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effector secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081441/warfare-between-host-immunity-and-bacterial-weapons
#1
Manda Yu, Erh-Min Lai
Bacterial pathogens deploy protein secretion systems to facilitate infection and colonization of their hosts. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Chen et al. (2017) report a new role for a type VI secretion effector in promoting bacterial colonization by preventing inflammasome activation induced by a type III secretion system.
January 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076886/the-ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete-hebeloma-cylindrosporum-undergoes-early-waves-of-transcriptional-reprogramming-prior-to-symbiotic-structures-differentiation
#2
Jeanne Doré, Annegret Kohler, Audrey Dubost, Hope Hundley, Vasanth Singan, Yi Peng, Alan Kuo, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis Martin, Roland Marmeisse, And Gilles Gay
To clarify the early molecular interaction between ectomycorrhizal partners, we performed a RNA-Seq study of transcriptome reprogramming of the basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum before symbiotic structure differentiation with Pinus pinaster. Mycorrhiza transcriptome was studied for comparison. By reference to asymbiotic mycelium, 47 and 46 genes were specifically up-regulated over five-fold (p≤0.05) upon rhizosphere colonization and root adhesion respectively. Other 45 were up-regulated throughout the symbiotic interaction, from rhizosphere colonization to differentiated mycorrhizas, whereas 274 were specifically up-regulated in mycorrhizas...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073340/a-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-putative-pathogenicity-genes-in-the-host-specific-sibling-species-colletotrichum-graminicola-and-colletotrichum-sublineola
#3
E A S Buiate, K V Xavier, N Moore, M F Torres, M L Farman, C L Schardl, L J Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069818/ssek1-and-ssek3-t3ss-effectors-inhibit-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-and-necroptotic-cell-death-in-salmonella-infected-macrophages
#4
Regina A Günster, Sophie A Matthews, David W Holden, Teresa L M Thurston
Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane using the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously it has been shown that when expressed ectopically the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit TNFα-induced NF-κB activation. In this study we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2 and SseK3 suppressed TNFα-, but not TLR4-, or interleukin-induced NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif, which in SseK1 and SseK3 is essential for protein Arginine-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-ylation...
January 9, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069632/a-few-sequence-polymorphisms-among-isolates-of-maize-bushy-stunt-phytoplasma-associate-with-organ-proliferation-symptoms-of-infected-maize-plants
#5
Zigmunds Orlovskis, Maria Cristina Canale, Mindia Haryono, João Roberto Spotti Lopes, Chih-Horng Kuo, Saskia A Hogenhout
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP) is a bacterial pathogen of maize (Zea mays L.) across Latin America. MBSP belongs to the 16SrI-B sub-group within the genus 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'. MBSP and its insect vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) are restricted to maize; both are thought to have coevolved with maize during its domestication from a teosinte-like ancestor. MBSP-infected maize plants show a diversity of symptoms. and it is likely that MBSP is under strong selection for increased virulence and insect transmission on maize hybrids that are widely grown in Brazil...
January 9, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067236/identification-of-microsporidia-host-exposed-proteins-reveals-a-repertoire-of-rapidly-evolving-proteins
#6
Aaron W Reinke, Keir M Balla, Eric J Bennett, Emily R Troemel
Pathogens use a variety of secreted and surface proteins to interact with and manipulate their hosts, but a systematic approach for identifying such proteins has been lacking. To identify these 'host-exposed' proteins, we used spatially restricted enzymatic tagging followed by mass spectrometry analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with two species of Nematocida microsporidia. We identified 82 microsporidia proteins inside of intestinal cells, including several pathogen proteins in the nucleus. These microsporidia proteins are enriched in targeting signals, are rapidly evolving and belong to large Nematocida-specific gene families...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063015/innate-immunity-against-legionella-pneumophila-during-pulmonary-infections-in-mice
#7
REVIEW
Bonggoo Park, Gayoung Park, Jiyoung Kim, Seon Ah Lim, Kyung-Mi Lee
Legionella pneumophila is an etiological agent of the severe pneumonia known as Legionnaires' disease (LD). This gram-negative bacterium is thought to replicate naturally in various freshwater amoebae, but also replicates in human alveolar macrophages. Inside host cells, legionella induce the production of non-endosomal replicative phagosomes by injecting effector proteins into the cytosol. Innate immune responses are first line defenses against legionella during early phases of infection, and distinguish between legionella and host cells using germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors , NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are absent in host cells...
