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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464939/genome-analysis-of-two-novel-pseudomonas-strains-exhibiting-differential-hypersensitivity-reactions-on-tobacco-seedlings-reveals-differences-in-nonflagellar-t3ss-organization-and-predicted-effector-proteins
#1
Caetanie F Tchagang, Renlin Xu, Cyr Lézin Doumbou, James T Tambong
Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of two new biological control strains (S1E40 and S3E12) of Pseudomonas was performed to assess their taxonomic position relative to close lineages, and comparative genomics employed to investigate whether these strains differ in key genetic features involved in hypersensitivity responses (HRs). Strain S3E12, at high concentration, incites HRs on tobacco and corn plantlets while S1E40 does not. Phylogenies based on individual genes and 16S rRNA-gyrB-rpoB-rpoD concatenated sequence data show strains S1E40 and S3E12 clustering in distinct groups...
February 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464899/proteomic-adaptation-of-australian-epidemic-bordetella-pertussis
#2
Laurence Don Wai Luu, Sophie Octavia, Ling Zhong, Mark Raftery, Vitali Sintchenko, Ruiting Lan
Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough. The predominant strains in Australia changed to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) cluster I (pertussis toxin promoter allele ptxP3/pertactin gene allele prn2) from cluster II (non-ptxP3/non-prn2). Cluster I were mostly responsible for the 2008-2012 Australian epidemic and were found to have higher fitness compared to cluster II using an in vivo mouse competition assay, regardless of host's immunisation status. This study aimed to identify proteomic differences that explain higher fitness in cluster I using iTRAQ, and high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-hr)...
February 21, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459857/genome-wide-bimolecular-fluorescence-complementation-based-proteomic-analysis-of-toxoplasma-gondii-rop18-s-human-interactome-shows-its-key-role-in-regulation-of-cell-immunity-and-apoptosis
#3
Jing Xia, Ling Kong, Li-Juan Zhou, Shui-Zhen Wu, Li-Jie Yao, Cheng He, Cynthia Y He, Hong-Juan Peng
Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein ROP18 ( Tg ROP18) is a key virulence factor secreted into the host cell during invasion, where it modulates the host cell response by interacting with its host targets. However, only a few Tg ROP18 targets have been identified. In this study, we applied a high-throughput protein-protein interaction (PPI) screening in human cells using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) to identify the targets of Type I strain ROP18 (ROP18I ) and Type II strain ROP18 (ROP18II )...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458124/tryptophan-mediated-dimerization-of-the-tssl-transmembrane-anchor-is-required-for-type-vi-secretion-system-activity
#4
Abdelrahim Zoued, Jean-Pierre Duneau, Eric Durand, Alexandre P España, Laure Journet, Françoise Guerlesquin, Eric Cascales
The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a multiprotein complex used by bacteria to deliver effectors into target cells. The T6SS comprises a bacteriophage-like contractile tail structure anchored to the cell envelope by a membrane complex constituted of the TssJ outer membrane lipoprotein and the TssL and TssM inner membrane proteins. TssJ establishes contact with the periplasmic domain of TssM whereas the transmembrane segments of TssM and its cytoplasmic domain interact with TssL. TssL protrudes in the cytoplasm but is anchored by a C-terminal transmembrane helix (TMH)...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458091/role-of-the-ssek1-gene-in-the-pathogenicity-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-enteritidis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#5
Yadong Yang, Chuan Yu, Ke Ding, Chunjie Zhang, Chengshui Liao, Yanyan Jia, Jing Li, Xiangchao Cheng
Salmonella enteritidis is a common food-borne pathogen associated with consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella secreted effector K1 (SseK1), as a translocated and secreted protein has been identified to be essential for the virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in host cells. However, the role of the sseK1 gene in the pathogenicity of S. enteritidis remain unclear. In this study, a sseK1 deletion mutant of S. enteritidis was constructed and its biological characteristics were examined...
