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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666285/type-ii-secretion-dependent-aminopeptidase-lapa-and-acyltransferase-plac-are-redundant-for-nutrient-acquisition-during-legionella-pneumophila-intracellular-infection-of-amoebas
#1
Richard C White, Felizza F Gunderson, Jessica Y Tyson, Katherine H Richardson, Theo J Portlock, James A Garnett, Nicholas P Cianciotto
Legionella pneumophila genes encoding LapA, LapB, and PlaC were identified as the most highly upregulated type II secretion (T2S) genes during infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii , although these genes had been considered dispensable on the basis of the behavior of mutants lacking either lapA and lapB or plaC A plaC mutant showed even higher levels of lapA and lapB transcripts, and a lapA lapB mutant showed heightening of plaC mRNA levels, suggesting that the role of the LapA/B aminopeptidase is compensatory with respect to that of the PlaC acyltransferase...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665235/genome-wide-identification-of-long-non-coding-rnas-suggests-a-potential-association-with-effector-gene-transcription-in-phytophthora-sojae
#2
Yang Wang, Wenwu Ye, Yuanchao Wang
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) identified and characterized in mammals, plants, and fungi have been found to play critical regulatory roles in biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in oomycete plant pathogens, which cause devastating damage to the economy and ecosystems. We used strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate a computational pipeline to identify lncRNAs in Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen. In total, 940 lncRNAs with 1,010 isoforms were identified from RNA-seq data obtained from four representative stages of P...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663402/global-analysis-of-sumoylation-function-reveals-novel-insights-into-development-and-appressorium-mediated-infection-of-the-rice-blast-fungus
#3
Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660331/biophysical-characterization-of-actin-bundles-generated-by-the-chlamydia-trachomatis-tarp-effector
#4
Susmita Ghosh, Jinho Park, Mitchell Thomas, Edgar Cruz, Omar Cardona, Hyeran Kang, Travis Jewett
Chlamydia trachomatis entry into host cells is mediated by pathogen-directed remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. The chlamydial type III secreted effector, translocated actin recruiting phosphoprotein (Tarp), has been implicated in the recruitment of actin to the site of internalization. Tarp harbors G-actin binding and proline rich domains required for Tarp-mediated actin nucleation as well as unique F-actin binding domains implicated in the formation of actin bundles. Little is known about the mechanical properties of actin bundles generated by Tarp or the mechanism by which Tarp mediates actin bundle formation...
April 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659599/profiling-extracellular-vesicle-release-by-the-filarial-nematode-brugia-malayi-reveals-sex-specific-differences-in-cargo-and-a-sensitivity-to-ivermectin
#5
Hiruni Harischandra, Wang Yuan, Hannah J Loghry, Mostafa Zamanian, Michael J Kimber
The filarial nematode Brugia malayi is an etiological agent of Lymphatic Filariasis. The capability of B. malayi and other parasitic nematodes to modulate host biology is recognized but the mechanisms by which such manipulation occurs are obscure. An emerging paradigm is the release of parasite-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) containing bioactive proteins and small RNA species that allow secretion of parasite effector molecules and their potential trafficking to host tissues. We have previously described EV release from the infectious L3 stage B...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652910/elderly-dendritic-cells-respond-to-lps-ifn-%C3%AE-and-cd40l-stimulation-despite-incomplete-maturation
#6
Joanne K Gardner, Scott M J Cornwall, Arthur W Musk, John Alvarez, Cyril D S Mamotte, Connie Jackaman, Anna K Nowak, Delia J Nelson
There is evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) undergo age-related changes that modulate their function with their key role being priming antigen-specific effector T cells. This occurs once DCs develop into antigen-presenting cells in response to stimuli/danger signals. However, the effects of aging on DC responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and CD40 ligand (CD40L) have not yet been systematically evaluated. We examined responses of blood myeloid (m)DC1s, mDC2s, plasmacytoid (p)DCs, and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) from young (21-40 years) and elderly (60-84 years) healthy human volunteers to LPS/IFN-γ or CD40L stimulation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651716/super-secondary-structure-consisting-of-a-polyproline-ii-helix-and-a-%C3%AE-turn-in-leucine-rich-repeats-in-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-system-effectors
#7
Dashdavaa Batkhishig, Khurelbaatar Bilguun, Purevjav Enkhbayar, Hiroki Miyashita, Robert H Kretsinger, Norio Matsushima
Leucine rich repeats (LRRs) are present in over 100,000 proteins from viruses to eukaryotes. The LRRs are 20-30 residues long and occur in tandem. LRRs form parallel stacks of short β-strands and then assume a super helical arrangement called a solenoid structure. Individual LRRs are separated into highly conserved segment (HCS) with the consensus of LxxLxLxxNxL and variable segment (VS). Eight classes have been recognized. Bacterial LRRs are short and characterized by two prolines in the VS; the consensus is xxLPxLPxx with Nine residues (N-subtype) and xxLPxxLPxx with Ten residues (T-subtype)...
