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effector secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923746/aeromonas-salmonicida-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors-mediated-immune-suppression-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#1
F C Origgi, O Benedicenti, H Segner, U Sattler, T Wahli, J Frey
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiologic agent of furunculosis, is a major pathogen in aquaculture. Together with other pathogens, it is characterized by the presence of a type 3 secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is the main virulence mechanism of A. salmonicida. It is used by the bacterium to secrete and translocate several toxins and effector proteins into the host cell. Some of these factors have a detrimental impact on the integrity of the cell cytoskeleton, likely contributing to impair phagocytosis...
December 3, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922023/systematic-site-directed-mutagenesis-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-cagl-protein-of-the-cag-type-iv-secretion-system-identifies-novel-functional-domains
#2
Tobias Bönig, Patrick Olbermann, Simon H Bats, Wolfgang Fischer, Christine Josenhans
The Cag Type IV secretion system, which contributes to inflammation and cancerogenesis during chronic infection, is one of the major virulence factors of the bacterial gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We have generated and characterized a series of non-marked site-directed chromosomal mutants in H. pylori to define domains of unknown function of the essential tip protein CagL of the Cag secretion system. Characterizing the CagL mutants, we determined that their function to activate cells and transport the effector CagA was reduced to different extents...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920299/the-type-iii-secretion-system-effector-sptp-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#3
Rebecca Johnson, Alexander Byrne, Cedric N Berger, Elizabeth Klemm, Valerie F Crepin, Gordon Dougan, Gad Frankel
: Salmonella enterica serovars causes gastroenteritis or typhoid fever in humans, with virulence depending on the action of two type III secretion systems (SPI-1 and SPI-2). SptP is a Salmonella SPI-1 effector, involved in mediating recovery of the host cytoskeleton post-infection. SptP requires a chaperone, SicP, for stability and secretion. SptP has 94% identity between S Typhimurium and S Typhi; direct comparison of the protein sequences revealed that S Typhi SptP has numerous amino acid changes within its chaperone-binding domain...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918247/type-iv-effector-proteins-involved-in-the-sinorhizobium-medicago-symbiosis
#4
Matthew S Nelson, Chan Lan Chun, Michael Jay Sadowsky
In this study, we investigated genetic elements of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) found in Sinorhizobium and the role they play in symbiosis. Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae each contain a putative T4SS, similar to that used by Agrobacterium tumefaciens during pathogenesis. The Cre reporter assay for translocation (CRAfT) system was used to validate potential effector proteins. Both S. meliloti and S. medicae contained the effector protein TfeA, which was translocated into the host plant. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a nod box, involved in transcriptional activation of symbiosis-related genes, upstream of the transcriptional regulator (virG) in the Sinorhizobium T4SS...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918080/the-hemileia-vastatrix-effector-hvec-016-suppresses-bacterial-blight-symptoms-in-coffee-genotypes-with-the-sh-1-rust-resistance-gene
#5
Thiago Maia, Jorge L Badel, Gustavo Marin-Ramirez, Cynthia de M Rocha, Michelle B Fernandes, José C F da Silva, Gilson M de Azevedo-Junior, Sérgio H Brommonschenkel
A number of genes that confer resistance to coffee leaf rust (SH 1-SH 9) have been identified within the genus Coffea, but despite many years of research on this pathosystem, the complementary avirulence genes of Hemileia vastatrix have not been reported. After identification of H. vastatrix effector candidate genes (HvECs) expressed at different stages of its lifecycle, we established an assay to characterize HvEC proteins by delivering them into coffee cells via the type-three secretion system (T3SS) of Pseudomonas syringae pv...
December 5, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911947/the-yersinia-pestis-effector-yopm-inhibits-pyrin-inflammasome-activation
#6
Dmitry Ratner, M Pontus A Orning, Megan K Proulx, Donghai Wang, Mikhail A Gavrilin, Mark D Wewers, Emad S Alnemri, Peter F Johnson, Bettina Lee, Joan Mecsas, Nobuhiko Kayagaki, Jon D Goguen, Egil Lien
Type III secretion systems (T3SS) are central virulence factors for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and secreted T3SS effectors can block key aspects of host cell signaling. To counter this, innate immune responses can also sense some T3SS components to initiate anti-bacterial mechanisms. The Yersinia pestis T3SS is particularly effective and sophisticated in manipulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are typically processed into their mature forms by active caspase-1 following inflammasome formation...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910936/genome-analysis-of-campylobacter-concisus-strains-from-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-gastroenteritis-provides-new-insights-into-pathogenicity
#7
Heung Kit Leslie Chung, Alfred Tay, Sophie Octavia, Jieqiong Chen, Fang Liu, Rena Ma, Ruiting Lan, Stephen M Riordan, Michael C Grimm, Li Zhang
Campylobacter concisus is an oral bacterium that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. C. concisus has two major genomospecies, which appear to have different enteric pathogenic potential. Currently, no studies have compared the genomes of C. concisus strains from different genomospecies. In this study, a comparative genome analysis of 36 C. concisus strains was conducted including 27 C. concisus strains sequenced in this study and nine publically available C. concisus genomes. The C. concisus core-genome was defined and genomospecies-specific genes were identified...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909914/association-of-snp-variants-of-mhc-class-ii-drb-gene-with-thermo-physiological-traits-in-tropical-goats
#8
Abdulmojeed Yakubu, Adebowale E Salako, Marcos De Donato, Sunday O Peters, Michael I Takeet, Mathew Wheto, Moses Okpeku, Ikhide G Imumorin
Host defense in vertebrates depend on many secreted regulatory proteins such as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II which provide important regulatory and effector functions of T cells. Gene polymorphism in the second exon of Capra-DRB gene in three major Nigerian goat breeds [West African Dwarf (WAD), Red Sokoto (RS), and Sahel (SH)] was analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Four restriction enzymes, BsaHI, AluI, HaeIII, and SacII, were utilized. The association between the polymorphic sites and some heat tolerance traits were also investigated in a total of 70 WAD, 90 RS, and 50 SH goats...
