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extracellular secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230977/extracellular-self-assembly-of-functional-and-tunable-protein-conjugates-from-bacillus-subtilis
#1
Charlie Gilbert, Mark Howarth, Colin R Harwood, Tom Ellis
The ability to stably and specifically conjugate recombinant proteins to one another is a powerful approach for engineering multifunctional enzymes, protein therapeutics and novel biological materials. While many of these applications have been illustrated through in vitro and in vivo intracellular protein conjugation methods, extracellular self-assembly of protein conjugates offers unique advantages: simplifying purification, reducing toxicity and burden, and enabling tunability. Exploiting the recently described SpyTag-SpyCatcher system, we describe here how enzymes and structural proteins can be genetically-encoded to covalently conjugate in culture media following programmable secretion from Bacillus subtilis...
February 23, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230813/characterization-of-carbonic-anhydrase-9-in-the-alimentary-canal-of-aedes-aegypti-and-its-relationship-to-homologous-mosquito-carbonic-anhydrases
#2
Daniel P Dixon, Leslie Van Ekeris, Paul J Linser
In the mosquito midgut, luminal pH regulation and cellular ion transport processes are important for the digestion of food and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. pH regulation in the mosquito gut is affected by the vectorial movement of the principal ions including bicarbonate/carbonate and protons. As in all metazoans, mosquitoes employ the product of aerobic metabolism carbon dioxide in its bicarbonate/carbonate form as one of the major buffers of cellular and extracellular pH. The conversion of metabolic carbon dioxide to bicarbonate/carbonate is accomplished by a family of enzymes encoded by the carbonic anhydrase gene family...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230336/the-endothelial-border-to-health-mechanistic-evidence-of-the-hyperglycemic-culprit-of-inflammatory-disease-acceleration
#3
REVIEW
Nina Waerling Hansen, Anker Jon Hansen, Anette Sams
The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases...
March 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230321/disruption-of-genes-involved-in-corvet-complex-leads-to-enhanced-secretion-of-heterologous-carboxylesterase-only-in-protease-deficient-pichia-pastoris
#4
Lukas Marsalek, Clemens Gruber, Friedrich Altmann, Markus Aleschko, Diethard Mattanovich, Brigitte Gasser, Verena Puxbaum
The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (Komagataella spp.) is a popular microbial host for the production of recombinant proteins. Previous studies have shown that mis-sorting to the vacuole can be a bottleneck during production of recombinant secretory proteins in yeast, however, no information was available for P. pastoris. In this work we have therefore generated vps (vacuolar protein sorting) mutant strains disrupted in genes involved in the CORVET tethering complex at the early stages of endosomal sorting...
February 23, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229332/the-role-of-riboflavin-in-decolourisation-of-congo-red-and-bioelectricity-production-using-shewanella-oneidensis-mr1-under-mfc-and-non-mfc-conditions
#5
Ola M Gomaa, Segun Fapetu, Godfrey Kyazze, Tajalli Keshavarz
Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria can exchange electrons extracellularly and hold great promise for their use in simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity production. This study investigated the role of riboflavin, an electron carrier, in the decolourisation of Congo red in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) using Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a model organism. The contribution of the membrane-bound protein MtrC to the decolourisation process was also investigated. Within the range of riboflavin concentrations tested, 20 µM was found to be the best with >95% of the dye (initial concentration 200 mg/L) decolourised in MFCs within 50 h compared to 90% in the case where no riboflavin was added...