April 12, 2018: Protein Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643078/-ehrlichia-chaffeensis-trp75-interacts-with-host-cell-targets-involved-in-homeostasis-cytoskeleton-organization-and-apoptosis-regulation-to-promote-infection
#8
Tian Luo, Shubhajit Mitra, Jere W McBride
Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligately intracellular bacterium that exhibits tropism for mononuclear phagocytes. The mechanisms involved in E. chaffeensis infection of the host cell and evasion of host defenses are not fully defined, but a subset of type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP) effectors play important roles. Recently, we determined molecular interactions of TRP120, TRP47, and TRP32 with the eukaryotic host cell. In this investigation, we used yeast two-hybrid analysis to reveal that another E...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626371/phosphodiesterase-pded-dynacortin-and-a-kelch-repeat-containing-protein-are-direct-gsk3-substrates-in-dictyostelium-that-contribute-to-chemotaxis-towards-camp
#9
Kimberly Baumgardner, Connie Lin, Richard A Firtel, Jesus Lacal
The migration of cells according to a diffusible chemical signal in their environment is called chemotaxis, and the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is widely used for the study of eukaryotic chemotaxis. Dictyostelium must sense chemicals, such as cAMP, secreted during starvation to move toward the sources of the signal. Previous work demonstrated that the gskA gene encodes the Dictyostelium homologue of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase, which plays a major role in the regulation of Dictyostelium chemotaxis...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624684/the-ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete-laccaria-bicolor-releases-a-secreted-%C3%AE-1-4-endoglucanase-that-plays-a-key-role-in-symbiosis-development
#10
Feng Zhang, George E Anasontzis, Aurore Labourel, Charlotte Champion, Mireille Haon, Minna Kemppainen, Carine Commun, Aurélie Deveau, Alejandro Pardo, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Annegret Kohler, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Bernard Henrissat, Jean-Guy Berrin, Francis Martin
In ectomycorrhiza, root ingress and colonization of the apoplast by colonizing hyphae is thought to rely mainly on the mechanical force that results from hyphal tip growth, but this could be enhanced by secretion of cell-wall-degrading enzymes, which have not yet been identified. The sole cellulose-binding module (CBM1) encoded in the genome of the ectomycorrhizal Laccaria bicolor is linked to a glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) endoglucanase, LbGH5-CBM1. Here, we characterize LbGH5-CBM1 gene expression and the biochemical properties of its protein product...
April 6, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618461/lessons-from-the-crypt-hmga1-amping-up-wnt-for-stem-cells-and-tumor-progression
#11
REVIEW
Linda Resar, Lionel Chia, Lingling Xian
High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) chromatin remodeling proteins are enriched in aggressive cancers and stem cells, although their common function in these settings has remained elusive until now. Recent work in murine intestinal stem cells (ISC) revealed a novel role for Hmga1 in enhancing self-renewal by amplifying Wnt signaling, both by inducing genes expressing Wnt agonist receptors and Wnt effectors. Surprisingly, Hmga1 also "builds" a stem cell niche by upregulating Sox9 , a factor required for differentiation to Paneth cells; these cells constitute an epithelial niche by secreting Wnt and other factors to support ISCs...
April 4, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617808/novel-aspects-of-the-assembly-and-activation-of-inflammasomes-with-focus-on-the-nlrc4-inflammasome
#12
William G Fusco, Joseph A Duncan
Inflammasomes are multiprotein structures that activate caspase-1, support secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and also induce inflammatory programmed cell death, termed pyoptosis. Inflammasomes are activated in response to the detection of endogenous and microbially derived danger signals and are mediated by several classes of inflammasome-forming sensors. These include several nucleotide-binding proteins of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, including NLRP1, NLRP3 and NLRC4, as well as the proteins Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) and Pyrin...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616746/interleukin-21-treatment-in-a-murine-model-as-a-novel-potential-cytokine-immunotherapy-for-colon-cancer
#13
Chen Chen, Xiaoning Liu, Yi Ren
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 21 (IL-21), which belongs to the common γ-chain (γc) family, is a novel tumor suppressor that has been shown to affect T-cell proliferation, survival and function. However, the role of IL-21 in colon cancer remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether IL-21 could inhibit the progression of colon cancer in mice; we also explored the mechanisms underlying the immunological effects of IL-21 in colon cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Exogenous IL-21 protein was expressed to treat tumor-bearing mice and the production of cytokine interleukin 4, interferon gamma and lambda from CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and NK cells were measured, along with the survival times of these tumor-bearing mice...
