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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343217/ceratocystis-cacaofunesta-genome-analysis-reveals-a-large-expansion-of-extracellular-phosphatidylinositol-specific-phospholipase-c-genes-pi-plc
#1
Eddy Patricia Lopez Molano, Odalys García Cabrera, Juliana Jose, Leandro Costa do Nascimento, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira, Javier Correa Alvarez, Ricardo Augusto Tiburcio, Paulo Massanari Tokimatu Filho, Gustavo Machado Alvares de Lima, Rafael Victório Carvalho Guido, Thamy Lívia Ribeiro Corrêa, Adriana Franco Paes Leme, Piotr Mieczkowski, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães Pereira
BACKGROUND: The Ceratocystis genus harbors a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that cause xylem parenchyma degradation and vascular destruction on a broad range of economically important plants. Ceratocystis cacaofunesta is a necrotrophic fungus responsible for lethal wilt disease in cacao. The aim of this work is to analyze the genome of C. cacaofunesta through a comparative approach with genomes of other Sordariomycetes in order to better understand the molecular basis of pathogenicity in the Ceratocystis genus...
January 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337674/a-study-on-blocking-store-operated-ca2-entry-in-pulmonary-arterial-smooth-muscle-cells-with-xyloketals-from-marine-fungi
#2
Jie-Bin Zhou, Ying-Ying Sun, Ying-Lin Zheng, Chu-Qin Yu, Hua-Qing Lin, Ji-Yan Pang
In this study, the effect of four xyloketals 1-4 on store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) was investigated in primary distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from mice. The results showed that xyloketal A (1), an unusual ketal with C-3 symmetry, exhibited strong SOCE blocking activity. Secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) was also inhibited by xyloketal A. The parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) of 1-4 suggested that these xyloketals penetrated easily through the cell membrane...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336199/the-rust-fungus-melampsora-larici-populina-expresses-a-conserved-genetic-program-and-distinct-sets-of-secreted-protein-genes-during-infection-of-its-two-host-plants-larch-and-poplar
#3
Cécile Lorrain, Clémence Marchal, Stéphane Hacquard, Christine Delaruelle, Jérémy Pétrowski, Benjamin Petre, Arnaud Hecker, Pascal Frey, Sebastien Duplessis
Mechanisms required for broad spectrum or specific host colonization of plant parasites are poorly understood. As a perfect illustration, heteroecious rust fungi require two alternate host plants to complete their life cycles. Melampsora larici populina infects two taxonomically unrelated plants, larch on which sexual reproduction is achieved and poplar on which clonal multiplication occurs leading to severe epidemics in plantations. We applied deep RNA sequencing to three key developmental stages of M. larici-populina infection on larch: basidia, pycnia and aecia; and we performed comparative transcriptomics of infection on poplar and larch hosts using available expression data...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316319/protein-profile-in-aspergillus-nidulans-recombinant-strains-overproducing-heterologous-enzymes
#4
Mariane Paludetti Zubieta, Fabiano Jares Contesini, Marcelo Ventura Rubio, Any Elisa de Souza Schmidt Gonçalves, Jaqueline Aline Gerhardt, Rolf Alexander Prade, André Ricardo de Lima Damasio
Filamentous fungi are robust cell factories and have been used for the production of large quantities of industrially relevant enzymes. However, the production levels of heterologous proteins still need to be improved. Therefore, this article aimed to investigate the global proteome profiling of Aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains in order to understand the bottlenecks of heterologous enzymes production. About 250, 441 and 424 intracellular proteins were identified in the control strain Anid_pEXPYR and in the recombinant strains Anid_AbfA and Anid_Cbhl respectively...
January 8, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315638/comparative-genomics-and-transcriptomics-depict-ericoid-mycorrhizal-fungi-as-versatile-saprotrophs-and-plant-mutualists
#5
Elena Martino, Emmanuelle Morin, Gwen-Aëlle Grelet, Alan Kuo, Annegret Kohler, Stefania Daghino, Kerrie W Barry, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Rhyan B Dockter, Matthieu Hainaut, Rita C Kuo, Kurt LaButti, Björn D Lindahl, Erika A Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Jon Magnuson, Claude Murat, Robin A Ohm, Steven W Singer, Joseph W Spatafora, Mei Wang, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Bernard Henrissat, Igor V Grigoriev, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto
Some soil fungi in the Leotiomycetes form ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) symbioses with Ericaceae. In the harsh habitats in which they occur, ERM plant survival relies on nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter (SOM) by their fungal partners. The characterization of the fungal genetic machinery underpinning both the symbiotic lifestyle and SOM degradation is needed to understand ERM symbiosis functioning and evolution, and its impact on soil carbon (C) turnover. We sequenced the genomes of the ERM fungi Meliniomyces bicolor, M...
