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fungi secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903187/comparative-physiochemical-analysis-of-hydrophobins-produced-in-escherichia-coli-and-pichia-pastoris
#1
Agnes Przylucka, Gunseli Bayram Akcapinar, Klaus Bonazza, Thiago M Mello-de-Sousa, Astrid R Mach-Aigner, Victor Lobanov, Hinrich Grothe, Christian P Kubicek, Erik Reimhult, Irina S Druzhinina
Hydrophobins (HFBs) are small surface-active proteins secreted by filamentous fungi. Being amphiphilic, they spontaneously form layers that convert surfaces from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and vice versa. We have compared properties of the class II HFB4 and HFB7 from Trichoderma virens as produced in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. Since the production in E. coli required denaturation/renaturation steps because of inclusion bodies, this treatment was also applied to HFBs produced and secreted in yeast...
September 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895153/characterization-of-an-antimicrobial-and-phytotoxic-ribonuclease-secreted-by-the-fungal-wheat-pathogen-zymoseptoria-tritici
#2
Graeme J Kettles, Carlos Bayon, Caroline A Sparks, Gail Canning, Kostya Kanyuka, Jason J Rudd
The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici is the causal agent of Septoria Tritici Blotch (STB) disease of wheat leaves. Zymoseptoria tritici secretes many functionally uncharacterized effector proteins during infection. Here, we characterized a secreted ribonuclease (Zt6) with an unusual biphasic expression pattern. Transient expression systems were used to characterize Zt6, and mutants thereof, in both host and non-host plants. Cell-free protein expression systems monitored the impact of Zt6 protein on functional ribosomes, and in vitro assays of cells treated with recombinant Zt6 determined toxicity against bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi...
September 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890400/deglycosylating-enzymes-acting-on-n-glycans-in-fungi-insights-from-a-genome-survey
#3
REVIEW
Georgios Tzelepis, Magnus Karlsson, Tadashi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: N-Glycosylation, one of the most prominent post-translational modifications of proteins, is found in all domains of life, i.e. eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea, and has been shown to play a crucial role in modulating the physicochemical/physiological properties of carrier proteins. Deglycosylating enzymes that act on N-glycans are widely used in analyzing the structures/functions of N-glycans. Fungi are known to produce various deglycosylating enzymes, some of which are fungi-specific...
September 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864820/a-prophage-tail-like-protein-is-deployed-by-burkholderia-bacteria-to-feed-on-fungi
#4
Durga Madhab Swain, Sunil Kumar Yadav, Isha Tyagi, Rahul Kumar, Rajeev Kumar, Srayan Ghosh, Joyati Das, Gopaljee Jha
Some bacteria can feed on fungi, a phenomenon known as mycophagy. Here we show that a prophage tail-like protein (Bg_9562) is essential for mycophagy in Burkholderia gladioli strain NGJ1. The purified protein causes hyphal disintegration and inhibits growth of several fungal species. Disruption of the Bg_9562 gene abolishes mycophagy. Bg_9562 is a potential effector secreted by a type III secretion system (T3SS) and is translocated into fungal mycelia during confrontation. Heterologous expression of Bg_9562 in another bacterial species, Ralstonia solanacearum, confers mycophagous ability in a T3SS-dependent manner...
September 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861662/extracellular-expression-in-aspergillus-niger-of-an-antibody-fused-to-leishmania-sp-antigens
#5
Denis Magaña-Ortíz, Francisco Fernández, Achim M Loske, Miguel A Gómez-Lim
Nucleoside hydrolase and sterol 24-c-methyltransferase, two antigenic proteins of Leishmania sp., were expressed in Aspergillus niger. Genetic transformation of conidia was achieved using underwater shock waves. scFv antibody addressed to DEC205, a receptor of dendritic cells, was fused to two proteins of Leishmania sp. Receptor 205 has a relevant role in the immune system in mammals; it can modulate T cell response to different antigens. Extracellular expression strategy of recombinant antibody was achieved using a fragment of native glucoamylase A (514 aa) as a carrier...
