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effector secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904116/neutrophil-tlr4-and-pkr-are-targets-of-breast-cancer-cell-glycosaminoglycans-and-effectors-of-glycosaminoglycan-induced-april-secretion
#1
Uilst Bat-Erdene, Eric Quan, Kelvin Chan, Brianna-Marie Lee, Wejdan Matook, Ki-Young Lee, Jesusa L Rosales
A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), which induces survival and migration signals and tumor growth, is commonly observed in breast cancer tissues but is not often expressed in breast cancer cells themselves. Here, we examined whether breast cancer cells induce APRIL secretion from neutrophils, which are frequently recruited into the breast tumor microenvironment. We found that breast cancer cells do stimulate neutrophils to secrete APRIL through their glycosaminoglycans. Breast cancer cells depleted of heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans lose their ability to induce APRIL secretion from neutrophils, and heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate can induce secretion that is comparable to that of breast cancer cell-induced secretion...
June 15, 2018: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904064/cell-entry-of-a-host-targeting-protein-of-oomycetes-requires-gp96
#2
Franziska Trusch, Lars Loebach, Stephan Wawra, Elaine Durward, Andreas Wuensch, Nurul Aqilah Iberahim, Irene de Bruijn, Kevin MacKenzie, Ariane Willems, Aleksandra Toloczko, Javier Diéguez-Uribeondo, Tim Rasmussen, Thomas Schrader, Peter Bayer, Chris J Secombes, Pieter van West
The animal-pathogenic oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica causes serious losses in aquaculture by infecting and killing freshwater fish. Like plant-pathogenic oomycetes, S. parasitica employs similar infection structures and secretes effector proteins that translocate into host cells to manipulate the host. Here, we show that the host-targeting protein SpHtp3 enters fish cells in a pathogen-independent manner. This uptake process is guided by a gp96-like receptor and can be inhibited by supramolecular tweezers...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897130/virulence-function-of-the-ustilago-maydis-sterol-carrier-protein-2
#3
Sina Krombach, Stefanie Reissmann, Saskia Kreibich, Florian Bochen, Regine Kahmann
The peroxisomal sterol carrier protein 2 (Scp2) of the biotrophic maize pathogen Ustilago maydis was detected in apoplastic fluid, suggesting that it might function as a secreted effector protein. Here we analyze the role of the scp2 gene during plant colonization. We used reverse genetics approaches to delete the scp2 gene, determined stress sensitivity and fatty acid utilization of mutants, demonstrated secretion of Scp2, used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for expression analysis and expressed GFP-Scp2 fusion proteins for protein localization...
June 13, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895637/genomic-insight-into-symbiosis-induced-insect-color-change-by-a-facultative-bacterial-endosymbiont-candidatus-rickettsiella-viridis
#4
Naruo Nikoh, Tsutomu Tsuchida, Taro Maeda, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Ryuichi Koga, Takema Fukatsu
Members of the genus Rickettsiella are bacterial pathogens of insects and other arthropods. Recently, a novel facultative endosymbiont, " Candidatus Rickettsiella viridis," was described in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum , whose infection causes a striking host phenotype: red and green genetic color morphs exist in aphid populations, and upon infection with the symbiont, red aphids become green due to increased production of green polycyclic quinone pigments. Here we determined the complete genome sequence of the symbiont...
