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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524456/endothelial-microparticles-released-by-activated-protein-c-protect-beta-cells-through-epcr-par1-and-annexin-a1-fpr2-pathways-in-islets
#1
Guillaume Kreutter, Mohamad Kassem, Ali El Habhab, Philippe Baltzinger, Malak Abbas, Julie Boisrame-Helms, Lamia Amoura, Jean Peluso, Blandine Yver, Zobairi Fatiha, Geneviève Ubeaud-Sequier, Laurence Kessler, Florence Toti
Islet transplantation is associated with early ischaemia/reperfusion, localized coagulation and redox-sensitive endothelial dysfunction. In animal models, islet cytoprotection by activated protein C (aPC) restores islet vascularization and protects graft function, suggesting that aPC triggers various lineages. aPC also prompts the release of endothelial MP that bear EPCR, its specific receptor. Microparticles (MP) are plasma membrane procoagulant vesicles, surrogate markers of stress and cellular effectors...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522707/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-luminescent-strain-vibrio-campbellii-lb102-isolated-from-a-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon-broodstock-rearing-system
#2
Sujeet Kumar, Ashok Kumar Jangam, V Akhil, Vidya Rajendran, Vinaya Kumar Katneni, J Joseph Sahaya Rajan, Monendra Grover, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, S V Alavandi, K K Vijayan
We report here the genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii LB102, isolated from the broodstock rearing system of a shrimp hatchery in India. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of effector toxins of the type III (YopT, sharing 39% identity with Yersinia pestis) and type VI (VgrG-3 and hemolysin coregulated protein of V. cholerae) secretion systems.
May 18, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522678/cigarette-smoking-associated-alterations-in-serotonin-adrenalin-signaling-pathways-of-platelets
#3
Curtis Lee Lowery, Clay Elliott, Anthonya Cooper, Coedy Hadden, Roberto N Sonon, Parastoo Azadi, D Keith Williams, James D Marsh, Donna S Woulfe, Fusun Kilic
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking plays a major role in cardiovascular diseases. The acute effects of cigarette smoking produce central nervous system-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The overactive sympathetic nervous system stimulates the secretion of serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamine into blood at supraphysiological levels. The correlation between these pathological conditions induced by smoking and the increased risk of thrombosis has not been thoroughly investigated...
May 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522607/nleb-ssek-effectors-from-citrobacter-rodentium-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-display-distinct-differences-in-host-substrate-specificity
#4
Samir El Qaidi, Kangming Chen, Adnan Halim, Lina Siukstaite, Christian Rueter, Ramon Hurtado-Guerrero, Henrik Clausen, Philip R Hardwidge
Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use a syringe-like apparatus called a type III secretion system to inject virulence factors into host cells. Some of these effectors are enzymes that modify host proteins to subvert their normal functions. NleB is a glycosyltransferase that modifies host proteins with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to inhibit antibacterial and inflammatory host responses. NleB is conserved among the attaching/effacing pathogens enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Citrobacter rodentium...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522546/the-rxlr-motif-of-the-host-targeting-effector-avr3a-of-phytophthora-infestans-is-cleaved-before-secretion
#5
Stephan Wawra, Franziska Trusch, Anja Matena, Kostis Apostolakis, Uwe Linne, Igor Zhukov, Jan Stanek, Wiktor Koźmiński, Ian Davidson, Chris J Secombes, Peter Bayer, Pieter van West
When plant-pathogenic oomycetes infect their hosts, they employ a large arsenal of effector proteins to establish a successful infection. Some effector proteins are secreted and are destined to be translocated and function inside host cells. The largest group of translocated proteins from oomycetes are the RxLR effectors, defined by their conserved N-terminal Arg-Xaa-Leu-Arg (RxLR) motif. However, the precise role of this motif in the host cell translocation process is unclear. Here detailed biochemical studies of the RxLR effector AVR3a from the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans are presented...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512254/catecholamines-facilitate-vegf-dependent-angiogenesis-via-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-induced-epac1-and-pka-activation
#6
Jaspal Garg, Yu-Xi Feng, Sepp R Jansen, Julian Friedrich, Frank Lezoualc'h, Martina Schmidt, Thomas Wieland
Chronic stress has been associated with the progression of cancer and antagonists for β-adrenoceptors (βAR) are regarded as therapeutic option. As they are also used to treat hemangiomas as well as retinopathy of prematurity, a role of endothelial β2AR in angiogenesis can be envisioned. We therefore investigated the role of β2AR-induced cAMP formation by analyzing the role of the cAMP effector molecules exchange factor directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1) and protein kinase A (PKA) in endothelial cells (EC)...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512097/glutathionylation-of-yersinia-pestis-lcrv-and-its-effects-on-plague-pathogenesis
#7
Anthony Mitchell, Christina Tam, Derek Elli, Thomas Charlton, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Farbod Fazlollahi, Kym F Faull, Olaf Schneewind
Glutathionylation, the formation of reversible mixed disulfides between glutathione and protein cysteine residues, is a posttranslational modification previously observed for intracellular proteins of bacteria. Here we show that Yersinia pestis LcrV, a secreted protein capping the type III secretion machine, is glutathionylated at Cys(273) and that this modification promotes association with host ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), moderates Y. pestis type III effector transport and killing of macrophages, and enhances bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508421/subversion-of-host-kinases-a-key-network-in-cellular-signaling-hijacked-by-helicobacter-pylori-caga