January 7, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305178/high-yield-production-of-fungal-manganese-peroxidases-by-e-coli-through-soluble-expression-and-examination-of-the-activities
#6
Meng-I Lin, Takashi Nagata, Masato Katahira
Oxidative enzymes of white-rot fungi play a key role in lignin biodegradation. Among those fungus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora degrades lignin before cellulose in wood; C. subvermispora is the only fungus that secretes all known types of manganese peroxidases (CsMnPs). Utilization of lignin-degrading peroxidases has been limited so far due to the lack of efficient preparation methods and intensive characterization. In this study, we developed a highly efficient method to prepare active CsMnPs through soluble expression by E...
January 2, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298673/analysis-of-the-hybrid-genomes-of-two-field-isolates-of-the-soil-borne-fungal-species-verticillium-longisporum
#7
Johan Fogelqvist, Georgios Tzelepis, Sarosh Bejai, Jonas Ilbäck, Arne Schwelm, Christina Dixelius
BACKGROUND: Brassica plant species are attacked by a number of pathogens; among them, the ones with a soil-borne lifestyle have become increasingly important. Verticillium stem stripe caused by Verticillium longisporum is one example. This fungal species is thought to be of a hybrid origin, having a genome composed of combinations of lineages denominated A and D. In this study we report the draft genomes of 2 V. longisporum field isolates sequenced using the Illumina technology. Genomic characterization and lineage composition, followed by selected gene analysis to facilitate the comprehension of its genomic features and potential effector categories were performed...
January 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277996/a-structural-and-functional-role-for-disulfide-bonds-in-a-class-ii-hydrophobin
#8
Nathanael D Sallada, Kerri J Dunn, Bryan W Berger
Hydrophobins are highly surface-active proteins produced in filamentous fungi and are identifiable by 8 conserved cysteine residues, which form 4 disulfide bridges and perform a wide range of functions in fungal development. These proteins can be subdivided into two classes based on their hydropathy profiles, solubility, and structures formed upon interfacial assembly. Disulfide bridges play important roles in the class I hydrophobins in monomer solubility, protein stability, and proper secretion and localization, but they are not key determinants of surface activity or solution self-assembly...
December 26, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277938/tools-of-the-crook-infection-strategies-of-fungal-plant-pathogens
#9
Luis Rodriguez-Moreno, Malaika K Ebert, Melvin D Bolton, Bart P H J Thomma
Fungi represent an ecologically diverse group of microorganisms that includes plant pathogenic species able to cause considerable yield loses in crop production systems worldwide. In order to establish compatible interactions with their hosts, pathogenic fungi rely on the secretion of molecules of diverse nature during host colonization to modulate host physiology, manipulate other environmental factors or provide self-defence. These molecules, collectively known as effectors, are typically small secreted cysteine-rich proteins, but may also comprise secondary metabolites and sRNAs...
December 26, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250100/corrigendum-the-comparison-of-expressed-candidate-secreted-proteins-from-two-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-unravels-common-and-specific-molecular-tools-to-invade-different-host-plants
#10
Laurent Kamel, Nianwu Tang, Mathilde Malbreil, Hélène San Clemente, Morgane Le Marquer, Christophe Roux, Nicolas Frei Dit Frey
[This corrects the article on p. 124 in vol. 8, PMID: 28223991.].
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222463/the-genome-sequence-of-bipolaris-cookei-reveals-mechanisms-of-pathogenesis-underlying-target-leaf-spot-of-sorghum
#11
Alex Z Zaccaron, Burton H Bluhm
Bipolaris cookei (=Bipolaris sorghicola) causes target leaf spot, one of the most prevalent foliar diseases of sorghum. Little is known about the molecular basis of pathogenesis in B. cookei, in large part due to a paucity of resources for molecular genetics, such as a reference genome. Here, a draft genome sequence of B. cookei was obtained and analyzed. A hybrid assembly strategy utilizing Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing technologies produced a draft nuclear genome of 36.1 Mb, organized into 321 scaffolds with L50 of 31 and N50 of 378 kb, from which 11,189 genes were predicted...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182721/molecular-mimicry-modulates-plant-host-responses-to-pathogens
#12
Pamela Ronald, Anna Joe
Background: Pathogens often secrete molecules that mimic those present in the plant host. Recent studies indicate that some of these molecules mimic plant hormones required for development and immunity. Scope and Conclusion: This Viewpoint reviews the literature on microbial molecules produced by plant pathogens that functionally mimic molecules present in the plant host. This article includes examples from nematodes, bacteria and fungi with emphasis on RaxX, a microbial protein produced by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv...
November 22, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165363/identification-and-initial-characterization-of-the-effectors-of-an-anther-smut-fungus-and-potential-host-target-proteins
#13
Venkata S Kuppireddy, Vladimir N Uversky, Su San Toh, Ming-Chang Tsai, William C Beckerson, Catarina Cahill, Brittany Carman, Michael H Perlin
(1) Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162107/production-of-highly-efficient-cellulase-mixtures-by-genetically-exploiting-the-potentials-of-trichoderma-reesei-endogenous-cellulases-for-hydrolysis-of-corncob-residues
#14
Yuanchao Qian, Lixia Zhong, Jia Gao, Ningning Sun, Yifan Wang, Guoyong Sun, Yinbo Qu, Yaohua Zhong
BACKGROUND: Trichoderma reesei is one of the most important fungi utilized for cellulase production. However, its cellulase system has been proven to be present in suboptimal ratio for deconstruction of lignocellulosic substrates. Although previous enzymatic optimization studies have acquired different types of in vitro synthetic mixtures for efficient lignocellulose hydrolysis, production of in vivo optimized cellulase mixtures by industrial strains remains one of the obstacles to reduce enzyme cost in the biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass...