August 31, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857638/specificity-of-peptidases-secreted-by-filamentous-fungi
#6
Youssef Ali Abou Hamin Neto, Nathália Gonsales da Rosa Garzon, Rafael Pedezzi, Hamilton Cabral
Peptidases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds, yielding proteins and peptides. Enzymes in this class also perform several other functions, regulating the activation or inactivation of target substrates via proteolysis. Owing to these functions, peptidases have been extensively used in industrial and biotechnological applications. Given their potential functions, it is important to optimize the use of these enzymes, which requires determination of the specificity of each peptidase. The peptidase specificity must be taken into account in choosing a peptidase to catalyze the available protein source within the desired application...
August 31, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846714/genome-sequencing-and-comparative-genomics-reveal-a-repertoire-of-putative-pathogenicity-genes-in-chilli-anthracnose-fungus-colletotrichum-truncatum
#7
Soumya Rao, Madhusudan R Nandineni
Colletotrichum truncatum, a major fungal phytopathogen, causes the anthracnose disease on an economically important spice crop chilli (Capsicum annuum), resulting in huge economic losses in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It follows a subcuticular intramural infection strategy on chilli with a short, asymptomatic, endophytic phase, which contrasts with the intracellular hemibiotrophic lifestyle adopted by most of the Colletotrichum species. However, little is known about the molecular determinants and the mechanism of pathogenicity in this fungus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830788/zearalenone-and-alpha-zearalenol-inhibit-the-synthesis-and-secretion-of-pig-follicle-stimulating-hormone-via-the-non-classical-estrogen-membrane-receptor-gpr30
#8
Jing He, Chao Wei, Yueqin Li, Ying Liu, Yue Wang, Jirong Pan, Jiali Liu, Yingjie Wu, Sheng Cui
Zearalenone (ZEA) is one of the most popular endocrine-disrupting chemicals and is mainly produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium. The excessive intake of ZEA severely disrupts human and animal fertility by affecting the reproductive axis. However, most studies on the effects of ZEA and its metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) on reproductive systems have focused on gonads. Few studies have investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of ZEA and α-ZOL on pituitary gonadotropins, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)...
August 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802020/investigating-the-diversity-of-effector-genes-in-the-banana-pathogen-fusarium-oxysporum-f-sp-cubense-reveals-evidence-of-horizontal-gene-transfer
#9
Elizabeth Czislowski, Sam Fraser-Smith, Manuel Zander, Wayne T O'Neill, Rachel A Meldrum, Lucy T T Tran-Nguyen, Jacqueline Batley, Elizabeth A B Aitken
It is hypothesised that the virulence of phytopathogenic fungi is mediated through the secretion of small effector proteins that interfere with the defence responses of the host plant. In Fusarium oxysporum, one family of effectors, the secreted in xylem (SIX) genes, have been identified. We sought to characterise the diversity and evolution of the SIX genes in the banana-infecting lineages of F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). Whole-genome sequencing data was generated for the 23 genetic lineages of Foc, which were subsequently queried for the 14 known SIX genes (SIX1-SIX14)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755300/in-vivo-gene-expression-profiling-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-elucidates-its-infection-stratagems-in-anopheles-mosquito
#10
Yiling Lai, Huan Chen, Ge Wei, Guandong Wang, Fang Li, Sibao Wang
The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control mosquitoes is a promising tool for reducing vector-borne disease transmission. To better understand infection stratagems of insect pathogenic fungi, we analyzed the global gene expression profiling of Beauveria bassiana at 36, 60, 84 and 108 h after topical infection of Anopheles stephensi adult mosquitoes using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A total of 5,354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are identified over the course of fungal infection. When the fungus grows on the mosquito cuticle, up-regulated DEGs include adhesion-related genes involved in cuticle attachment, Pth11-like GPCRs hypothesized to be involved in host recognition, and extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation and penetration of the mosquito cuticle...
