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effector secreted protein

Wenwu Ye, Yang Wang, Brett M Tyler, Yuanchao Wang
Comparative genomic analysis is useful for identifying genes affected by evolutionary selection and for studying adaptive variation in gene functions. In Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen, the related study is lacking. We compared sequence data among four isolates of P. sojae, which represent its four major genotypes. These isolates exhibited >99.688%, >99.864%, and >98.981% sequence identities at genome, gene, and non-gene regions, respectively. One hundred and fifty-three positive selection and 139 negative selection candidate genes were identified...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jose Antonio Reales-Calderón, Catarina Vaz, Lucía Monteoliva, Gloria Molero, Concha Gil
The effectiveness of macrophages in the response to systemic candidiasis is crucial to an effective clearance of the pathogen. The secretion of proteins, mRNAs, non-coding RNAs and lipids through extracellular vesicles (EVs) is one of the mechanisms of communication between immune cells. EVs change their cargo to mediate different responses, and may play a role in the response against infections. Thus, we have undertaken the first quantitative proteomic analysis on the protein composition of THP1 macrophages-derived EVs during the interaction with Candida albicans...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Dinh Minh Tran, André Clément-Demange, Marine Déon, Dominique Garcia, Vincent Le Guen, Anne Clément-Vidal, Mouman Soumahoro, Aurélien Masson, Philippe Label, Mau Tuy Le, Valérie Pujade-Renaud
An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP...
2016: PloS One
Casey M Gries, Eric L Bruger, Derek E Moormeier, Tyler D Scherr, Christopher M Waters, Tammy Kielian
S. aureus is a leading cause of community- and nosocomial-acquired infections, with a propensity for biofilm formation. S. aureus biofilms actively skew the host immune response toward an anti-inflammatory state; however, the biofilm effector molecules and their mechanism(s) of action responsible for this phenomenon remain to be fully defined. The essential bacterial second messenger cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an emerging pathogen-associated molecular pattern during intracellular bacterial infections, where c-di-AMP secretion into the infected host cytosol induces a robust type I interferon (IFN) response...
October 10, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Peter J Christie
Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative and -positive bacteria employ type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) to translocate DNA and protein substrates, generally by contact-dependent mechanisms, to other cells. The T4SSs functionally encompass two major subfamilies, the conjugation systems and the effector translocators. The conjugation systems are responsible for interbacterial transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence determinants, and genes encoding other traits of potential benefit to the bacterial host...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Junlei Yin, Yun Chen, Xiaolei Xie, Jie Xia, Qiuchun Li, Shizhong Geng, Xinan Jiao
Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) can encode type III secretion system 2 (T3SS2) which plays an important role in systemic disease development through delivering different effector proteins into host cells. Here, the influence of Salmonella Pullorum pathogenicity island 2 on T3SS2 effetor gene expression was performed using qRT-PCR in chicken macrophage HD11 cells. Our results showed that all the detected genes (including pseudogenes sifB, sspH2 and steC) can express in HD11 cells of Salmonella Pullorum infection, deletion of SPI2 of Salmonella Pullorum did not significantly affect the expression of genes cigR, gtgA, slrP, sopD, sseK1, steB and steC, but had a significantly effect on the expression of genes pipB2, sifB, sopD2, sseJ, sseL, sspH2, steD, sifA, pipB and steA at different degrees...