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Tegtmeyer, Matthias Neddermann, Carmen Isabell Asche, Steffen Backert
Helicobacter pylori is a paradigm of persistent pathogens and major risk factor for developing severe diseases including adenocarcinoma in the human stomach. An important bacterial factor linked to gastric disease progression is the cag pathogenicity island-encoded type-IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein CagA. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-motifs and then activates or inactivates multiple host signaling proteins in a phosphorylation-dependent and phosphorylation-independent fashion...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507071/characterization-of-the-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-lmprl-1-secreted-by-leishmania-major-via-the-exosome-pathway
#9
Sabine Leitherer, Joachim Clos, Elisabeth M Liebler-Tenorio, Ulrike Schleicher, Christian Bogdan, Didier Soulat
Similar to other intracellular pathogens, Leishmania parasites are known to evade the antimicrobial effector functions of host immune cells. To date, however, only few virulence factors have been described for Leishmania (L.) major, one of the causative agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here, we characterized the expression and function of a L. major phosphatase which we termed LmPRL-1. This enzyme shows a strong structural similarity to the human phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRL-1, -2, and -3) that are regulating the proliferation, differentiation and motility of cells...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507064/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-factor-6-traf6-mediates-ubiquitination-dependent-stat3-activation-upon-salmonella-typhimurium-infection
#10
Hai-Hua Ruan, Zhen Zhang, Su-Ying Wang, Logan M Nickels, Li Tian, Jian-Jun Qiao, Jun Zhu
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) can inject effector proteins into host cells via Type III secretion systems (T3SSs). These effector proteins modulate a variety of host transcriptional responses to facilitate bacterial growth and survival. Here, we show that S Typhimurium infection of host cells specifically induces ubiquitination of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). This TRAF6 ubiquitination is triggered by the Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-I) T3SS effectors SopB and SopE2...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505295/phylogenetic-distribution-of-tir-cytoskeleton-coupling-protein-tccp-and-tccp2-genes-in-atypical-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#11
Fernando H Martins, Roberto Nepomuceno, Roxane M F Piazza, Waldir P Elias
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains employ the type III secretion system (T3SS) effector Tir to induce actin cytoskeletal rearrangements. While some EPEC require tyrosine phosphorylation (Y-P) of Tir to trigger actin assembling, certain strains whose Tir is not tyrosine phosphorylated utilize the T3SS effector Tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein (TccP/TccP2) for efficient actin polymerization. The presence of tccP/tccP2 in typical EPEC belonging to distinct evolutionary lineages is well established but, in contrast, little is known about the distribution of these genes in atypical EPEC (aEPEC) showing distinct phylogenetic background...
May 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504721/tumour-exosomes-from-cells-harbouring-ptprz1-met-fusion-contribute-to-a-malignant-phenotype-and-temozolomide-chemoresistance-in-glioblastoma
#12
A-L Zeng, W Yan, Y-W Liu, Z Wang, Q Hu, E Nie, X Zhou, R Li, X-F Wang, T Jiang, Y-P You
Exosomes are carriers of pro-tumorigenic factors that participate in glioblastoma (GBM) progression, and many fusion genes are strong driver mutations in neoplasia and are involved in tumorigenesis. However, the ability of fusion genes to be transduced by exosomes is unknown. We characterized exosomes from GBM cells harbouring and not harbouring PTPRZ1-MET fusion (ZM fusion). We also determined the effect of the exosomes from ZM fusion cells (ZM exosomes) on pro-oncogenic secretions and showed that ZM exosomes are internalized by the recipient cells...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504273/legionella-effector-lpg1137-shuts-down-er-mitochondria-communication-through-cleavage-of-syntaxin-17
#13
Kohei Arasaki, Yumi Mikami, Stephanie R Shames, Hiroki Inoue, Yuichi Wakana, Mitsuo Tagaya
During infection of macrophages, the pathogenic bacterium Legionella pneumophila secretes effector proteins that induce the conversion of the plasma membrane-derived vacuole into an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-like replicative vacuole. These ER-like vacuoles are ultimately fused with the ER, where the pathogen replicates. Here we show that the L. pneumophila effector Lpg1137 is a serine protease that targets the mitochondria and their associated membranes. Lpg1137 binds to and cleaves syntaxin 17, a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein that is known to participate in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 in fed cells and in autophagy through interaction with Atg14L and other SNAREs in starved cells...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494759/time-resolved-dual-transcriptomics-reveal-early-induced-nicotiana-benthamiana-root-genes-and-conserved-infection-promoting-phytophthora-palmivora-effectors
#14
Edouard Evangelisti, Anna Gogleva, Thomas Hainaux, Mehdi Doumane, Frej Tulin, Clément Quan, Temur Yunusov, Kévin Floch, Sebastian Schornack
BACKGROUND: Plant-pathogenic oomycetes are responsible for economically important losses in crops worldwide. Phytophthora palmivora, a tropical relative of the potato late blight pathogen, causes rotting diseases in many tropical crops including papaya, cocoa, oil palm, black pepper, rubber, coconut, durian, mango, cassava and citrus. Transcriptomics have helped to identify repertoires of host-translocated microbial effector proteins which counteract defenses and reprogram the host in support of infection...