June 12, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894496/comprehensive-analysis-of-verticillium-nonalfalfae-in-silico-secretome-uncovers-putative-effector-proteins-expressed-during-hop-invasion
#5
Kristina Marton, Marko Flajšman, Sebastjan Radišek, Katarina Košmelj, Jernej Jakše, Branka Javornik, Sabina Berne
The vascular plant pathogen Verticillium nonalfalfae causes Verticillium wilt in several important crops. VnaSSP4.2 was recently discovered as a V. nonalfalfae virulence effector protein in the xylem sap of infected hop. Here, we expanded our search for candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs) in the V. nonalfalfae predicted secretome using a bioinformatic pipeline built on V. nonalfalfae genome data, RNA-Seq and proteomic studies of the interaction with hop. The secretome, rich in carbohydrate active enzymes, proteases, redox proteins and proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cellular processing and signaling, includes 263 CSEPs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891548/gain-of-function-analysis-reveals-important-virulence-roles-for-the-yersinia-pestis-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors-yopj-yopt-and-ypka
#6
Samantha G Palace, Megan K Proulx, Rose L Szabady, Jon D Goguen
Virulence of Yersinia pestis in mammals requires the type III secretion system, which delivers seven effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells to undermine immune responses. All seven of these effectors are conserved across Y. pestis strains, but three - YopJ, YopT, and YpkA - are apparently dispensable for virulence. Some degree of functional redundancy between effector proteins would explain both observations. Here, we use a combinatorial genetic approach to define the minimal subset of effectors required for full virulence in mice following subcutaneous infection...
June 11, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889187/split-green-fluorescent-protein-system-to-visualize-effectors-delivered-from-bacteria-during-infection
#7
Hye-Young Lee, So Eui Lee, Jongchan Woo, Doil Choi, Eunsook Park
Bacteria, one of the most important causative agents of various plant diseases, secrete a set of effector proteins into the host plant cell to subvert the plant immune system. During infection cytoplasmic effectors are delivered to the host cytosol via a type III secretion system (T3SS). After delivery into the plant cell, the effector(s) targets the specific compartment(s) to modulate host cell processes for survival and replication of the pathogen. Although there has been some research on the subcellular localization of effector proteins in the host cells to understand their function in pathogenicity by using fluorescent proteins, investigation of the dynamics of effectors directly injected from bacteria has been challenging due to the incompatibility between the T3SS and fluorescent proteins...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883717/interaction-of-glucocorticoids-with-fxr-fgf19-fgf21-mediated-ileum-liver-crosstalk
#8
Faten A Al-Aqil, Maria J Monte, Ana Peleteiro-Vigil, Oscar Briz, Ruben Rosales, Raquel Gonzalez, Carlos J Aranda, Borja Ocon, Iker Uriarte, Fermin Sanchez de Medina, Olga Martinez-Augustin, Matias A Avila, Jose J G Marin, Marta R Romero
At high doses, glucocorticoids (GC) have been associated with enhanced serum bile acids and liver injury. We have evaluated the effect of GC, in the absence of hepatotoxicity, on FXR/Fgf15/Fgf21-mediated ileum-liver crosstalk. Rats and mice (wild type and Fxr-/- , Fgf15-/- and int-Gr-/- strains; the latter with GC receptor (Gr) knockout selective for intestinal epithelial cells), were treated (i.p.) with dexamethasone, prednisolone or budesonide. In both species, high doses of GC caused hepatotoxicity. At a non-hepatotoxic dose, GC induced ileal Fgf15 down-regulation and liver Fgf21 up-regulation, without affecting Fxr expression...
June 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880488/the-weibel-palade-body-localized-snare-soluble-nsf-attachment-protein-receptor-syntaxin-3-modulates-von-willebrand-factor-secretion-from-endothelial-cells
#9
Maaike Schillemans, Ellie Karampini, Bart van den Eshof, Anastasia Gangaev, Menno Hofman, Dorothee van Breevoort, Henriët Meems, Hans Janssen, Aat A Mulder, Carolina R Jost, Johanna C Escher, Rüdiger Adam, Tom Carter, Abraham J Koster, Maartje van den Biggelaar, Jan Voorberg, Ruben Bierings
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cells store VWF (von Willebrand factor) in rod-shaped secretory organelles, called Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). WPB exocytosis is coordinated by a complex network of Rab GTPases, Rab effectors, and SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) proteins. We have previously identified STXBP1 as the link between the Rab27A-Slp4-a complex on WPBs and the SNARE proteins syntaxin-2 and -3. In this study, we investigate the function of syntaxin-3 in VWF secretion. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) from healthy controls, endogenous syntaxin-3 immunolocalized to WPBs...