October 13, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
J Zhang, Y Wang, H Guo, Z Mao, C Ge
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NB2011, the causative agent of visceral granulomas disease in farmed Larimichthys crocea in China, encodes a predicted type three effector PP_ExoU, a homolog of the cytotoxin ExoU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, secretion of PP_ExoU was tested in various broth, the protein was expressed with the pET30a prokaryotic system, the phospholipase A (PLA) activity of the recombinant protein was determined with fluorogenic phospholipid substrates, fusion expression with green fluorescent protein in transfected HeLa cells was investigated, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was measured...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Mahalakshmi Ramadass, Jennifer Linda Johnson, Sergio D Catz
Neutrophil secretory proteins are mediators of systemic inflammation in infection, trauma, and cancer. In response to specific inflammatory mediators, neutrophil granules are mobilized and cargo proteins released to modulate the microenvironment of inflammatory sites and tumors. In particular, GM-CSF, a cytokine secreted by several immune, nonimmune, and tumor cells, regulates neutrophil priming and exocytosis. Whereas a comprehensive understanding of this process is necessary to design appropriate anti-inflammatory therapies, the molecular effectors regulating GM-CSF-dependent priming of neutrophil exocytosis are currently unknown...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Tami Rubinek, Shiri Shahmoon, Ayelet Shabtay-Orbach, Michal Ben Ami, Yael Levy-Shraga, Kineret Mazor-Aronovitch, Yonatan Yeshayahu, Ram Doolman, Rina Hemi, Hannah Kanety, Ido Wolf, Dalit Modan-Moses
CONTEXT: Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys, which can be cleaved and shed to act as a circulating hormone. Several lines of evidence suggest a tight interaction between klotho and the GH-IGF-I axis. We showed previously that klotho levels are decreased in pediatric patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Our aim now is to investigate the effect of GH therapy on klotho levels in these patients and to elucidate the role of IGF-1 in mediating secretion of klotho...
November 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Xin-Guang Liu, Yu Liu, Feng Chen
Soluble fibrinogen-like protein 2 (sFGL2) is the soluble form of fibrinogen-like protein 2 belonging to the fibrinogen-related protein superfamily. It is now well characterized that sFGL2 is mainly secreted by regulatory T cell (Treg) populations, and exerts potently immunosuppressive activities. By repressing not only the differentiation and proliferation of T cells but also the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), sFGL2 acts largely as an immunosuppressant. Moreover, sFGL2 also induces apoptosis of B cells, tubular epithelial cells (TECs), sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), and hepatocytes...
October 8, 2016: Oncotarget
Huakun Zheng, Simiao Chen, Xiaofeng Chen, Shuyan Liu, Xie Dang, Chengdong Yang, Martha C Giraldo, Ely Oliveira-Garcia, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang, Barbara Valent
The Rab GTPase proteins play important roles in the membrane trafficking, and consequently protein secretion and development of eukaryotic organisms. However, little is known about the function of Rab GTPases in Magnaporthe oryzae. To further explore the function of Rab GTPases, we deleted the ortholog of the yeast Sec4p protein in M. oryzae, namely MoSEC4. The ΔMosec4 mutant is defective in polarized growth and conidiation, and it displays decreased appressorium turgor pressure and attenuated pathogenicity...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Habiba Ennouri, Paul d'Abzac, Florence Hakil, Priscilla Branchu, Murielle Naïtali, Anne-Marie Lomenech, Rhida Oueslati, Jacques Desbrières, Pierre Sivadon, Régis Grimaud
The assimilation of the nearly water insoluble substrates hydrocarbons and lipids by bacteria entails specific adaptations such as the formation of oleolytic biofilms. The present article reports that the extracellular matrix of an oleolytic biofilm formed by Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus at n-hexadecane-water interfaces is largely composed of proteins typically cytoplasmic such as translation factors and chaperones, and a lesser amount of proteins of unknown function that are predicted extra-cytoplasmic...