July 27, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743272/establishment-of-neurospora-crassa-as-a-host-for-heterologous-protein-production-using-a-human-antibody-fragment-as-a-model-product
#11
David Havlik, Ulrike Brandt, Kathrin Bohle, André Fleißner
BACKGROUND: Filamentous fungi are commonly used as production hosts for bulk enzymes in biotechnological applications. Their robust and quick growth combined with their ability to secrete large amounts of protein directly into the culture medium makes fungi appealing organisms for the generation of novel production systems. The red bread mold Neurospora crassa has long been established as a model system in basic research. It can be very easily genetically manipulated and a wealth of molecular tools and mutants are available...
July 25, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729700/sphingomimetic-multiple-sclerosis-drug-fty720-activates-vesicular-synaptobrevin-and-augments-neuroendocrine-secretion
#12
Frederic D Darios, Jernej Jorgacevski, Ajda Flašker, Robert Zorec, Virginia García-Martinez, José Villanueva, Luis M Gutiérrez, Charlotte Leese, Manjot Bal, Elena Nosyreva, Ege T Kavalali, Bazbek Davletov
Neurotransmission and secretion of hormones involve a sequence of protein/lipid interactions with lipid turnover impacting on vesicle trafficking and ultimately fusion of secretory vesicles with the plasma membrane. We previously demonstrated that sphingosine, a sphingolipid metabolite, promotes formation of the SNARE complex required for membrane fusion and also increases the rate of exocytosis in isolated nerve terminals, neuromuscular junctions, neuroendocrine cells and in hippocampal neurons. Recently a fungi-derived sphingosine homologue, FTY720, has been approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676260/quantitative-itraq-based-secretome-analysis-reveals-species-specific-and-temporal-shifts-in-carbon-utilization-strategies-among-manganese-ii-oxidizing-ascomycete-fungi
#13
Carolyn A Zeiner, Samuel O Purvine, Erika M Zink, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Dominique L Chaput, Si Wu, Cara M Santelli, Colleen M Hansel
Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates, particularly filamentous Ascomycetes, or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood...
July 1, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674541/key-components-of-different-plant-defense-pathways-are-dispensable-for-powdery-mildew-resistance-of-the-arabidopsis-mlo2-mlo6-mlo12-triple-mutant
#14
Hannah Kuhn, Justine Lorek, Mark Kwaaitaal, Chiara Consonni, Katia Becker, Cristina Micali, Emiel Ver Loren van Themaat, Paweł Bednarek, Tom M Raaymakers, Michela Appiano, Yuling Bai, Dorothea Meldau, Stephani Baum, Uwe Conrath, Ivo Feussner, Ralph Panstruga
Loss of function mutations of particular plant MILDEW RESISTANCE LOCUS O (MLO) genes confer durable and broad-spectrum penetration resistance against powdery mildew fungi. Here, we combined genetic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses to explore the defense mechanisms in the fully resistant Arabidopsis thaliana mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant. We found that this genotype unexpectedly overcomes the requirement for indolic antimicrobials and defense-related secretion, which are critical for incomplete resistance of mlo2 single mutants...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670324/complex-interactions-between-fungal-avirulence-genes-and-their-corresponding-plant-resistance-genes-and-consequences-for-disease-resistance-management
#15
REVIEW
Yohann Petit-Houdenot, Isabelle Fudal
During infection, pathogens secrete an arsenal of molecules, collectively called effectors, key elements of pathogenesis which modulate innate immunity of the plant and facilitate infection. Some of these effectors can be recognized directly or indirectly by resistance (R) proteins from the plant and are then called avirulence (AVR) proteins. This recognition usually triggers defense responses including the hypersensitive response and results in resistance of the plant. R-AVR gene interactions are frequently exploited in the field to control diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649280/differential-%C3%AE-glucosidase-expression-as-a-function-of-carbon-source-availability-in-talaromyces-amestolkiae-a-genomic-and-proteomic-approach
#16
Laura I de Eugenio, Juan A Méndez-Líter, Manuel Nieto-Domínguez, Lola Alonso, Jesús Gil-Muñoz, Jorge Barriuso, Alicia Prieto, María Jesús Martínez