March 21, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616194/heterologous-complementation-studies-with-the-yscx-and-yscy-protein-families-reveals-a-specificity-for-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-type-iii-secretion
#14
Jyoti M Gurung, Ayad A A Amer, Monika K Francis, Tiago R D Costa, Shiyun Chen, Anton V Zavialov, Matthew S Francis
Type III secretion systems harbored by several Gram-negative bacteria are often used to deliver host-modulating effectors into infected eukaryotic cells. About 20 core proteins are needed for assembly of a secretion apparatus. Several of these proteins are genetically and functionally conserved in type III secretion systems of bacteria associated with invertebrate or vertebrate hosts. In the Ysc family of type III secretion systems are two poorly characterized protein families, the YscX family and the YscY family...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610339/the-vibrio-cholerae-type-vi-secretion-system-can-modulate-host-intestinal-mechanics-to-displace-gut-bacterial-symbionts
#15
Savannah L Logan, Jacob Thomas, Jinyuan Yan, Ryan P Baker, Drew S Shields, Joao B Xavier, Brian K Hammer, Raghuveer Parthasarathy
Host-associated microbiota help defend against bacterial pathogens; however, the mechanisms by which pathogens overcome this defense remain largely unknown. We developed a zebrafish model and used live imaging to directly study how the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae invades the intestine. The gut microbiota of fish monocolonized by symbiotic strain Aeromonas veronii was displaced by V. cholerae expressing its type VI secretion system (T6SS), a syringe-like apparatus that deploys effector proteins into target cells...
April 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610274/the-em-salmonella-em-effectors-ssef-and-sseg-inhibit-rab1a-mediated-autophagy-to-facilitate-intracellular-bacterial-survival-and-replication
#16
Zhao-Zhong Feng, An-Jie Jiang, An-Wen Mao, Yuhan Feng, Weinan Wang, Jingjing Li, Xiaoyan Zhang, Ke Xing, Xue Peng
In mammalian cells, autophagy plays crucial roles in restricting further spread of invading bacterial pathogens. Previous studies have established that the Salmonella virulence factors SseF and SseG are required for intracellular bacterial survival and replication. However, the underlying mechanism by which these two effectors facilitate bacterial infection remains elusive. Here, we report that SseF and SseG secreted by Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inhibit autophagy in host cells and thereby establish a replicative niche for the bacteria in the cytosol...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602783/quantitative-imaging-flow-cytometry-of-legionella-infected-dictyostelium-reveals-the-impact-of-retrograde-trafficking-on-pathogen-vacuole-composition
#17
Amanda Welin, Stephen Weber, Hubert Hilbi
The ubiquitous environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila survives and replicates within amoebae and human macrophages by forming a Legionella -containing vacuole (LCV). In an intricate process governed by the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and a plethora of "effector proteins" the nascent LCV interferes with a number of intracellular trafficking pathways, including retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Conserved retrograde trafficking components such as the retromer coat complex or the phosphoinositide (PI) 5-phosphatase Dd5P4/OCRL restrict intracellular replication of L...
March 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602283/korean-mistletoe-lectin-enhances-natural-killer-cell-cytotoxicity-via-upregulation-of-perforin-expression
#18
Younghoon Kim, Inbo Kim, Choon-Ho Park, Jong Bae Kim
BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system, providing the first line of defense against pathogens. In a previous study, we demonstrated prophylactic activity of water extract of Korean mistletoe (Viscum album coloratum) on tumor metastasis. However, the leading compound from water extract of Korean mistletoe was not clearly addressed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was mainly focused on addressing the effect of Korean mistletoe lectin (KMLC) on NK cell cytotoxicity, and the ability of cytokine secretion as well as its signal transduction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
March 31, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601603/the-bacterial-type-iii-secreted-protein-avrrps4-is-a-bipartite-effector
#19
Morgan K Halane, Sang Hee Kim, Benjamin J Spears, Christopher M Garner, Conner J Rogan, Elizabeth C Okafor, Jianbin Su, Saikat Bhattacharjee, Walter Gassmann
Bacterial effector proteins secreted into host plant cells manipulate those cells to the benefit of the pathogen, but effector-triggered immunity (ETI) occurs when effectors are recognized by host resistance proteins. The RPS4/RRS1 pair recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi effector AvrRps4. AvrRps4 is processed in planta into AvrRps4N (133 amino acids), homologous to the N-termini of other effectors including the native P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 effector HopK1, and AvrRps4C (88 amino acids)...
March 30, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601470/influence-of-intestinal-microbiota-transplantation-and-nleh-expression-on-citrobacter-rodentium-colonization-of-mice
#20
Gaochan Wang, Leigh Ann Feuerbacher, Philip R Hardwidge
The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in regulating host resistance to enteric pathogens. The relative abundance of the microbiota is dependent upon both genetic and environmental factors. The attaching and effacing pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli , enterohemorrhagic E. coli , and Citrobacter rodentium cause diarrheal disease and translocate type III secretion system effector proteins into host cells to inhibit pro-inflammatory host responses. Here we determined the influence of both the intestinal microbiota and the expression of the C...
March 30, 2018: Pathogens
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