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effector secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426838/a-second-wave-of-salmonella-t3ss1-activity-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-infected-epithelial-cells
#1
Ciaran E Finn, Audrey Chong, Kendal G Cooper, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424688/antimicrobial-activity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-current-status-and-new-perspectives-of-antimicrobial-peptide-based-therapies
#2
REVIEW
Francisca Alcayaga-Miranda, Jimena Cuenca, Maroun Khoury
While mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-based therapy appears to be promising, there are concerns regarding possible side effects related to the unwanted suppression of antimicrobial immunity leading to an increased risk of infection. Conversely, recent data show that MSCs exert strong antimicrobial effects through indirect and direct mechanisms, partially mediated by the secretion of antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs). In fact, MSCs have been reported to increase bacterial clearance in preclinical models of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and cystic fibrosis-related infections...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423458/dissecting-virulence-function-from-recognition-cell-death-suppression-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-by-xopq-hopq1-family-effectors-relies-on-eds1-dependent-immunity
#3
Norman Adlung, Ulla Bonas
Many Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria express effector proteins of the XopQ/HopQ1 family which are translocated into plant cells via the type III secretion system during infection. In Nicotiana benthamiana, recognition of XopQ/HopQ1 proteins induces an effector-triggered immunity (ETI) reaction which is not associated with strong cell death but renders plants immune against Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strains. Additionally, XopQ suppresses cell death in N. benthamiana when transiently co-expressed with cell death inducers...
April 19, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419297/host-pore-forming-protein-complex-neutralizes-the-acidification-of-endocytic-organelles-to-counteract-intracellular-pathogens
#4
Sheng-An Li, Long Liu, Xiao-Long Guo, Yu-Yan Zhang, Yang Xiang, Qi-Quan Wang, Wen-Hui Lee, Yun Zhang
Many intracellular pathogens invade cells via endocytic organelles and have adapted to the drop in pH along the endocytic pathway. However, the strategy by which the host cell counteracts this pathogen adaptation remains unclear. βγ-CAT is an aerolysin-like pore-forming protein and trefoil factor complex in the frog Bombina maxima. We report here that βγ-CAT, as a host-secreted factor with an intrinsic channel-forming property, is the first example of a molecule that actively neutralizes the acidification of endocytic organelles to counteract Listeria monocytogenes infection...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417959/genome-sequence-of-plasmopara-viticola-and-insight-into-the-pathogenic-mechanism
#5
Ling Yin, Yunhe An, Junjie Qu, Xinlong Li, Yali Zhang, Ian Dry, Huijuan Wu, Jiang Lu
Plasmopara viticola causes downy mildew disease of grapevine which is one of the most devastating diseases of viticulture worldwide. Here we report a 101.3 Mb whole genome sequence of P. viticola isolate 'JL-7-2' obtained by a combination of Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. The P. viticola genome contains 17,014 putative protein-coding genes and has ~26% repetitive sequences. A total of 1,301 putative secreted proteins, including 100 putative RXLR effectors and 90 CRN effectors were identified in this genome...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413565/enrichment-of-in-vivo-transcription-data-from-dietary-intervention-studies-with-in-vitro-data-provides-improved-insight-into-gene-regulation-mechanisms-in-the-intestinal-mucosa
#6
Marcel Hulst, Alfons Jansman, Ilonka Wijers, Arjan Hoekman, Stéphanie Vastenhouw, Marinus van Krimpen, Mari Smits, Dirkjan Schokker
BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiles of intestinal mucosa of chickens and pigs fed over long-term periods (days/weeks) with a diet rich in rye and a diet supplemented with zinc, respectively, or of chickens after a one-day amoxicillin treatment of chickens, were recorded recently. Such dietary interventions are frequently used to modulate animal performance or therapeutically for monogastric livestock. In this study, changes in gene expression induced by these three interventions in cultured "Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells" (IPEC-J2) recorded after a short-term period of 2 and 6 hours, were compared to the in vivo gene expression profiles in order to evaluate the capability of this in vitro bioassay in predicting in vivo responses...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410150/platelet-toll-like-receptors-in-thromboinflammation
#7
Lina Paola D' Atri, Mirta Schattner
Besides their undiscussed role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets are also key effector cells capable of assisting and modulating inflammatory reactions and immune responses. Platelets play a sentinel role in immune surveillance by recognizing danger signals from pathogens and cell damage through the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) on its surface and internal compartments. Platelets express all 10 TLRs transcripts and its signalosome, including adaptor proteins and transcription factors. The activation of these receptors in platelets triggers hemostatic and inflammatory responses which participate in the host's response to bacterial and viral infections, linking thrombosis with infection and immunity...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410007/key-roles-of-arf-small-g-proteins-and-biosynthetic-trafficking-for-animal-development
#8
Francisco F Rodrigues, Tony J C Harris
Although biosynthetic trafficking can function constitutively, it also functions specifically for certain developmental processes. These processes require either a large increase to biosynthesis or the biosynthesis and targeted trafficking of specific players. We review the conserved molecular mechanisms that direct biosynthetic trafficking, and discuss how their genetic disruption affects animal development. Specifically, we consider Arf small G proteins, such as Arf1 and Sar1, and their coat effectors, COPI and COPII, and how these proteins promote biosynthetic trafficking for cleavage of the Drosophila embryo, the growth of neuronal dendrites and synapses, extracellular matrix secretion for bone development, lumen development in epithelial tubes, notochord and neural tube development, and ciliogenesis...
