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fungi secreted protein

Simone Wicki, Ursina Gurzeler, W Wei-Lynn Wong, Philipp J Jost, Daniel Bachmann, Thomas Kaufmann
Neutrophils are essential players in the first-line defense against invading bacteria and fungi. Besides its antiapoptotic role, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member X-linked IAP (XIAP) has been shown to regulate innate immune signaling. Whereas the role of XIAP in innate signaling pathways is derived mostly from work in macrophages and dendritic cells, it is not known if and how XIAP contributes to these pathways in neutrophils. Here we show that in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), mouse neutrophils secreted considerable amounts of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and, in accordance with earlier reports, XIAP prevented LPS-induced hypersecretion of IL-1β also in neutrophils...
October 13, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
David Vela-Corcía, Rocío Bautista, Antonio de Vicente, Pietro D Spanu, Alejandro Pérez-García
The cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera xanthii is a major limiting factor for cucurbit production worldwide. Despite the fungus's agronomic and economic importance, very little is known about fundamental aspects of P. xanthii biology, such as obligate biotrophy or pathogenesis. To design more durable control strategies, genomic information about P. xanthii is needed. Powdery mildews are fungal pathogens with large genomes compared with those of other fungi, which contain vast amounts of repetitive DNA sequences, much of which is composed of retrotransposons...
2016: PloS One
José F Muñoz, Rhys A Farrer, Christopher A Desjardins, Juan E Gallo, Sean Sykes, Sharadha Sakthikumar, Elizabeth Misas, Emily A Whiston, Eduardo Bagagli, Celia M A Soares, Marcus de M Teixeira, John W Taylor, Oliver K Clay, Juan G McEwen, Christina A Cuomo
The Paracoccidioides genus includes two species of thermally dimorphic fungi that cause paracoccidioidomycosis, a neglected health-threatening human systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. To examine the genome evolution and the diversity of Paracoccidioides spp., we conducted whole-genome sequencing of 31 isolates representing the phylogenetic, geographic, and ecological breadth of the genus. These samples included clinical, environmental and laboratory reference strains of the S1, PS2, PS3, and PS4 lineages of P...
September 2016: MSphere
Mingsheng Qi, Tobias I Link, Manuel Müller, Daniela Hirschburger, Ramesh N Pudake, Kerry F Pedley, Edward Braun, Ralf T Voegele, Thomas J Baum, Steven A Whitham
The Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an obligate biotrophic pathogen causing severe soybean disease epidemics. Molecular mechanisms by which P. pachyrhizi and other rust fungi interact with their host plants are poorly understood. The genomes of all rust fungi encode many small, secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCRP). While these proteins are thought to function within the host, their roles are completely unknown. Here, we present the characterization of P. pachyrhizi effector candidate 23 (PpEC23), a SSCRP that we show to suppress plant immunity...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Qing Sun, Xiliang Jiang, Li Pang, Lirong Wang, Mei Li
Trichoderma spp. are important biocontrol filamentous fungi, which are widely used for their adaptability, broad antimicrobial spectrum, and various antagonistic mechanisms. In our previous studies, we cloned thga1 gene encoding GαI protein from Trichoderma harzianum Th-33. Its knockout mutant showed that the growth rate, conidial yield, cAMP level, antagonistic action, and hydrophobicity decreased. Therefore, Illumina RNA-seq technology (RNA-seq) was used to determine transcriptomic differences between the wild-type strain and thga1 mutant...
2016: BioMed Research International
Qilin Yu, Bing Zhang, Jianrong Li, Biao Zhang, Honggang Wang, Mingchun Li
The cell wall is an important cell structure in both fungi and bacteria, and hence becomes a common antimicrobial target. The cell wall-perturbing agents disrupt synthesis and function of cell wall components, leading to cell wall stress and consequent cell death. However, little is known about the detailed mechanisms by which cell wall stress renders fungal cell death. In this study, we found that ROS scavengers drastically attenuated the antifungal effect of cell wall-perturbing agents to the model fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and these agents caused remarkable ROS accumulation and activation of oxidative stress response (OSR) in this fungus...
