma) eye diseases. Although no clinical therapies are in use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated significant neuroprotective and axogenic effects on RGC in both of the aforementioned models. Recent evidence has shown that MSC secrete exosomes, membrane enclosed vesicles (30-100 nm) containing proteins, mRNA and miRNA which can be delivered to nearby cells...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198457/identification-of-a-novel-type-iii-secretion-associated-outer-membrane-bound-protein-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#13
Lei Li, Rui-Fang Li, Zhen-Hua Ming, Guang-Tao Lu, Ji-Liang Tang
Many bacterial pathogens employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to overcome host defenses. To date, most of our knowledge about the T3SS molecular architecture comes from the studies on animal pathogens. In plant pathogens, nine Hrc proteins are believed to be structural components of the T3SS, of which HrcC and HrcJ form the outer and inner rings of the T3SS, respectively. Here, we demonstrated that a novel outer membrane-bound protein (HpaM) of Xanthomonas campestris pv...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197384/oncolytic-measles-virus-induces-tumor-necrosis-factor-related-apoptosis-inducing-ligand-trail-mediated-cytotoxicity-by-human-myeloid-and-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells
#14
Carole Achard, Jean-Baptiste Guillerme, Daniela Bruni, Nicolas Boisgerault, Chantal Combredet, Frédéric Tangy, Nolwenn Jouvenet, Marc Grégoire, Jean-François Fonteneau
Attenuated measles virus (MV) is currently being evaluated in clinical trials as an oncolytic therapeutic agent. Originally used for its lytic activity against tumor cells, it is now admitted that the effectiveness of MV also lies in its ability to initiate antitumor immune responses through the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we investigated the capacity of oncolytic MV to convert human blood myeloid CD1c(+) DCs and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) into cytotoxic effectors. We found that MV induces the expression of the cytotoxic protein TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on the surface of DCs...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196868/an-interaction-between-the-inner-rod-protein-ysci-and-the-needle-protein-yscf-is-required-to-assemble-the-needle-structure-of-the-yersinia-type-three-secretion-system
#15
Shi-Yang Cao, Wan-Bin Liu, Ya-Fang Tan, Hui-Ying Yang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Tong Wang, Xiao-Yi Wang, Ya-Jun Song, Rui-Fu Yang, Zong-Min Du
The type III secretion system is a highly conserved virulence mechanism that is widely distributed in Gram-negative bacteria. It has a syringe-like structure composed of a multi-ring basal body that spans the bacterial envelope, and a projecting needle that delivers virulence effectors into host cells. Here, we showed that the Yersinia inner rod protein YscI directly interacts with the needle protein YscF inside the bacterial cells, and that this interaction depends on amino acid residues 83-102 in the carboxyl-terminus of YscI...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187376/genome-wide-analysis-of-excretory-secretory-proteins-in-root-knot-nematode-meloidogyne-incognita-provides-potential-targets-for-parasite-control
#16
Shachi Gahoi, Budhayash Gautam
The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita causes significant damage to various economically important crops. Infection is associated with secretion of effector proteins into host cytoplasm and interference with host innate immunity. To combat this infection, the identification and functional annotations of Excretory/Secretory (ES) proteins serve as a key to produce durable control measures. The identification of ES proteins through experimental methods are expensive and time consuming while bioinformatics approaches are cost-effective by prioritizing the experimental analysis of potential drug targets for parasitic diseases...
February 1, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186701/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomes-promote-survival-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-through-mirna-dependent-mechanisms
#17
Ben Mead, Stanislav Tomarev
The loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) and their axons is one of the leading causes of blindness and includes traumatic (optic neuropathy) and degenerative (glaucoma) eye diseases. Although no clinical therapies are in use, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have demonstrated significant neuroprotective and axogenic effects on RGC in both of the aforementioned models. Recent evidence has shown that MSC secrete exosomes, membrane enclosed vesicles (30-100 nm) containing proteins, mRNA and miRNA which can be delivered to nearby cells...
January 26, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185347/salmonella-effector-sopd2-interferes-with-rab34-function
#18
Wei Xuan Teo, Zhe Yang, Markus Charles Kerr, Lin Luo, Zhong Guo, Kirill Alexandrov, Jenny Lea Stow, Rohan David Teasdale
Many intracellular pathogens have evolved highly specialized mechanisms to isolate themselves from the host cell's innate immune response while still obtaining the necessary nutrients to survive. Salmonella utilizes type 3 secretion systems (T3SSs) to deliver bacterial proteins called effectors, across the encompassing Salmonella Containing vacuole (SCV) membrane, to subvert the host's membrane trafficking pathways and alter other cellular processes. The Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI)-2 effector SopD2 has recently been demonstrated to modulate multiple members of the Rab GTPase family such as Rab7, Rab8, Rab10, and Rab32 (D'Costa et al...
February 9, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184011/immunity-at-cauliflower-hydathodes-controls-infection-by-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#19
Aude Cerutti, Alain Jauneau, Marie-Christine Auriac, Emmanuelle Lauber, Yves Martinez, Serge Chiarenza, Nathalie Leonhardt, Richard Berthomé, Laurent D Noel
Hydathodes are water pores found on leaves of a wide range of vascular plants and are the sites of guttation. We report here on the detailed anatomy of cauliflower and Arabidopsis hydathodes. Hydathode surface presents pores resembling stomata giving access to large cavities. Beneath, the epithem is composed of a lacunar and highly vascularized parenchyma offering a direct connection between leaf surface and xylem vessels. Arabidopsis hydathode pores were responsive to ABA and light similar to stomata. The flg22 flagellin peptide, a well-characterized elicitor of plant basal immunity, did not induce closure of hydathode pores in contrast to stomata...
February 9, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183814/comparative-proteomics-of-purified-pathogen-vacuoles-correlates-intracellular-replication-of-legionella-pneumophila-with-the-small-gtpase-rap1
#20
Johanna Schm Oumllders, Christian Manske, Andreas Otto, Christine Hoffmann, Bernhard Steiner, Amanda Welin, D Oumlrte Becher, Hubert Hilbi
Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes a severe lung infection termed Legionnaires disease. The pathogen replicates in environmental protozoa as well as in macrophages within a unique membrane-bound compartment, the Legionella-containing-vacuole (LCV). LCV formation requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system, which translocates ca. 300 effector proteins into host cells, where they target distinct host factors. The L. pneumophila pentuple mutant (Δpentuple) lacks 5 gene clusters (31% of the effector proteins) and replicates in macrophages but not in Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba...
February 9, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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