June 7, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880388/epo-derivative-ara290-attenuates-early-renal-allograft-injury-in-rats-by-targeting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
H Zhang, S Gao, L Yan, G Zhu, Q Zhu, Y Gu, F Shao
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to analyze the protective role of ARA290 in early renal allograft injury by using a rat model of renal allograft. METHODS: Lewis rats were divided into 3 groups: sham, University of Wisconsin solution (UW), and ARA290. A rat model of renal allograft was established by anastomosis using a titanium ring pin stapler. The kidneys were removed 24 hours after transplantation to accomplish the following: (1) examine the protective effect of ARA290 on renal morphology and function; (2) investigate the underlying mechanism by determining the binding affinity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) to DNA by using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay; (3) observe the effect of ARA290 on macrophage infiltration using immunohistochemistry; and (4) detect messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inflammatory mediators by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
June 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875790/differential-suppression-of-nicotiana-benthamiana-innate-immune-responses-by-transiently-expressed-pseudomonas-syringae-type-iii-effectors
#11
Selena Gimenez-Ibanez, Dagmar R Hann, Jeff H Chang, Cécile Segonzac, Thomas Boller, John P Rathjen
The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects about 30 different virulence proteins, so-called effectors, via a type III secretion system into plant cells to promote disease. Although some of these effectors are known to suppress either pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI), the mode of action of most of them remains unknown. Here, we used transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana , to test the abilities of type III effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato ( Pto ) DC3000 and Pseudomonas syringae pv...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875760/inha1-mediated-cleavage-of-the-metalloprotease-npra-allows-bacillus-cereus-to-escape-from-macrophages
#12
Abbass Haydar, Seav-Ly Tran, Elisabeth Guillemet, Claire Darrigo, Stéphane Perchat, Didier Lereclus, Laurent Coquet, Thierry Jouenne, Nalini Ramarao
Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation in the host despite the induction of inflammation. To circumvent inflammation, bacteria must resist the bactericidal activity of professional phagocytes, which constitute a first line of host defense against pathogens. Interactions between phagocytic cells and B. cereus are still poorly characterized and the mechanism of resistance to the host immune system is not known yet...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868509/comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-virulent-and-attenuated-ehrlichia-ruminantium-strains-highlighted-strong-regulation-of-map1-and-metabolism-related-genes
#13
Ludovic Pruneau, Kevin Lebrigand, Bernard Mari, Thierry Lefrançois, Damien F Meyer, Nathalie Vachiery
The obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium, Ehrlichia ruminantium , is the causal agent of heartwater, a fatal disease in ruminants transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. So far, three strains have been attenuated by successive passages in mammalian cells. The attenuated strains have improved capacity for growth in vitro , whereas they induced limited clinical signs in vivo and conferred strong protection against homologous challenge. However, the mechanisms of pathogenesis and attenuation remain unknown. In order to improve knowledge of E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868501/the-loss-of-expression-of-a-single-type-3-effector-ct622-strongly-reduces-chlamydia-trachomatis-infectivity-and-growth
#14
Mathilde M Cossé, Michael L Barta, Derek J Fisher, Lena K Oesterlin, Béatrice Niragire, Stéphanie Perrinet, Gaël A Millot, P Scott Hefty, Agathe Subtil
Invasion of epithelial cells by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis results in its enclosure inside a membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The bacterium quickly begins manipulating interactions between host intracellular trafficking and the inclusion interface, diverging from the endocytic pathway and escaping lysosomal fusion. We have identified a previously uncharacterized protein, CT622, unique to the Chlamydiaceae , in the absence of which most bacteria failed to establish a successful infection...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866849/synthetic-bottom-up-approach-reveals-the-complex-interplay-of-shigella-effectors-in-regulation-of-epithelial-cell-death
#15
Xiangyu Mou, Skye Souter, Juan Du, Analise Z Reeves, Cammie F Lesser
Over the course of an infection, many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use complex nanomachines to directly inject tens to hundreds of proteins (effectors) into the cytosol of infected host cells. These effectors rewire processes to promote bacterial replication and spread. The roles of effectors in pathogenesis have traditionally been investigated by screening for phenotypes associated with their absence, a top-down approach that can be limited, as effectors often act in a functionally redundant or additive manner...