January 6, 2017: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060924/the-effector-domain-region-of-the-vibrio-vulnificus-martx-toxin-confers-biphasic-epithelial-barrier-disruption-and-is-essential-for-systemic-spread-from-the-intestine
#8
Hannah E Gavin, Nike T Beubier, Karla J F Satchell
Vibrio vulnificus causes highly lethal bacterial infections in which the Multifunctional Autoprocessing Repeats-in-Toxins (MARTX) toxin product of the rtxA1 gene is a key virulence factor. MARTX toxins are secreted proteins up to 5208 amino acids in size. Conserved MARTX N- and C-terminal repeat regions work in concert to form pores in eukaryotic cell membranes, through which the toxin's central region of modular effector domains is translocated. Upon inositol hexakisphosphate-induced activation of the of the MARTX cysteine protease domain (CPD) in the eukaryotic cytosol, effector domains are released from the holotoxin by autoproteolytic activity...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060574/the-hcp-proteins-fused-with-diverse-extended-toxin-domains-represent-a-novel-pattern-of-antibacterial-effectors-in-type-vi-secretion-systems
#9
Jiale Ma, Zihao Pan, Jinhu Huang, Min Sun, Chengping Lu, Huochun Yao
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a widespread molecular weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target eukaryotic host cells or rival bacteria. Using a dynamic injection mechanism, diverse effectors can be delivered by T6SS directly into recipient cells. Here, we report a new family of T6SS effectors encoded by extended Hcps carrying diverse toxin domains. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that these Hcps with C-terminal extension toxins, designated as Hcp-ET, exist widely in the Enterobacteriaceae...
January 6, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056815/comparative-genomics-of-host-adaptive-traits-in-xanthomonas-translucens-pv-graminis
#10
Lena Hersemann, Daniel Wibberg, Jochen Blom, Alexander Goesmann, Franco Widmer, Frank-Jörg Vorhölter, Roland Kölliker
BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas translucens pathovars differ in their individual host ranges among Poaceae. As the causal agent of bacterial wilt in Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), X. translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is one of the most important bacterial pathogens in temperate grassland regions. The genomes of six Xtg strains from Switzerland, Norway, and New Zealand were sequenced in order to gain insight into conserved genomic traits from organisms covering a wide geographical range...
January 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053099/hcmv-specific-cd4-t-cells-are-poly-functional-and-can-respond-to-hcmv-infected-dendritic-cells-in-vitro
#11
Sarah E Jackson, George X Sedikides, Gavin M Mason, Georgina Okecha, Mark R Wills
: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and periodic re-activation is generally well controlled by the HCMV-specific T cell response in healthy people. While the CD8+ T cell response to HCMV has been extensively studied, the HCMV-specific CD4+ T cell effector response is not as well understood, especially in the context of direct interactions with HCMV infected cells. We screened the IFNγ and IL-10 response to 6 HCMV peptide pools (selected as the most frequently responded to in our previous studies: pp65, pp71, IE1, IE2, gB and US3) in 84 donors, aged 23 - 74 years...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049510/identification-of-host-proteins-interacting-with-toxoplasma-gondii-gra15-tggra15-by-yeast-two-hybrid-system
#12
Qing Liu, Fa-Cai Li, Hany M Elsheikha, Miao-Miao Sun, Xing-Quan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, possesses the remarkable ability to co-opt host cell machinery in order to maintain its intracellular survival. This parasite can modulate signaling pathways of its host through the secretion of polymorphic effector proteins localized in the rhoptry and dense granule organelles. One of such effectors is T. gondii type II-specific dense granule protein 15, TgGRA15, which activates NF-κB pathway. The aim of the present study was to identify the host interaction partner proteins of TgGRA15...