BACKGROUND: Genomic and proteomic analysis are potent tools for metabolic characterization of microorganisms. Although cellulose usually triggers cellulase production in cellulolytic fungi, the secretion of the different enzymes involved in polymer conversion is subjected to different factors, depending on growth conditions. These enzymes are key factors in biomass exploitation for second generation bioethanol production. Although highly effective commercial cocktails are available, they are usually deficient for β-glucosidase activity, and genera like Penicillium and Talaromyces are being explored for its production...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642757/the-fungal-pathogen-candida-glabrata-does-not-depend-on-surface-ferric-reductases-for-iron-acquisition
#17
Franziska Gerwien, Abu Safyan, Stephanie Wisgott, Sascha Brunke, Lydia Kasper, Bernhard Hube
Iron acquisition is a crucial virulence determinant for many bacteria and fungi, including the opportunistic fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata. While the diverse strategies used by C. albicans for obtaining iron from the host are well-described, much less is known about the acquisition of this micronutrient from host sources by C. glabrata - a distant relative of C. albicans with closer evolutionary ties to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which nonetheless causes severe clinical symptoms in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635519/the-elicitor-protein-ases-induces-a-sar-response-accompanied-by-systemic-microbursts-and-micro-hrs-in-fragaria-ananassa
#18
Verónica Hael Conrad, Silvia Marisa Perato, Marta Elena Arias, Martín Gustavo Martínez Zamora, Pía de Los Ángeles Di Peto, Gustavo Gabriel Martos, Atilio Pedro Castagnaro, Juan Carlos Diaz-Ricci, Nadia Regina Chalfoun
The elicitor AsES (Acremonium strictum Elicitor Subtilisin) is a 34 KDa subtilisin-like protein secreted by the opportunistic fungus Acremonium strictum. AsES activates the innate immunity and confers resistance against anthracnose and grey mold diseases in strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) and the last disease also in Arabidopsis. In the present work, we show that upon AsES recognition, a cascade of defense responses is activated, including: calcium influx, biphasic oxidative burst (O2(.-) and H2O2), HR response, accumulation of autofluorescent compounds, cell wall reinforcement with callose and lignin deposition, salicylic acid accumulation, and expression of defense-related genes such as FaPR1, FaPG1, FaMYB30, FaRBOH-D, FaRBOH-F, FaCHI23 and FaFLS...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634370/microbial-antigens-stimulate-metalloprotease-7-secretion-in-human-b-lymphocytes-using-mtor-dependent-and-independent-pathways
#19
Mohamed F Ali, Harika Dasari, Virginia P Van Keulen, Divi Cornec, George Vasmatzis, Tobias Peikert, Eva M Carmona
Metalloproteinases (MMPs) contribute to tissue remodeling and acute inflammation not only by degrading extracellular matrix proteins but also by controlling the influx of chemokines through the regulation and shedding of syndecans. B-lymphocytes, in addition to their well-known function as antibody producing cells, participate in the innate immune response by secreting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. However, there is little information about the role of B-lymphocytes in the regulation of MMPs; consequently, herein we investigated whether activated human circulating B-lymphocytes contributed to the secretion of MMPs...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611802/involvement-of-trichoderma-harzianum-epl-1-protein-in-the-regulation-of-botrytis-virulence-and-tomato-defense-related-genes
#20
Eriston V Gomes, Cirano J Ulhoa, Rosa E Cardoza, Roberto N Silva, Santiago Gutiérrez
Several Trichoderma spp. are well known for their ability to: (i) act as important biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic fungi; (ii) function as biofertilizers; (iii) increase the tolerance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses; and (iv) induce plant defense responses via the production and secretion of elicitor molecules. In this study, we analyzed the gene-regulation effects of Trichoderma harzianum Epl-1 protein during the interactions of mutant Δepl-1 or wild-type T. harzianum strains with: (a) the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea and (b) with tomato plants, on short (24 h hydroponic cultures) and long periods (4-weeks old plants) after Trichoderma inoculation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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