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fungi secreted protein

Salvatore Casarrubia, Stefania Daghino, Annegret Kohler, Emmanuelle Morin, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Yohann Daguerre, Claire Veneault-Fourrey, Francis M Martin, Silvia Perotto, Elena Martino
Mutualistic and pathogenic plant-colonizing fungi use effector molecules to manipulate the host cell metabolism to allow plant tissue invasion. Some small secreted proteins (SSPs) have been identified as fungal effectors in both ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, but it is currently unknown whether SSPs also play a role as effectors in other mycorrhizal associations. Ericoid mycorrhiza is a specific endomycorrhizal type that involves symbiotic fungi mostly belonging to the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycetes) and plants in the family Ericaceae...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Denise Seitner, Simon Uhse, Michelle Gallei, Armin Djamei
The biotrophic pathogen Ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, infects one of the most important crops worldwide - Zea mays. To successfully colonize its host, U. maydis secretes proteins, known as effectors, that suppress plant defense responses and facilitate the establishment of biotrophy. In this work, we describe the U. maydis effector protein Cce1. Cce1 is essential for virulence and is upregulated during infection. Through microscopic analysis and in vitro assays, we show that Cce1 is secreted from hyphae during filamentous growth of the fungus...
May 10, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kai Kai Zhang, Shuang Zhao, Hui Jie Chen, Jia Qi Ni, Xiao Fan Jiang, Fa di Chen, Wei Min Fang
The chrysanthemum black spot caused by Alternaria alternata significantly reduced the quality and yield of chrysanthemum. The crude toxin secreted by A. alternata in the metabolic process have elopathic effects on plants, which is the main pathogenic factor for the occurrence of chrysanthemum black spot. The pathogenic fungi A. alternate was isolated from chrysanthemum black spot leaves, The effects of crude toxin on plant height, stem diameter, root length, resistant material content, membrane relative permeability, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in different treatments of chrysanthemum 'Jinba' seedlings were investigated...
April 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Fanny E Hartmann, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Jean-Tristan Brandenburg, Fantin Carpentier, Tatiana Giraud
Gene presence-absence polymorphisms segregating within species are a significant source of genetic variation but have been little investigated to date in natural populations. In plant pathogens, the gain or loss of genes encoding proteins interacting directly with the host, such as secreted proteins, probably plays an important role in coevolution and local adaptation. We investigated gene presence-absence polymorphism in populations of two closely related species of castrating anther-smut fungi, Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae (MvSl) and M...
May 2, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Lay-Sun Ma, Lei Wang, Christine Trippel, Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza, Steffen Ullmann, Marino Moretti, Alexander Carsten, Jörg Kahnt, Stefanie Reissmann, Bernd Zechmann, Gert Bange, Regine Kahmann
To cause disease in maize, the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis secretes a large arsenal of effector proteins. Here, we functionally characterize the repetitive effector Rsp3 (repetitive secreted protein 3), which shows length polymorphisms in field isolates and is highly expressed during biotrophic stages. Rsp3 is required for virulence and anthocyanin accumulation. During biotrophic growth, Rsp3 decorates the hyphal surface and interacts with at least two secreted maize DUF26-domain family proteins (designated AFP1 and AFP2)...