June 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864524/a-phytophthora-capsici-rxlr-effector-targets-and-inhibits-a-plant-ppiase-to-suppress-endoplasmic-reticulum-mediated-immunity
#16
Guangjin Fan, Yang Yang, Tingting Li, Wenqin Lu, Yu Du, Xiaoyu Qiang, Qujiang Wen, Weixing Shan
Phytophthora pathogens secrete a large arsenal of effectors that manipulate host processes to create an environment conducive to their colonization. However, the underlying mechanisms by which Phytophthora effectors manipulate host plant cells still remain largely unclear. In this study, we report that PcAvr3a12, a Phytophthora capsici RXLR effector and a member of the Avr3a effector family, suppresses plant immunity by targeting and inhibiting peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase). Overexpression of PcAvr3a12 in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced plant susceptibility to P...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859257/crystal-structure-and-substrate-specificity-of-exoy-a-unique-t3ss-mediated-secreted-nucleotidyl-cyclase-toxin-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Khanppnavar Basavraj, Datta Saumen
BACKGROUND: The nucleotidyl cyclase toxin ExoY is an important virulence determinant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that causes severe acute and chronic infections in immune-compromised individuals. Additionally, this unique T3SS effector shows a striking preference for cUMP, a newly identified non-canonical secondary messenger. Thereby, ExoY is also considered as a potential tool to study unexplored cUMP signaling pathways. METHODS: The crystal structure of ExoY was determined at 2...
May 30, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858276/crystal-structures-of-the-kinase-domain-of-ppka-a-key-regulatory-component-of-t6ss-reveal-a-general-inhibitory-mechanism
#18
Pengpeng Li, Dongqing Xu, Tiequn Ma, Daoying Wang, Weidong Li, Jianhua He, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile and widespread export system found in many Gram-negative bacteria that delivers effector proteins into target cells. The functions of T6SSs are tightly regulated by diverse mechanisms at multiple levels, including posttranslational modification through threonine phosphorylation via the Ser/Thr protein kinase (STPK) PpkA. Here, we identified that PpkA is essential for T6SS secretion in Serratia marcescens since its deletion eliminated the secretion of hemolysin coregulated protein (Hcp), while the periplasmic and transmembrane portion of PpkA was found to be disposable for T6SS secretion...
June 1, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851415/autoreactive-t-effector-memory-differentiation-mirrors-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-type-1-diabetes
#19
Lorraine Yeo, Alyssa Woodwyk, Sanjana Sood, Anna Lorenc, Martin Eichmann, Irma Pujol-Autonell, Rossella Melchiotti, Ania Skowera, Efthymios Fidanis, Garry M Dolton, Katie Tungatt, Andrew K Sewell, Susanne Heck, Alka Saxena, Craig A Beam, Mark Peakman
In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8 T cells with specificity for β-cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β-cell-reactive CD8 T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β-cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β-cell-reactive CD8 T cell subsets and measured β-cell function longitudinally for two years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851103/ericoid-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-their-genomes-another-side-to-the-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#20
REVIEW
Silvia Perotto, Stefania Daghino, Elena Martino
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. References SUMMARY: The genome of an organism bears the signature of its lifestyle, and organisms with similar life strategies are expected to share common genomic traits. Indeed, ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi share some genomic traits, such as the expansion of gene families encoding taxon-specific small secreted proteins, which are candidate effectors in the symbiosis, and a very small repertoire of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. A large gene family coding for candidate effectors was also revealed in ascomycetous ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) fungi, but these fungal genomes are characterised by a very high number of genes encoding degradative enzymes, mainly acting on plant cell wall components...
May 31, 2018: New Phytologist
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