March 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228748/chromogranin-a-regulation-of-obesity-and-peripheral-insulin-sensitivity
#6
REVIEW
Gautam K Bandyopadhyay, Sushil K Mahata
Chromogranin A (CgA) is a prohormone and granulogenic factor in endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues, as well as in neurons, and has a regulated secretory pathway. The intracellular functions of CgA include the initiation and regulation of dense-core granule biogenesis and sequestration of hormones in neuroendocrine cells. This protein is co-stored and co-released with secreted hormones. The extracellular functions of CgA include the generation of bioactive peptides, such as pancreastatin (PST), vasostatin, WE14, catestatin (CST), and serpinin...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228478/an-engineered-tgf-%C3%AE-monomer-that-functions-as-a-dominant-negative-to-block-tgf-%C3%AE-signaling
#7
Sun Kyung Kim, Lindsey Barron, Cynthia S Hinck, Elyse M Petrunak, Kristin E Cano, Avinash Thangirala, Brian Iskra, Molly Brothers, Machell Vonberg, Belinda Leal, Blair Richter, Ravindra Kodali, Alex B Taylor, Shoucheng Du, Christopher O Barnes, Traian Sulea, Guillermo Calero, P John Hart, Matthew J Hart, Borries Demeler, Andrew P Hinck
The transforming growth factor beta isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. In spite of the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor, TβRI, but dispensible for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor, TβRII, as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223942/ameloblastin-peptides-modulates-the-osteogenic-capacity-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Øystein Stakkestad, Ståle P Lyngstadaas, Jiri Vondrasek, Jan O Gordeladze, Janne Elin Reseland
During amelogenesis the extracellular enamel matrix protein AMBN is quickly processed into 17 kDa (N-terminus) and 23 kDa (C-terminus) fragments. In particular, alternatively spliced regions derived by exon 5/6 within the N-terminus region are known to be critical in biomineralization. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) also express and secrete AMBN, but it is unclear if this expression has effects on the hMSC themselves. If, as suggested from previous findings, AMBN act as a signaling molecule, such effects could influence hMSC growth and differentiation, as well as promoting the secretion of other signaling proteins like cytokines and chemokines...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223920/therapeutic-potential-of-secreted-amyloid-precursor-protein-apps%C3%AE
#9
REVIEW
Bruce G Mockett, Max Richter, Wickliffe C Abraham, Ulrike C Müller
Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-secretase generates an extracellularly released fragment termed secreted APP-alpha (APPsα). Not only is this process of interest due to the cleavage of APP within the amyloid-beta sequence, but APPsα itself has many physiological properties that suggest its great potential as a therapeutic target. For example, APPsα is neurotrophic, neuroprotective, neurogenic, a stimulator of protein synthesis and gene expression, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223520/membrane-integration-of-an-essential-%C3%AE-barrel-protein-prerequires-burial-of-an-extracellular-loop
#10
Joseph S Wzorek, James Lee, David Tomasek, Christine L Hagan, Daniel E Kahne
The Bam complex assembles β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. These proteins comprise cylindrical β-sheets with long extracellular loops and create pores to allow passage of nutrients and waste products across the membrane. Despite their functional importance, several questions remain about how these proteins are assembled into the OM after their synthesis in the cytoplasm and secretion across the inner membrane. To understand this process better, we studied the assembly of an essential β-barrel substrate for the Bam complex, BamA...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222767/knockdown-of-slc41a1-magnesium-transporter-promotes-mineralization-and-attenuates-magnesium-inhibition-during-osteogenesis-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#11
Yu-Tzu Tsao, Ya-Yi Shih, Yu-An Liu, Yi-Shiuan Liu, Oscar K Lee
BACKGROUND: Magnesium is essential for numerous physiological functions. Magnesium exists mostly in bone and the amount is dynamically regulated by skeletal remodeling. Accelerating bone mass loss occurs when magnesium intake is insufficient; whereas high magnesium could lead to mineralization defects. However, the underlying magnesium regulatory mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high extracellular magnesium concentration on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and the role of magnesium transporter SLC41A1 in the mineralization process...
February 21, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222213/rab7a-regulates-tau-secretion
#12
Lilia Rodriguez, Nguyen-Vi Mohamed, Alexandre Desjardins, Roger Lippé, Edward Fon, Nicole Leclerc
The axonal microtubule-associated protein TAU, involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be found in the extracellular space where it could be taken up by neurons, an event that is believed to contribute to the propagation of tau pathology in the brain. Since the small GTPase Rab7A is involved in the trafficking of endosomes, autophagosomes and lysosomes, and RAB7A gene expression and protein levels are upregulated in AD patients, we tested the hypothesis that Rab7A was involved in Tau secretion. We previously reported that both primary cortical neurons and HeLa cells overexpressing human TAU can release Tau...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219792/conjugative-type-iv-secretion-in-gram-positive-pathogens-trag-a-lytic-transglycosylase-and-endopeptidase-interacts-with-translocation-channel-protein-tram
#13
Verena Kohler, Ines Probst, Andreas Aufschnaiter, Sabrina Büttner, Lisa Schaden, Gerald Rechberger, Günther Koraimann, Elisabeth Grohmann, Walter Keller
Conjugative transfer plays a major role in the transmission of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. pIP501 is a Gram-positive conjugative model plasmid with the broadest transfer host-range known so far and is frequently found in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium clinical isolates. The pIP501 type IV secretion system is encoded by 15 transfer genes. In this work, we focus on the VirB1-like protein TraG, a modular peptidoglycan metabolizing enzyme, and the VirB8-homolog TraM, a potential member of the translocation channel...
February 17, 2017: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219131/-recombinant-human-bone-morphogenetic-protein-7-inhibits-the-proliferation-and-extracellular-matrix-secretion-of-fibroblast-of-urethral-scars
#14
Y Wu, L M Ma, B Cai, H L Li, Q W Xing
Objective: To study the effect and its mechanism of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 (rhBMP-7) on urethral keloid fibroblast. Methods: Urethral fibroblasts were extracted and cultured, and the fourth-generation fibroblasts were used for experiment. Urethral fibroblasts were treated with rhBMP-7. Proliferation rate was detected by CCK-8 method. RT-PCR was applied to test changes of mRNA in α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type Ⅰ collagen protein (COL-1) of each group. Western blot was used to measure α-SMA protein expression and the effect of rhBMP-7 on signaling pathway of urethral keloid fibroblasts...