September 17, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shingo Miyauchi, David Navarro, Igor V Grigoriev, Anna Lipzen, Robert Riley, Didier Chevret, Sacha Grisel, Jean-Guy Berrin, Bernard Henrissat, Marie-Noëlle Rosso
Wood-decay fungi contain the cellular mechanisms to decompose such plant cell wall components as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. A multi-omics approach to the comparative analysis of wood-decay fungi gives not only new insights into their strategies for decomposing recalcitrant plant biomass, but also an understanding of how to exploit these mechanisms for biotechnological applications. We have developed an analytical workflow, Applied Biomass Conversion Design for Efficient Fungal Green Technology (ABCDEFGT), to simplify the analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic and secretomic data...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Takayuki Shindo, Farnusch Kaschani, Fan Yang, Judit Kovács, Fang Tian, Jiorgos Kourelis, Tram Ngoc Hong, Tom Colby, Mohammed Shabab, Rohini Chawla, Selva Kumari, Muhammad Ilyas, Anja C Hörger, James R Alfano, Renier A L van der Hoorn
Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (PtoDC3000) is an extracellular model plant pathogen, yet its potential to produce secreted effectors that manipulate the apoplast has been under investigated. Here we identified 131 candidate small, secreted, non-annotated proteins from the PtoDC3000 genome, most of which are common to Pseudomonas species and potentially expressed during apoplastic colonization. We produced 43 of these proteins through a custom-made gateway-compatible expression system for extracellular bacterial proteins, and screened them for their ability to inhibit the secreted immune protease C14 of tomato using competitive activity-based protein profiling...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Eveline Adam, Henry Müller, Armin Erlacher, Gabriele Berg
The Serratia plymuthica strains 3Rp8 and 3Re4-18 are motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacteria. Strain 3Rp8 was isolated from the rhizosphere of Brassica napus L. and strain 3Re4-18 from the endorhiza of Solanum tuberosum L. Studies have shown in vitro activity against the soil-borne fungi Verticillium dahliae Kleb., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of S. plymuthica 3Rp8 consisting of a single circular chromosome of 5.5 Mb that encodes 4954 protein-coding and 108 RNA-only encoding genes and of S...
2016: Standards in Genomic Sciences
Susumu Kitanaka
Macrophages play major roles in inflammation, immunity and host defense mechanisms. Once activated they produce and release cytokines, oxygen and nitrogen species, and eicosanoids. The best characterized stimuli to induce the transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory proteins in macrophages in vitro is bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS could be used alone or in combination with recombinant mouse interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Such stimulation results in cytokine release and the synthesis of enzymes such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Sara Masachis, David Segorbe, David Turrà, Mercedes Leon-Ruiz, Ursula Fürst, Mennat El Ghalid, Guy Leonard, Manuel S López-Berges, Thomas A Richards, Georg Felix, Antonio Di Pietro
Plant infections caused by fungi are often associated with an increase in the pH of the surrounding host tissue(1). Extracellular alkalinization is thought to contribute to fungal pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the root-infecting fungus Fusarium oxysporum uses a functional homologue of the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor)(2,3) to induce alkalinization and cause disease in plants. An upshift in extracellular pH promotes infectious growth of Fusarium by stimulating phosphorylation of a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase essential for pathogenicity(4,5)...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Martin Schuster, Magdalena Martin-Urdiroz, Yujiro Higuchi, Christian Hacker, Sreedhar Kilaru, Sarah J Gurr, Gero Steinberg
Fungal cells are surrounded by an extracellular cell wall. This complex matrix of proteins and polysaccharides protects against adverse stresses and determines the shape of fungal cells. The polysaccharides of the fungal wall include 1,3-β-glucan and chitin, which are synthesized by membrane-bound synthases at the growing cell tip. A hallmark of filamentous fungi is the class V chitin synthase, which carries a myosin-motor domain. In the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis, the myosin-chitin synthase Mcs1 moves to the plasma membrane in secretory vesicles, being delivered by kinesin-1 and myosin-5...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Hye Sup Yun, Bin Goo Kang, Chian Kwon
Innate immune responses in host plants begin with the recognition of pathogen-specific nonself molecules and terminate with the secretion of immune molecules. In the dicotyledonous model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, two distinct secretory pathways required for disease resistance to powdery mildew fungi have been identified so far. One is an exocytic pathway consisting of PEN1, SNAP33 and VAMP721/722 SNARE proteins, but the other is an efflux-mediated one composed of PEN2 atypical myrosinase and PEN3 ABC transporter...