February 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457786/intracellular-lipid-metabolism-impairs-%C3%AE-cell-compensation-during-diet-induced-obesity
#6
Risheng Ye, Ruth Gordillo, Mengle Shao, Toshiharu Onodera, Zhe Chen, Shiuhwei Chen, Xiaoli Lin, Jeffrey A SoRelle, Xiaohong Li, Miao Tang, Mark P Keller, Regina Kuliawat, Alan D Attie, Rana K Gupta, William L Holland, Bruce Beutler, Joachim Herz, Philipp E Scherer
The compensatory proliferation of insulin-producing β cells is critical to maintaining glucose homeostasis at the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Failure of β cells to proliferate results in hyperglycemia and insulin dependence in patients. To understand the effect of the interplay between β cell compensation and lipid metabolism upon obesity and peripheral insulin resistance, we eliminated LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), a pleiotropic mediator of cholesterol, insulin, energy metabolism, and other cellular processes, in β cells...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435939/application-of-tale-based-approach-for-dissecting-functional-microrna-302-367-in-cellular-reprogramming
#7
Zhonghui Zhang, Wen-Shu Wu
MicroRNAs are small 18-24 nt single-stranded noncoding RNA molecules involved in many biological processes, including stemness maintenance and cellular reprogramming. Current methods used in loss-of-function studies of microRNAs have several limitations. Here, we describe a new approach for dissecting miR-302/367 functions by transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), which are natural effector proteins secreted by Xanthomonas and Ralstonia bacteria. Knockdown of the miR-302/367 cluster uses the Kruppel-associated box repressor domain fused with specific TALEs designed to bind the miR-302/367 cluster promoter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435708/intrinsic-antimicrobial-properties-of-silk-spun-by-genetically-modified-silkworm-strains
#8
Alessio Saviane, Ottavia Romoli, Andrea Bozzato, Giuliano Freddi, Chiara Cappelletti, Elena Rosini, Silvia Cappellozza, Gianluca Tettamanti, Federica Sandrelli
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a fundamental insect for silk industry. Silk is obtained from cocoons, protective envelopes produced during pupation and composed of single raw silk filaments secreted by the insect silk glands. Currently, silk is used as a textile fibre and to produce new materials for technical and biomedical applications. To enhance the use of both fabrics and silk-based materials, great efforts to obtain silk with antimicrobial properties have been made. In particular, a convincing approach is represented by the enrichment of the textile fibre with antimicrobial peptides, the main effectors of the innate immunity...
February 12, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434355/wheat-receptor-kinase-like-protein-stb6-controls-gene-for-gene-resistance-to-fungal-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#9
Cyrille Saintenac, Wing-Sham Lee, Florence Cambon, Jason J Rudd, Robert C King, William Marande, Stephen J Powers, Hélène Bergès, Andy L Phillips, Cristobal Uauy, Kim E Hammond-Kosack, Thierry Langin, Kostya Kanyuka
Deployment of fast-evolving disease-resistance genes is one of the most successful strategies used by plants to fend off pathogens1,2. In gene-for-gene relationships, most cloned disease-resistance genes encode intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich-repeat proteins (NLRs) recognizing pathogen-secreted isolate-specific avirulence (Avr) effectors delivered to the host cytoplasm3,4. This process often triggers a localized hypersensitive response, which halts further disease development 5 . Here we report the map-based cloning of the wheat Stb6 gene and demonstrate that it encodes a conserved wall-associated receptor kinase (WAK)-like protein, which detects the presence of a matching apoplastic effector6-8 and confers pathogen resistance without a hypersensitive response 9 ...
February 12, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424950/identification-of-candidate-effector-genes-of-pratylenchus-penetrans
#10
Paulo Vieira, Thomas Mayer, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Dana K Howe, Inga Zasada, Thomas Baum, Jonathan D Eisenback, Kathryn Kamo
Pratylenchus penetrans is one of the most important species among root lesion nematodes (RLNs) due to the detrimental and economic impact that it causes in a wide range of crops. Similar to other plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs), P. penetrans harbors a significant number of secreted proteins that play key roles during parasitism. Here we combined spatially and temporally resolved next generation sequencing datasets of P. penetrans to select a list of candidate genes aimed at the identification of a panel of effector genes for this species...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422784/genome-wide-analysis-of-type-vi-system-clusters-and-effectors-in-burkholderia-species
#11
Thao Thi Nguyen, Hyun-Hee Lee, Inmyoung Park, Young-Su Seo
Type VI secretion system (T6SS) has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs) are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses...
February 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422056/turning-the-tables-on-cytomegalovirus-targeting-viral-fc-receptors-by-cars-containing-mutated-ch2-ch3-igg-spacer-domains
#12
Julia Proff, Charlotte U Brey, Armin Ensser, Wolfgang Holter, Manfred Lehner
BACKGROUND: During infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) several viral proteins occur on cell surfaces in high quantity. We thus pursue an HLA-independent approach for immunotherapy of HCMV using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) and bispecific BiTE® antibody constructs. In this context, HCMV-encoded proteins that mediate viral immune evasion and bind human IgG might represent particularly attractive target antigens. Unlike in observations of similar approaches for HIV and hepatitis B and C viruses, however, HCMV-infected cells develop a striking resistance to cytotoxic effector functions at later stages of the replication cycle...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417046/subversion-of-the-endocytic-and-secretory-pathways-by-bacterial-effector-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Mary M Weber, Robert Faris
Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410430/novel-global-effector-mining-from-the-transcriptome-of-early-life-stages-of-the-soybean-cyst-nematode-heterodera-glycines
#14
Michael Gardner, Andi Dhroso, Nathan Johnson, Eric L Davis, Thomas J Baum, Dmitry Korkin, Melissa G Mitchum
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines is an obligate parasite that relies on the secretion of effector proteins to manipulate host cellular processes that favor the formation of a feeding site within host roots to ensure its survival. The sequence complexity and co-evolutionary forces acting upon these effectors remain unknown. Here we generated a de novo transcriptome assembly representing the early life stages of SCN in both a compatible and an incompatible host interaction to facilitate global effector mining efforts in the absence of an available annotated SCN genome...