January 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049143/the-ruler-protein-escp-of-the-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-is-involved-in-calcium-sensing-and-secretion-hierarchy-regulation-by-interacting-with-the-gatekeeper-protein-sepl
#13
Lihi Shaulov, Jenia Gershberg, Wanyin Deng, B Brett Finlay, Neta Sal-Man
: The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a multiprotein complex that plays a central role in the virulence of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. To ensure that effector proteins are efficiently translocated into the host cell, bacteria must be able to sense their contact with the host cell. In this study, we found that EscP, which was previously shown to function as the ruler protein of the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli T3SS, is also involved in the switch from the secretion of translocator proteins to the secretion of effector proteins...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042331/comprehensive-metaproteomic-analyses-of-urine-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-neutrophil-associated-inflammation-in-the-urinary-tract
#14
Yanbao Yu, Patricia Sikorski, Madeline Smith, Cynthia Bowman-Gholston, Nicolas Cacciabeve, Karen E Nelson, Rembert Pieper
Inflammation in the urinary tract results in a urinary proteome characterized by a high dynamic range of protein concentrations and high variability in protein content. This proteome encompasses plasma proteins not resorbed by renal tubular uptake, renal secretion products, proteins of immune cells and erythrocytes derived from trans-urothelial migration and vascular leakage, respectively, and exfoliating urothelial and squamous epithelial cells. We examined how such proteins partition into soluble urine (SU) and urinary pellet (UP) fractions by analyzing 33 urine specimens 12 of which were associated with a urinary tract infection (UTI)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039361/characterization-of-the-ruler-protein-interaction-interface-on-the-substrate-specificity-switch-protein-in-the-yersinia-type-iii-secretion-system
#15
Oanh Ho, Per Rogne, Tomas Edgren, Hans Wolf-Watz, Frédéric H Login, Magnus Wolf-Watz
Many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use the type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. In Yersinia the switch to secretion of effector proteins is induced first after that intimate contact between the bacterium and its eukaryotic target cell has been established and the T3SS proteins YscP and YscU are playing a central role in this process. Here we identify the molecular details of the YscP binding site on YscU by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038472/secreted-heat-shock-protein-90-promotes-prostate-cancer-stem-cell-heterogeneity
#16
Krystal D Nolan, Jasmine Kaur, Jennifer S Isaacs
Heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a highly conserved molecular chaperone, is frequently upregulated in tumors, and remains an attractive anti-cancer target. Hsp90 is also found extracellularly, particularly in tumor models. Although extracellular Hsp90 (eHsp90) action is not well defined, eHsp90 targeting attenuates tumor invasion and metastasis, supporting its unique role in tumor progression. We herein investigated the potential role of eHsp90 as a modulator of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in prostate cancer (PCa)...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034799/impact-of-biotic-and-abiotic-factors-on-the-expression-of-fungal-effector-encoding-genes-in-axenic-growth-conditions
#17
Michel Meyer, Salim Bourras, Julie Gervais, Karine Labadie, Corinne Cruaud, Marie-Hélène Balesdent, Thierry Rouxel
In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L...
December 26, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031408/predictive-outcomes-for-her2-enriched-cancer-using-growth-and-metastasis-signatures-driven-by-sparc
#18
Leandro N Guttlein, Lorena G Benedetti, Cristobal Fresno, Raul G Spallanzani, Sabrina F Mansilla, Cecilia Rotondaro, Ximena L Raffo Iraolagoitia, Edgardo Salvatierra, Alicia I Bravo, Elmer A Fernandez, Vanessa Gottifredi, Norberto W Zwirner, Andrea S Llera, Osvaldo L Podhajcer
: Understanding the mechanism of metastatic dissemination is crucial for the rational design of novel therapeutics. The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular glycoprotein which has been extensively associated with human breast cancer aggressiveness although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Here, shRNA-mediated SPARC knockdown greatly reduced primary tumor growth and completely abolished lung colonization of murine 4T1 and LM3 breast malignant cells implanted in syngeneic BALB/c mice...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028452/burkholderia-pseudomallei-type-iii-secreted-protein-bipc-role-in-actin-modulation-and-translocation-activities-required-for-the-bacterial-intracellular-lifecycle
#19
Wen Tyng Kang, Kumutha Malar Vellasamy, Lakshminarayanan Rajamani, Roger W Beuerman, Jamuna Vadivelu
Melioidosis, an infection caused by the facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, has been classified as an emerging disease with the number of patients steadily increasing at an alarming rate. B. pseudomalleipossess various virulence determinants that allow them to invade the host and evade the host immune response, such as the type III secretion systems (TTSS). The products of this specialized secretion system are particularly important for the B. pseudomallei infection. Lacking in one or more components of the TTSS demonstrated different degrees of defects in the intracellular lifecycle of B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019708/revealing-the-inventory-of-type-iii-effectors-in-pantoea-agglomerans-gall-forming-pathovars-by-using-draft-genome-sequences-and-a-machine-learning-approach
#20
Gal Nissan, Michael Gershovits, Michael Morozov, Laura Chalupowicz, Guido Sessa, Shulamit Manulis-Sasson, Isaac Barash, Tal Pupko
Pantoea agglomerans, a widespread epiphytic bacterium, has evolved into a hrp-dependent and host-specific gall-forming pathogen by acquiring a pathogenicity plasmid containing a type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effectors (T3Es). P. agglomerans pv. betae (Pab) elicits galls on beet (Beta vulgaris) and gypsophila (Gypsophila paniculata), whereas P. agglomerans pv. gypsophilae (Pag) incites galls on gypsophila and hypersensitive response (HR) on beet. Draft genome sequences were generated and employed in combination with a machine learning approach and a translocation assay into beet roots to identify the pools of T3Es in the two pathovars...
December 26, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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