April 14, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408954/rho-gtpases-in-ameloblast-differentiation
#9
REVIEW
Keishi Otsu, Hidemitsu Harada
During tooth development, ameloblasts differentiate from inner enamel epithelial cells to enamel-forming cells by modulating the signal pathways mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction and a cell-autonomous gene network. The differentiation process of epithelial cells is characterized by marked changes in their morphology and polarity, accompanied by dynamic cytoskeletal reorganization and changes in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion over time. Functional ameloblasts are tall, columnar, polarized cells that synthesize and secrete enamel-specific proteins...
May 2016: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407259/the-verticillium-specific-protein-vdscp7-localizes-to-the-plant-nucleus-and-modulates-immunity-to-fungal-infections
#10
Lisha Zhang, Hao Ni, Xuan Du, Sheng Wang, Xiao-Wei Ma, Thorsten Nürnberger, Hui-Shan Guo, Chenlei Hua
Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity...
April 13, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404792/toxoplasma-effectors-targeting-host-signaling-and-transcription
#11
REVIEW
Mohamed-Ali Hakimi, Philipp Olias, L David Sibley
Early electron microscopy studies revealed the elaborate cellular features that define the unique adaptations of apicomplexan parasites. Among these were bulbous rhoptry (ROP) organelles and small, dense granules (GRAs), both of which are secreted during invasion of host cells. These early morphological studies were followed by the exploration of the cellular contents of these secretory organelles, revealing them to be comprised of highly divergent protein families with few conserved domains or predicted functions...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401683/a-global-survey-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-and-their-effectors
#12
Yueming Hu, He Huang, Xi Cheng, Xingsheng Shu, Aaron P White, John Stavrinides, Wolfgang Köster, Guoqiang Zhu, Zhendong Zhao, Yejun Wang
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important genetic determinant that mediates interactions between Gram-negative bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts. Our understanding of the T3SS continues to expand, yet the availability of new bacterial genomes prompts questions about its diversity, distribution, and evolution. Through a comprehensive survey of ∼20,000 bacterial genomes, we identified 174 non-redundant T3SSs from 109 genera and 5 phyla. Many of the bacteria are environmental strains that have not been reported to interact with eukaryotic hosts, while several species groups carry multiple T3SSs...