May 11, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494242/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-effector-exos-inhibits-ros-production-in-human-neutrophils
#15
Chairut Vareechon, Stephanie Elizabeth Zmina, Mausita Karmakar, Eric Pearlman, Arne Rietsch
Neutrophils are the first line of defense against bacterial infections, and the generation of reactive oxygen species is a key part of their arsenal. Pathogens use detoxification systems to avoid the bactericidal effects of reactive oxygen species. Here we demonstrate that the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is susceptible to reactive oxygen species but actively blocks the reactive oxygen species burst using two type III secreted effector proteins, ExoS and ExoT. ExoS ADP-ribosylates Ras and prevents it from interacting with and activating phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), which is required to stimulate the phagocytic NADPH-oxidase that generates reactive oxygen species...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493530/m2-macrophages-induce-emt-through-the-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-signaling-pathway
#16
Liangying Zhu, Xiao Fu, Xiang Chen, Xiaodong Han, Ping Dong
IPF is characterized by fibroblast accumulation, collagen deposition and ECM remodeling, with myofibroblasts believed to be the effector cell type. Myofibroblasts develop due to EMT of lung alveolar epithelial cells, which can be induced by TGF-β. M2 macrophages, a macrophage subpopulation, secrete large amounts of TGF-β. To clarify the relationship between IPF, EMT, TGF-β and M2 macrophages, a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was used. Seventeen days after mice were treated with bleomycin, the successful establishment of a pulmonary fibrosis model was confirmed by HE stain and Masson's trichrome stain...
May 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488468/functional-characterization-of-key-residues-in-regulatory-proteins-hrpg-and-hrpv-of-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-tomato-dc3000
#17
Milija Jovanovic, Christopher Waite, Ellen James, Nicholas Synn, Timothy Simpson, Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Martin Buck
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, uses a Type III secretion system (T3SS) to transfer effector proteins into the host. The expression of T3SS proteins is controlled by the HrpL sigma factor. Transcription of hrpL is sigma54-dependent and bacterial enhancer binding proteins HrpR and HrpS co-activate the hrpL promoter. The HrpV protein imposes negative control upon HrpRS through direct interaction with HrpS. HrpG interacts with HrpV and relieves such negative control. The sequence alignments across Hrp Group I-type plant pathogens revealed conserved HrpV and HrpG amino acids...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484467/immunogenic-domains-and-secondary-structure-of-escherichia-coli-recombinant-secreted-protein-escherichia-coli-secreted-protein-b
#18
Bruna Alves Caetano, Letícia Barboza Rocha, Eneas Carvalho, Roxane Maria Fontes Piazza, Daniela Luz
Several pathogenic bacteria are able to induce the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion. The A/E lesion is caused by effector proteins, such as Escherichia coli-secreted protein B (EspB), responsible together with Escherichia coli-secreted protein D for forming a pore structure on the host cell, which allows the translocation of effector proteins. Different variants of this protein can be found in E. coli strains, and during natural infection or when this protein is injected, this leads to variant-specific production of antibodies, which may not be able to recognize other variants of this bacterial protein...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479603/ustilago-maydis-effectors-and-their-impact-on-virulence
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Lanver, Marie Tollot, Gabriel Schweizer, Libera Lo Presti, Stefanie Reissmann, Lay-Sun Ma, Mariana Schuster, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Liang Liang, Nicole Ludwig, Regine Kahmann
Biotrophic fungal plant pathogens establish an intimate relationship with their host to support the infection process. Central to this strategy is the secretion of a range of protein effectors that enable the pathogen to evade plant immune defences and modulate host metabolism to meet its needs. In this Review, using the smut fungus Ustilago maydis as an example, we discuss new insights into the effector repertoire of smut fungi that have been gained from comparative genomics and discuss the molecular mechanisms by which U...
May 8, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477195/transcription-factor-binding-studies-in-cd4-t-cells-sirna-transfection-chromatin-immunoprecipitation-and-liquid-luminescent-dna-precipitation-assay
#20
Etienne Humblin, François Ghiringhelli, Frédérique Végran
CD4+ T cells are key components of the immune system that shape the anticancer immune response in animal models and in humans among other responses. The biology of CD4+ T cells is complex because naïve CD4+ T cells can differentiate into various subpopulations with various functions that depend on the milieu. Recently, a new population of IL-9-secreting T cells called Th9 cells has been described. These cells are characterized by their ability to produce IL-9. These cells were described to be involved in parasite infections and allergic inflammation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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