April 27, 2018: Nature Communications
Dániel G Knapp, Julianna B Németh, Kerrie Barry, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Jenifer Johnson, Alan Kuo, Joanne Hui Ping Lim, Anna Lipzen, Matt Nolan, Robin A Ohm, László Tamás, Igor V Grigoriev, Joseph W Spatafora, László G Nagy, Gábor M Kovács
Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are a form-group of root endophytic fungi with elusive functions. Here, the genomes of two common DSE of semiarid areas, Cadophora sp. and Periconia macrospinosa were sequenced and analyzed with another 32 ascomycetes of different lifestyles. Cadophora sp. (Helotiales) and P. macrospinosa (Pleosporales) have genomes of 70.46 Mb and 54.99 Mb with 22,766 and 18,750 gene models, respectively. The majority of DSE-specific protein clusters lack functional annotation with no similarity to characterized proteins, implying that they have evolved unique genetic innovations...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guillermo Nogueira-Lopez, David R Greenwood, Martin Middleditch, Christopher Winefield, Carla Eaton, Johanna M Steyaert, Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza
In Nature, almost every plant is colonized by fungi. Trichoderma virens is a biocontrol fungus which has the capacity to behave as an opportunistic plant endophyte. Even though many plants are colonized by this symbiont, the exact mechanisms by which Trichoderma masks its entrance into its plant host remain unknown, but likely involve the secretion of different families of proteins into the apoplast that may play crucial roles in the suppression of plant immune responses. In this study, we investigated T. virens colonization of maize roots under hydroponic conditions, evidencing inter- and intracellular colonization by the fungus and modifications in root morphology and coloration...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yang Wang, Wenwu Ye, Yuanchao Wang
Numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) identified and characterized in mammals, plants, and fungi have been found to play critical regulatory roles in biological processes. However, little is known about the role of lncRNAs in oomycete plant pathogens, which cause devastating damage to the economy and ecosystems. We used strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate a computational pipeline to identify lncRNAs in Phytophthora sojae, a model oomycete plant pathogen. In total, 940 lncRNAs with 1,010 isoforms were identified from RNA-seq data obtained from four representative stages of P...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Caiyun Liu, Zhigang Li, Junjie Xing, Jun Yang, Zhao Wang, Hong Zhang, Deng Chen, You-Liang Peng, Xiao-Lin Chen
Protein post-translational modifications play critical roles in cellular processes, development and stress response. The small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) to proteins is one of the essential modifications in eukaryotes, but its function remains largely unknown in plant pathogenic fungi. We present a comprehensive analysis combined with proteomic, molecular and cellular approaches to explore the roles of sumoylation in the model plant fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found the SUMO pathway plays key roles in colony growth, conidia formation and virulence to the host, as well as cell-cycle-related phenotypes...
April 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Rafael Sentandreu, Antonio Caminero, Itzel Rentería, Claudia León-Ramirez, Luis González-de-la-Vara, Eulogio Valentin-Gomez, José Ruiz-Herrera
The walls of both, yeast and mycelial cells of Candida albicans possess a species specific antigen that is recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAb 3H8). This antigen can be extracted in the form of a very high Mr complex, close or over 106 Da, by treatment, with β-1,3 glucanase, β mercaptoethanol or dithothreitol, or mild alkali, but not by saturated HF in pyridine, suggesting that the complex is bound to wall β-1,3 glucans, and to proteins by disulfide bonds, but not to β-1,6 glucans. Through its sensitivity to trypsin and different deglycosylation procedures, it was concluded that the epitope is associated to a glycoprotein containing N-glycosidic, but not O-glycosidic mannan moieties...
April 10, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Claudia Hener, Sabine Hummel, Juan Suarez, Mark Stahl, Üner Kolukisaoglu
Proteinogenic l-amino acids (l-AAs) are essential in all kingdoms as building blocks of proteins. Their d-enantiomers are also known to fulfill important functions in microbes, fungi, and animals, but information about these molecules in plants is still sparse. Previously, it was shown that d-amino acids (d-AAs) are taken up and utilized by plants, but their ways to reduce excessive amounts of them still remained unclear. Analyses of plant d-AA content after d-Ala and d-Glu feeding opened the question if exudation of d-AAs into the rhizosphere takes place and plays a role in the reduction of d-AA content in plants...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Weili Gong, Lin Dai, Huaiqiang Zhang, Lili Zhang, Lushan Wang
Xylan constituted with β-1,4-D-xylose linked backbone and diverse substituted side-chains is the most abundant hemicellulose component of biomass, which can be completely and rapidly degraded into fermentable sugars by Aspergillus niger . This is of great value for obtaining renewable biofuels and biochemicals. To clarify the underlying mechanisms associated with highly efficient xylan degradation, assimilation, and metabolism by A. niger , we utilized functional proteomics to analyze the secreted proteins, sugar transporters, and intracellular proteins of A...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hee Geun Park, Kwang Sik Lee, Bo Yeon Kim, Hyung Joo Yoon, Yong Soo Choi, Kyung Yong Lee, Hu Wan, Jianhong Li, Byung Rae Jin
Honeybee (Apis mellifera) egg-yolk protein vitellogenin (Vg) plays roles in immunity, antioxidation, and life span beyond reproduction, but it also acts as an allergen Api m 12 in venom. Here we established antimicrobial and antioxidant roles of honeybee Vg in the body and venom. Using the cDNA encoding Vg identified from Asiatic honeybee (A. cerana) workers, recombinant A. cerana Vg (AcVg) protein of approximately 180 kDa was produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells. In A. cerana worker bees, AcVg was expressed in the fat body and venom gland and was present in the secreted venom...