April 12, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396545/salicylidene-acylhydrazides-and-hydroxyquinolines-act-as-inhibitors-of-type-three-secretion-systems-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-distinct-mechanisms
#13
Ahalieyah Anantharajah, Julien M Buyck, Charlotta Sundin, Paul M Tulkens, Marie-Paule Mingeot-Leclercq, Françoise Van Bambeke
Type three secretion systems (T3SS) are major virulence factors in Gram-negative bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses two T3SS, namely an injectisome (iT3SS) translocating effector proteins in the host cell cytosol, and a flagellum (fT3SS) insuring bacterial motility. Inhibiting these systems is an appealing therapeutic strategy for acute infections. This study examines the protective effects of the salicylidene acylhydrazide INP0341 and of the hydroxyquinoline INP1750 (previously described as T3SS inhibitors in other species) towards cytotoxic effects of P...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394313/structure-of-the-mycobacterial-esx-5-type-vii-secretion-system-membrane-complex-by-single-particle-analysis
#14
Katherine S H Beckham, Luciano Ciccarelli, Catalin M Bunduc, Haydyn D T Mertens, Roy Ummels, Wolfgang Lugmayr, Julia Mayr, Mandy Rettel, Mikhail M Savitski, Dmitri I Svergun, Wilbert Bitter, Matthias Wilmanns, Thomas C Marlovits, Annabel H A Parret, Edith N G Houben
Mycobacteria are characterized by their impermeable outer membrane, which is rich in mycolic acids(1). To transport substrates across this complex cell envelope, mycobacteria rely on type VII (also known as ESX) secretion systems(2). In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, these ESX systems are essential for growth and full virulence and therefore represent an attractive target for anti-tuberculosis drugs(3). However, the molecular details underlying type VII secretion are largely unknown, due to a lack of structural information...
April 10, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394025/quantitative-analysis-of-the-tomato-nuclear-proteome-during-phytophthora-capsici-infection-unveils-regulators-of-immunity
#15
Andrew J M Howden, Remco Stam, Victor Martinez Heredia, Graham B Motion, Sara Ten Have, Kelly Hodge, Tiago M Marques Monteiro Amaro, Edgar Huitema
Plant-pathogen interactions are complex associations driven by the interplay of host and microbe-encoded factors. With secreted pathogen proteins (effectors) and immune signalling components found in the plant nucleus, this compartment is a battleground where susceptibility is specified. We hypothesized that, by defining changes in the nuclear proteome during infection, we can pinpoint vital components required for immunity or susceptibility. We tested this hypothesis by documenting dynamic changes in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) nuclear proteome during infection by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici...
April 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392788/the-transcription-factor-hobit-identifies-human-cytotoxic-cd4-t-cells
#16
Anna E Oja, Felipe A Vieira Braga, Ester B M Remmerswaal, Natasja A M Kragten, Kirsten M L Hertoghs, Jianmin Zuo, Paul A Moss, René A W van Lier, Klaas P J M van Gisbergen, Pleun Hombrink
The T cell lineage is commonly divided into CD4-expressing helper T cells that polarize immune responses through cytokine secretion and CD8-expressing cytotoxic T cells that eliminate infected target cells by virtue of the release of cytotoxic molecules. Recently, a population of CD4(+) T cells that conforms to the phenotype of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells has received increased recognition. These cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells display constitutive expression of granzyme B and perforin at the protein level and mediate HLA class II-dependent killing of target cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392566/assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#17
REVIEW
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389563/structure-of-the-wipa-protein-reveals-a-novel-tyrosine-protein-phosphatase-effector-from-legionella-pneumophila
#18
Nikos Pinotsis, Gabriel Waksman
Legionnaires disease is a severe form of pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. L. pneumophila pathogenicity relies on secretion of more than 300 effector proteins by a type IVb secretion system. Among these Legionella effectors, WipA has been primarily studied because of its dependence on a chaperone complex, IcmSW, for translocation through the secretion system, but its role in pathogenicity has remained unknown. In this study, we present the crystal structure of a large fragment of WipA, WipA435...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386263/adaptive-immunity-is-the-key-to-the-understanding-of-autoimmune-and-paraneoplastic-inflammatory-central-nervous-system-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Robert Weissert
There are common aspects and mechanisms between different types of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), and autoimmune encephalitis (AE) as well as paraneoplastic inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system. To our present knowledge, depending on the disease, T and B cells as well as antibodies contribute to various aspects of the pathogenesis. Possibly the events leading to the breaking of tolerance between the different diseases are of great similarity and so far, only partially understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382676/natural-genomic-amplification-of-cholinesterase-genes-in-animals
#20
REVIEW
Arnaud Chatonnet, Nicolas Lenfant, Pascale Marchot, Murray E Selkirk
Tight control of the concentration of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses requires precise regulation of the number and state of the acetylcholine receptors, and of the synthesis and degradation of the neurotransmitter. In particular, the cholinesterase activity has to be controlled exquisitely. In the genome of the first experimental models used (man, mouse, zebrafish and drosophila), there are only one or two genes coding for cholinesterases, whereas there are more genes for their closest relatives the carboxylesterases...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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