February 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410427/legionella-dotm-structure-reveals-a-role-in-effector-recruiting-to-the-type-4b-secretion-system
#15
Amit Meir, David Chetrit, Luying Liu, Craig R Roy, Gabriel Waksman
Legionella pneumophila, a causative agent of pneumonia, utilizes the Type 4B secretion (T4BS) system to translocate over 300 effectors into the host cell during infection. T4BS systems are encoded by a large gene cluster termed dot/icm, three components of which, DotL, DotM, and DotN, form the "coupling complex", which serves as a platform for recruitment of effector proteins. One class of effectors includes proteins containing Glu-rich/E-block sequences at their C terminus. However, the protein or region of the coupling complex mediating recruitment of such effectors is unknown...
February 6, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408883/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-new-jersey-aster-yellows-strain-of-candidatus-phytoplasma-asteris
#16
Michael E Sparks, Kristi D Bottner-Parker, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal, Ing-Ming Lee
The NJAY (New Jersey aster yellows) strain of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' is a significant plant pathogen responsible for causing severe lettuce yellows in the U.S. state of New Jersey. A draft genome sequence was prepared for this organism. A total of 177,847 reads were assembled into 75 contigs > 518 bp with a total base value of 652,092 and an overall [G+C] content of 27.1%. A total of 733 protein coding genes were identified. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession MAPF00000000...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405518/contractile-injection-systems-of-bacteriophages-and-related-systems
#17
REVIEW
Nicholas M I Taylor, Mark J van Raaij, Petr G Leiman
Contractile tail bacteriophages, or myobacteriophages, use a sophisticated biomolecular structure to inject their genome into the bacterial host cell. This structure consists of a contractile sheath enveloping a rigid tube that is sharpened by a spike-shaped protein complex at its tip. The spike complex forms the centerpiece of a baseplate complex that terminates the sheath and the tube. The baseplate anchors the tail to the target cell membrane with the help of fibrous proteins emanating from it and triggers contraction of the sheath...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403015/pore-forming-activity-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-type-iii-secretion-system-translocon-alters-the-host-epigenome
#18
Laurent Dortet, Charlotte Lombardi, François Cretin, Andréa Dessen, Alain Filloux
Recent studies highlight that bacterial pathogens can reprogram target cells by influencing epigenetic factors. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a bacterial nanomachine that resembles a syringe on the bacterial surface. The T3SS 'needle' delivers translocon proteins into eukaryotic cell membranes, subsequently allowing injection of bacterial effectors into the cytosol. Here we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces early T3SS-dependent dephosphorylation and deacetylation of histone H3 in eukaryotic cells...
February 5, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402222/large-scale-genomic-analysis-shows-association-between-homoplastic-genetic-variation-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-genes-and-meningeal-or-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Carolien Ruesen, Lidya Chaidir, Arjan van Laarhoven, Sofiati Dian, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Hanna Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Martijn A Huynen, Bachti Alisjahbana, Bas E Dutilh, Reinout van Crevel
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is the most severe manifestation of tuberculosis. It is largely unknown why some people develop pulmonary TB (PTB) and others TB meningitis (TBM); we examined if the genetic background of infecting M. tuberculosis strains may be relevant. METHODS: We whole-genome sequenced M. tuberculosis strains isolated from 322 HIV-negative tuberculosis patients from Indonesia and compared isolates from patients with TBM (n = 106) and PTB (n = 216)...
February 5, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400603/a-novel-bicistronic-gene-design-couples-stable-cell-line-selection-with-a-fucose-switch-in-a-designer-cho-host-to-produce-native-and-afucosylated-glycoform-antibodies
#20
Gargi Roy, Tom Martin, Arnita Barnes, Jihong Wang, Rod Brian Jimenez, Megan Rice, Lina Li, Hui Feng, Shu Zhang, Raghothama Chaerkady, Herren Wu, Marcello Marelli, Diane Hatton, Jie Zhu, Michael A Bowen
The conserved glycosylation site Asn297 of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) can be decorated with a variety of sugars that can alter mAb pharmacokinetics and recruitment of effector proteins. Antibodies lacking the core fucose at Asn297 (afucosylated mAbs) show enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and increased efficacy. Here, we describe the development of a robust platform for the manufacture of afucosylated therapeutic mAbs by engineering a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cell line to co-express a mAb with GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase (RMD), a prokaryotic enzyme that deflects an intermediate in the de novo synthesis of fucose to a dead-end product, resulting in the production of afucosylated mAb (GlymaxX™ Technology, ProBioGen)...
February 5, 2018: MAbs
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