December 1, 2016: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906186/preimplantation-factor-is-an-anti-apoptotic-effector-in-human-trophoblasts-involving-p53-signaling-pathway
#9
Hadia Moindjie, Esther Dos Santos, Rita-Josiane Gouesse, Nelly Swierkowski-Blanchard, Valérie Serazin, Eytan R Barnea, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
From the earliest stages of gestation, embryonic-maternal interaction has a key role in a successful pregnancy. Various factors present during gestation may significantly influence this type of juxta/paracrine interaction. PreImplantation Factor (PIF) is a recently identified factor with activity at the fetomaternal interface. PIF is secreted by viable embryos and directly controls placental development by increasing the invasive capacity of human extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). To further specify PIF's role in the human placenta, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profile of the EVT in the presence of a synthetic PIF analog (sPIF)...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903739/homocysteine-activates-b-cells-via-regulating-pkm2-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming
#10
Jiacheng Deng, Silin Lü, Huiying Liu, Bo Liu, Changtao Jiang, Qingbo Xu, Juan Feng, Xian Wang
The overactivation of immune cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-accelerated atherosclerosis. Homocysteine (Hcy) activates B cell proliferation and Ab secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms for these effects remain largely unknown. Metabolic reprogramming is critical for lymphocyte activation and effector function. In this study, we showed that Hcy-activated B cells displayed an increase in both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis, with a tendency to shift toward the latter, as well as an accumulation of intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway, to provide energy and biosynthetic substrates for cell growth and function...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900285/a-t4ss-effector-targets-host-cell-alpha-enolase-contributing-to-brucella-abortus-intracellular-lifestyle
#11
María I Marchesini, Susana M Morrone Seijo, Francisco F Guaimas, Diego J Comerci
Brucella abortus, the causative agent of bovine brucellosis, invades and replicates within cells inside a membrane-bound compartment known as the Brucella containing vacuole (BCV). After trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways, BCVs mature into endoplasmic reticulum-derived compartments permissive for bacterial replication. Brucella Type IV Secretion System (VirB) is a major virulence factor essential for the biogenesis of the replicative organelle. Upon infection, Brucella uses the VirB system to translocate effector proteins from the BCV into the host cell cytoplasm...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899503/postreplication-roles-of-the-brucella-virb-type-iv-secretion-system-uncovered-via-conditional-expression-of-the-virb11-atpase
#12
Erin P Smith, Cheryl N Miller, Robert Child, Jennifer A Cundiff, Jean Celli
: Brucella abortus, the bacterial agent of the worldwide zoonosis brucellosis, primarily infects host phagocytes, where it undergoes an intracellular cycle within a dedicated membrane-bound vacuole, the Brucella-containing vacuole (BCV). Initially of endosomal origin (eBCV), BCVs are remodeled into replication-permissive organelles (rBCV) derived from the host endoplasmic reticulum, a process that requires modulation of host secretory functions via delivery of effector proteins by the Brucella VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS)...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896318/insulin-elevates-leptin-secretion-and-mrna-levels-via-cyclic-amp-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-deprived-of-glucose
#13
Tomomi Tsubai, Yukihiro Noda, Kazuma Ito, Makoto Nakao, Yusuke Seino, Yutaka Oiso, Yoji Hamada
AIMS: Leptin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes, yet the regulatory mechanisms of this hormone have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to clarify the roles of insulin and glucose in leptin secretion and mRNA production using inhibitors of insulin signal transduction in adipocytes cultured under glucose-free or normal conditions. METHODS: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were stimulated with insulin in combination with inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B), as well as epinephrine and a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog under glucose-free or normal conditions...
November 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896225/the-urokinase-urokinase-receptor-system-in-mast-cells-effects-of-its-functional-interaction-with-fmlf-receptors
#14
Francesca Wanda Rossi, Nella Prevete, Felice Rivellese, Filomena Napolitano, Nunzia Montuori, Loredana Postiglione, Carmine Selleri, Amato de Paulis
Mast cell and basophils express the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcɛRI) and are primary effector cells of allergic disorders. The urokinase (uPA)-mediated plasminogen activation system is involved in physiological and pathological events based on cell migration and tissue remodelling, such as inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis and metastasis. uPA is a serine protease that binds uPAR, a high affinity glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-anchored receptor. uPAR focuses uPA activity at the cell surface and activates intracellular signaling through lateral interactions with integrins, receptor tyrosine kinases and the G-protein-coupled family of fMLF chemotaxis receptors (FPRs)...