April 2, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Maria T E Prauße, Teresa Lehnert, Sandra Timme, Kerstin Hünniger, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Marc Thilo Figge
Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Paula Fagundes de Gouvêa, Aline Vianna Bernardi, Luis Eduardo Gerolamo, Emerson de Souza Santos, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Sergio Akira Uyemura, Taisa Magnani Dinamarco
BACKGROUND: Sugarcane bagasse has been proposed as a lignocellulosic residue for second-generation ethanol (2G) produced by breaking down biomass into fermentable sugars. The enzymatic cocktails for biomass degradation are mostly produced by fungi, but low cost and high efficiency can consolidate 2G technologies. A. fumigatus plays an important role in plant biomass degradation capabilities and recycling. To gain more insight into the divergence in gene expression during steam-exploded bagasse (SEB) breakdown, this study profiled the transcriptome of A...
April 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
Funso Emmanuel Ogunmolu, Inderjeet Kaur, Nandita Pasari, Mayank Gupta, Syed Shams Yazdani
Filamentous fungi respond to the need to secure utilisable carbon from their growth milieu by secreting unique extracellular proteins depending upon the types of polymeric substrates. We have here profiled the variations in the secretome pattern of a non-model hypercellulolytic fungus - Penicillium funiculosum, grown in minimal media containing four different polymeric cellulase inducers, i.e., Avicel, wheat bran, ammonium-pretreated wheat straw and Avicel & wheat bran, and glucose over its early and late log phases of growth...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Maria Elisa Drago-Serrano, Rafael Campos-Rodriguez, Julio Cesar Carrero, Mireya de la Garza
Lactoferrin (Lf) is a conserved cationic non-heme glycoprotein that is part of the innate immune defense system of mammals. Lf is present in colostrum, milk and mucosal sites, and it is also produced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils and secreted at infection sites. Lf and Lf N-terminus peptide-derivatives named lactoferricins (Lfcins) are molecules with microbiostatic and microbicidal action in a wide array of pathogens. In addition, they display regulatory properties on components of nonspecific immunity, including toll-like receptors, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and reactive oxygen species...
March 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Tian Zeng, Rens Holmer, Jan Hontelez, Bas Te Lintel-Hekkert, Lucky Marufu, Thijs de Zeeuw, Fangyuan Wu, Elio Schijlen, Ton Bisseling, Erik Limpens
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form the most wide-spread endosymbiosis with plants. There is very little host-specificity in this interaction, however host preferences as well as varying symbiotic efficiencies have been observed. We hypothesize that secreted proteins (SPs) may act as fungal effectors to control symbiotic efficiency in a host-dependent manner. Therefore, we studied whether AM fungi adjust their secretome in a host- and stage-dependent manner to contribute to their extremely wide host-range. We investigated the expression of SP-encoding genes of Rhizophagus irregularis in three evolutionary distantly-related plant species, Medicago truncatula, Nicotiana benthamiana and Allium schoenoprasum...
March 23, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Jana Sperschneider, Peter N Dodds, Donald M Gardiner, Karam B Singh, Jennifer M Taylor
Plant-pathogenic fungi secrete effector proteins to facilitate infection. We describe extensive improvements to EffectorP, the first machine learning classifier for fungal effector prediction. EffectorP 2.0 is now trained on a larger set of effectors and utilizes a different approach based on an ensemble of classifiers trained on different subsets of negative data, offering different views on classification. EffectorP 2.0 achieves accuracy of 89%, compared to 82% for EffectorP 1.0 and 59.8% for a small size classifier...
March 22, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Kevin K Fuller, Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
Regulatable promoters are important genetic tools, particularly for assigning function to essential and redundant genes. They can also be used to control the expression of enzymes that influence metabolic flux or protein secretion, thereby optimizing product yield in bioindustry. This review will focus on regulatable systems for use in filamentous fungi, an important group of organisms whose members include key research models, devastating pathogens of plants and animals, and exploitable cell factories. Though we will begin by cataloging those promoters that are controlled by nutritional or chemical means, our primary focus will rest on those who can be controlled by a literal flip-of-the-switch: promoters of light-regulated genes...
March 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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