October 11, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Gillian M Griffiths
Many cells of the myeloid lineage use an unusual secretory organelle to deliver their effector mechanisms. In these cells, the lysosomal compartment is often modified not only to fulfill the degradative functions of a lysosome but also as a mechanism for secreting additional proteins that are found in the lysosomes of each specialized cell type. These extra proteins vary from one cell type to another according to the specialized function of the cell. For example, mast cells package histamine; cytotoxic T cells express perforin; azurophilic granules in neutrophils express antimicrobial peptides, and platelets von Willebrand factor...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Wojciech Cypryk, Martina B Lorey, Anne Puustinen, Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are aggressive pathogens that cause acute respiratory diseases and annual epidemics in humans. Host defense against IAV infection is initiated by macrophages, which are the principal effector cells of the innate immune system. We have previously shown that IAV infection of human macrophages is associated with robust secretion of proteins via conventional and unconventional protein release pathways. Here we have characterized unconventional, extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated protein secretion in human macrophages during IAV infection using proteomics, bioinformatics and functional studies...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Libera Lo Presti, Bernd Zechmann, Jochen Kumlehn, Liang Liang, Daniel Lanver, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Ralph Bock, Regine Kahmann
Successful colonization of plants by prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens requires active effector-mediated suppression of defense responses and host tissue reprogramming. Secreted effector proteins can either display their activity in the apoplast or translocate into host cells and function therein. Although characterized in bacteria, the molecular mechanisms of effector delivery by fungal phytopathogens remain elusive. Here we report the establishment of an assay that is based on biotinylation of effectors in the host cytoplasm as hallmark of uptake...
September 26, 2016: New Phytologist
Isabel E Olivera, Katrina C Fins, Sara A Rodriguez, Sumayyah K Abiff, Jaime L Tartar, Aurélien Tartar
BACKGROUND: Although interest in animal pathogenic oomycetes is increasing, the molecular basis mediating oomycete-animal relationships remains virtually unknown. Crinkler (CRN) genes, which have been traditionally associated with the cytotoxic activity displayed by plant pathogenic oomycetes, were recently detected in transcriptome sequences from the entomopathogenic oomycete Lagenidium giganteum, suggesting that these genes may represent virulence factors conserved in both animal and plant pathogenic oomycetes...
October 6, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Punsiri M Colonne, Caylin G Winchell, Daniel E Voth
Intracellular bacterial pathogens replicate within eukaryotic cells and display unique adaptations that support key infection events including invasion, replication, immune evasion, and dissemination. From invasion to dissemination, all stages of the intracellular bacterial life cycle share the same three-dimensional cytosolic space containing the host cytoskeleton. For successful infection and replication, many pathogens hijack the cytoskeleton using effector proteins introduced into the host cytosol by specialized secretion systems...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Tatyana Goldberg, Burkhard Rost, Yana Bromberg
Type III secretion system is a key bacterial symbiosis and pathogenicity mechanism responsible for a variety of infectious diseases, ranging from food-borne illnesses to the bubonic plague. In many Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system transports effector proteins into host cells, converting resources to bacterial advantage. Here we introduce a computational method that identifies type III effectors by combining homology-based inference with de novo predictions, reaching up to 3-fold higher performance than existing tools...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Punsiri M Colonne, Caylin G Winchell, Joseph G Graham, Frances I Onyilagha, Laura J MacDonald, Heike R Doeppler, Peter Storz, Richard C Kurten, Paul A Beare, Robert A Heinzen, Daniel E Voth
Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Takeshi Nishimura, Susumu Mochizuki, Naoko Ishii-Minami, Yukiko Fujisawa, Yoshihiro Kawahara, Yuri Yoshida, Kazunori Okada, Sugihiro Ando, Hideo Matsumura, Ryohei Terauchi, Eiichi Minami, Yoko Nishizawa
Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus causing rice blast disease, should contend with host innate immunity to develop invasive hyphae (IH) within living host cells. However, molecular strategies to establish the biotrophic interactions are largely unknown. Here, we report the biological function of a M. oryzae-specific gene, Required-for-Focal-BIC-Formation 1 (RBF1). RBF1 expression was induced in appressoria and IH only when the fungus was inoculated to living plant tissues. Long-term successive imaging of live cell fluorescence revealed that the expression of RBF1 was upregulated each time the fungus crossed a host cell wall...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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