October 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Érika Lika Ida, Ronivaldo Rodrigues da Silva, Tássio Brito de Oliveira, Tatiane Beltramini Souto, Juliana Abigail Leite, André Rodrigues, Hamilton Cabral
Filamentous fungi secrete diverse peptidases with different biochemical properties, which is of considerable importance for application in various commercial sectors. In this study, we describe the isolation of two fungal species collected from the soil of decayed organic matter: Aspergillus fischeri and Penicillium citrinum. In a submerged bioprocess, we observed better peptidase production with the fungus P. citrinum, which reached a peak production at 168 h with 760 U/mL, in comparison to that with the fungus A...
August 23, 2016: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Graeme J Kettles, Isgouhi Kaloshian
Polyphagous aphid pests cause considerable economic damage to crop plants, primarily through the depletion of photoassimilates and transfer of viruses. The potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae) is a notable pest of solanaceous crops, however, the molecular mechanisms that underpin the ability to colonize these hosts are unknown. It has recently been demonstrated that like other aphid species, M. euphorbiae injects a battery of salivary proteins into host plants during feeding. It is speculated that these proteins function in a manner analagous to secreted effectors from phytopathogenic bacteria, fungi and oomycetes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Diana Fabiola Díaz-Jiménez
Fungal pathogens affect a wide variety of hosts, such as human beings, plants, animals, and insects. The course of infection relies on the virulence grade of the fungus and the strength of the defense mechanisms of the host. Virulence factors are closely related to the cell surface; cell wall proteins have a crucial role in adhesion, hyphal development, hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, immunomodulation and surface variation. The enzymes involved in cell wall biosynthesis are not proper virulence factors, but they are necessary for cell function...
August 13, 2016: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Marcelo Ventura Rubio, Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, João Paulo Lourenço Franco Cairo, Felipe Calzado, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Fabio Marcio Squina, Rolf Alexander Prade, André Ricardo de Lima Damásio
BACKGROUND: The genus Aspergillus includes microorganisms that naturally degrade lignocellulosic biomass, secreting large amounts of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) that characterize their saprophyte lifestyle. Aspergillus has the capacity to perform post-translational modifications (PTM), which provides an additional advantage for the use of these organisms as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. In this study, the N-linked glycosylation of CAZymes identified in the secretome of Aspergillus nidulans grown on lignocellulose was mapped...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Sowmya R Ramachandran, Chuntao Yin, Joanna Kud, Kiwamu Tanaka, Aaron K Mahoney, Fangming Xiao, Scot H Hulbert
Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR)...
October 18, 2016: Phytopathology
Agostina Carestia, Tomas Kaufman, Mirta Schattner
In addition to being key elements in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets have an important role in the inflammatory and innate immune response. This activity is associated with their capability to recognize pathogens through the expression of toll-like receptors, the secretion of various cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors stored within their granules, and the expression of cell adhesion molecules that allows interaction with other immune cells, mainly neutrophils and monocytes. As part of the first line of defense, neutrophils control invading pathogens by phagocytosis, the release of antimicrobial proteins during degranulation, or through the formation of web-like structures named neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Jasper Sloothaak, Juan Antonio Tamayo-Ramos, Dorett I Odoni, Thanaporn Laothanachareon, Christian Derntl, Astrid R Mach-Aigner, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Peter J Schaap
BACKGROUND: Global climate change and fossil fuels limitations have boosted the demand for robust and efficient microbial factories for the manufacturing of bio-based products from renewable feedstocks. In this regard, efforts have been done to enhance the enzyme-secreting ability of lignocellulose-degrading fungi, aiming to improve protein yields while taking advantage of their ability to use lignocellulosic feedstocks. Access to sugars in complex polysaccharides depends not only on their release by specific hydrolytic enzymes, but also on the presence of transporters capable of effectively transporting the constituent sugars into the cell...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
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