November 2016: Translational Medicine @ UniSa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895129/the-predicted-lytic-transglycosylase-hpah-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria-associates-with-the-type-iii-secretion-system-and-promotes-effector-protein-translocation
#15
Jens Hausner, Nadine Hartmann, Michael Jordan, Daniela Büttner
Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system, which spans both bacterial membranes and translocates effector proteins into plant cells. The assembly of the T3S system presumably involves the predicted lytic transglycosylase (LT) HpaH, which is encoded adjacent to the T3S gene cluster. Bacterial LTs degrade peptidoglycan and often promote the formation of membrane-spanning macromolecular protein complexes. In the present study, we show that HpaH localizes to the bacterial periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan as well as to components of the T3S system including the predicted periplasmic inner rod proteins HrpB1 and HrpB2 as well as the pilus protein HrpE...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889208/the-bid-domain-of-type-iv-secretion-substrates-forms-a-conserved-four-helix-bundle-topped-with-a-hook
#16
Frédéric V Stanger, Tjaart A P de Beer, David M Dranow, Tilman Schirmer, Isabelle Phan, Christoph Dehio
The BID (Bep intracellular delivery) domain functions as secretion signal in a subfamily of protein substrates of bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems. It mediates transfer of (1) relaxases and the attached DNA during bacterial conjugation, and (2) numerous Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) during protein transfer into host cells infected by pathogenic Bartonella species. Furthermore, BID domains of Beps have often evolved secondary effector functions within host cells. Here, we provide crystal structures for three representative BID domains and describe a novel conserved fold characterized by a compact, antiparallel four-helix bundle topped with a hook...
November 14, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880834/overexpressed-proteins-in-hypervirulent-clade-8-and-clade-6-strains-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-compared-to-e-coli-o157-h7-edl933-clade-3-strain
#17
Natalia Amigo, Qi Zhang, Ariel Amadio, Qunjie Zhang, Wanderson M Silva, Baiyuan Cui, Zhongjian Chen, Mariano Larzabal, Jinlong Bei, Angel Cataldi
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is responsible for severe diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and predominantly affects children under 5 years. The major virulence traits are Shiga toxins, necessary to develop HUS and the Type III Secretion System (T3SS) through which bacteria translocate effector proteins directly into the host cell. By SNPs typing, E. coli O157:H7 was separated into nine different clades. Clade 8 and clade 6 strains were more frequently associated with severe disease and HUS. In this study, we aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in two strains of E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872241/the-type-iii-effector-nled-from-enteropathogenic-e-coli-differentiates-between-host-substrates-p38-and-jnk
#18
Kristina Creuzburg, Cristina Giogha, Tania Wong Fok Lung, Nichollas E Scott, Sabrina Mühlen, Elizabeth L Hartland, Jaclyn S Pearson
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen that utilises a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject an array of virulence effector proteins into host enterocytes to subvert numerous cellular processes for successful colonisation and dissemination. The T3SS effector NleD is a 28 kDa zinc metalloprotease that is translocated into host enterocytes where it directly cleaves and inactivates the MAP kinase signaling proteins, JNK and p38. Here a library of 91 random transposon based, in-frame, linker insertion mutants of NleD were tested for their ability to cleave JNK and p38 during transient transfection of cultured epithelial cells...
November 21, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871130/paar-rhs-proteins-harbor-various-c-terminal-toxins-to-diversify-the-antibacterial-pathways-of-type-vi-secretion-systems
#19
Jiale Ma, Min Sun, Wengyang Dong, Zihao Pan, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) of bacteria plays a key role in competing for specific niches by the contact-dependent killing of competitors. Recently, Rhs proteins with polymorphic C-terminal toxin-domains that inhibit or kill neighboring cells were identified. In this report, we identified a novel Rhs with an MPTase4 (Metallopeptidase-4) domain (designated as Rhs-CT1) that showed an antibacterial effect via T6SS in Escherichia coli. We managed to develop a specific strategy by matching the diagnostic domain-architecture of Rhs-CT1 (Rhs with an N-terminal PAAR-motif and a C-terminal toxin domain) for effector retrieval and discovered a series of Rhs-CTs in E...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869732/insect-gallers-and-their-plant-hosts-from-omics-data-to-systems-biology
#20
REVIEW
Caryn N Oates, Katherine J Denby, Alexander A Myburg, Bernard Slippers, Sanushka Naidoo
Gall-inducing insects are capable of exerting a high level of control over their hosts' cellular machinery to the extent that the plant's development, metabolism, chemistry, and physiology are all altered in favour of the insect. Many gallers are devastating pests in global agriculture and the limited understanding of their relationship with their hosts prevents the development of robust management strategies. Omics technologies are proving to be important tools in elucidating the mechanisms involved in the interaction as they facilitate analysis of plant hosts and insect effectors for which little or no prior knowledge exists...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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