November 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145801/comparative-genomics-of-coniophora-olivacea-reveals-different-patterns-of-genome-expansion-in-boletales
#15
Raúl Castanera, Gúmer Pérez, Leticia López-Varas, Joëlle Amselem, Kurt LaButti, Vasanth Singan, Anna Lipzen, Sajeet Haridas, Kerrie Barry, Igor V Grigoriev, Antonio G Pisabarro, Lucía Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Coniophora olivacea is a basidiomycete fungus belonging to the order Boletales that produces brown-rot decay on dead wood of conifers. The Boletales order comprises a diverse group of species including saprotrophs and ectomycorrhizal fungi that show important differences in genome size. RESULTS: In this study we report the 39.07-megabase (Mb) draft genome assembly and annotation of C. olivacea. A total of 14,928 genes were annotated, including 470 putatively secreted proteins enriched in functions involved in lignocellulose degradation...
November 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144203/suppression-or-activation-of-immune-responses-by-predicted-secreted-proteins-of-the-soybean-rust-pathogen-phakopsora-pachyrhizi
#16
Mingsheng Qi, James P Grayczyk, Janina M Seitz, Youngsill Lee, Tobias I Link, Doil Choi, Kerry F Pedley, Ralf T Voegele, Thomas J Baum, Steven A Whitham
Rust fungi, such as the soybean rust pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi, are major threats to crop production. They form specialized haustoria that are hyphal structures intimately associated with host-plant cell membranes. These haustoria have roles in acquiring nutrients and secreting effector proteins that manipulate host immune systems. Functional characterization of effector proteins of rust fungi is important for understanding mechanisms that underlie their virulence and pathogenicity. Hundreds of candidate effector proteins have been predicted for rust pathogens, but it is not clear how to prioritize these effector candidates for further characterization...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131484/the-major-cellulases-cbh-1-and-cbh-2-of-neurospora-crassa-rely-on-distinct-er-cargo-adaptors-for-efficient-er-exit
#17
Trevor Starr, A Pedro Gonçalves, Neeka Meshgin, N Louise Glass
Filamentous fungi are native secretors of lignocellulolytic enzymes and are used as protein-producing factories in the industrial biotechnology sector. Despite the importance of these organisms in industry, relatively little is known about the filamentous fungal secretory pathway or how it might be manipulated for improved protein production. Here we use Neurospora crassa as a model filamentous fungus to interrogate the requirements for trafficking of cellulase enzymes from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126189/comparative-genome-analysis-reveals-adaptation-to-the-ectophytic-lifestyle-of-sooty-blotch-and-flyspeck-fungi
#18
Chao Xu, Rong Zhang, Guangyu Sun, Mark L Gleason
Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi are a distinctive group of plant pathogens which, although phylogenetically diverse, occupy an exclusively surface-dwelling niche. They cause economic losses by superficially blemishing the fruit of several tree crops, principally apple, in moist temperate regions worldwide. In this study, we performed genome-wide comparative analyses separately within three pairs of species of ascomycete pathogens; each pair contained an SBFS species as well as a closely related but plant-penetrating parasite (PPP) species...
November 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119000/comparing-the-physiochemical-parameters-of-three-celluloses-reveals-new-insights-into-substrate-suitability-for-fungal-enzyme-production
#19
Lara Hassan, Manfred J Reppke, Nils Thieme, Steffen A Schweizer, Carsten W Mueller, J Philipp Benz
Background: The industrial applications of cellulases are mostly limited by the costs associated with their production. Optimized production pathways are therefore desirable. Based on their enzyme inducing capacity, celluloses are commonly used in fermentation media. However, the influence of their physiochemical characteristics on the production process is not well understood. In this study, we examined how physical, structural and chemical properties of celluloses influence cellulase and hemicellulase production in an industrially-optimized and a non-engineered filamentous fungus: Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 and Neurospora crassa...
2017: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116156/efficient-production-and-characterization-of-the-novel-and-highly-active-antifungal-protein-afpb-from-penicillium-digitatum
#20
Sandra Garrigues, Mónica Gandía, Crina Popa, Attila Borics, Florentine Marx, María Coca, Jose F Marcos, Paloma Manzanares
Filamentous fungi encode distinct antifungal proteins (AFPs) that offer great potential to develop new antifungals. Fungi are considered immune to their own AFPs as occurs in Penicillium chrysogenum, the producer of the well-known PAF. The Penicillium digitatum genome encodes only one afp gene (afpB), and the corresponding protein (AfpB) belongs to the class B phylogenetic cluster. Previous attempts to detect AfpB were not successful. In this work, immunodetection confirmed the absence of AfpB accumulation in wild type and previous recombinant constitutive P...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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