February 14, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218971/growth-factors-and-hormones-pro-peptides-the-unexpected-adventures-of-the-bdnf-prodomain-pbdnf
#15
REVIEW
Juan Pablo Zanin, Nicolás Unsain, Agustin Anastasia
Most growth factors and hormones are synthesized as pre-pro-proteins which are processed to the biologically active mature protein. The pre- and prodomains are cleaved from the precursor protein in the secretory pathway or, in some cases, extracellularly. The canonical functions of these prodomains are to assist in folding and stabilization of the mature domain, to direct intra and extracellular localization, to facilitate storage, and to regulate bioavailability of their mature counterpart. Recently, exciting evidence has revealed that prodomains of certain growth factors, after cleaved from the precursor pro-protein, can act as independent active signaling molecules...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218627/gata4-dependent-organ-specific-endothelial-differentiation-controls-liver-development-and-embryonic-hematopoiesis
#16
Cyrill Géraud, Philipp-Sebastian Koch, Johanna Zierow, Kay Klapproth, Katrin Busch, Victor Olsavszky, Thomas Leibing, Alexandra Demory, Friederike Ulbrich, Miriam Diett, Sandhya Singh, Carsten Sticht, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Karsten Richter, Sanna-Maria Karppinen, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Bernd Arnold, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Hellmut G Augustin, Kai Schledzewski, Sergij Goerdt
Microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) are increasingly recognized as organ-specific gatekeepers of their microenvironment. Microvascular ECs instruct neighboring cells in their organ-specific vascular niches through angiocrine factors, which include secreted growth factors (angiokines), extracellular matrix molecules, and transmembrane proteins. However, the molecular regulators that drive organ-specific microvascular transcriptional programs and thereby regulate angiodiversity are largely elusive. In contrast to other ECs, which form a continuous cell layer, liver sinusoidal ECs (LSECs) constitute discontinuous, permeable microvessels...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218291/a-pan-cancer-analysis-of-secreted-frizzled-related-proteins-re-examining-their-proposed-tumour-suppressive-function
#17
Krista Marie Vincent, Lynne-Marie Postovit
Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs), containing five family members (SFRPs 1-5) are putative extracellular Wnt inhibitors. Given their abilities to inhibit Wnt signalling, as well as the loss of SFRP1 in many cancers, this family is generally considered to be tumour suppressive. In this study we analyzed gene expression, promoter methylation and survival data from over 8000 tumour and normal samples from 29 cancers in order to map the context-specific associations of SFRPs 1-5 with patient survival, gene silencing and gene expression signatures...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216675/extracellular-superoxide-dismutase-expression-in-papillary-thyroid-cancer-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-modulates-cancer-cell-growth-and-migration
#18
Alessia Parascandolo, Francesca Rappa, Francesco Cappello, Jaehyup Kim, David A Cantu, Herbert Chen, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Peiman Hematti, Maria Domenica Castellone, Marco Salvatore, Mikko O Laukkanen
Tumor stroma-secreted growth factors, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence tumor development from early stages to the metastasis phase. Previous studies have demonstrated downregulation of ROS-producing extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) in thyroid cancer cell lines although according to recent data, the expression of SOD3 at physiological levels stimulates normal and cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, to analyze the expression of SOD3 in tumor stroma, we characterized stromal cells from the thyroid...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216632/resveratrol-treatment-reveals-a-novel-role-for-hmgb1-in-regulation-of-the-type-1-interferon-response-in-dengue-virus-infection
#19
Nurhafiza Zainal, Chih-Peng Chang, Yi-Lin Cheng, Yan-Wei Wu, Robert Anderson, Shu-Wen Wan, Chia-Ling Chen, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Sazaly AbuBakar, Yee-Shin Lin
Dengue is one of the most significant mosquito-borne virus diseases worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study sought to examine the antiviral activity of resveratrol (RESV), a phytoalexin secreted naturally by plants, against dengue virus (DENV) infection. Our data showed that RESV inhibits the translocation of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a DNA binding protein that normally resides in the nucleus, into the cytoplasm and extracellular milieu. HMGB1 migrates out of the nucleus during DENV infection...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216464/exosomes-as-novel-bio-carriers-for-gene-and-drug-delivery
#20
REVIEW
Xin-Chi Jiang, Jian-Qing Gao
Clinical treatments have stalled in certain diseases due to a lack of proper therapeutic delivery systems. Recent studies have identified exosomes for their potential use as cell-free therapies, which may provide a novel mechanism for solving this problem. Exosomes are nanoscale extracellular vesicles that can transport rich cargos of proteins, lipids, DNA, and RNA. It is increasingly recognized that exosomes play a complex role in not only the physiological conditions but also pathological ones. Accumulating evidence suggests that exosomes are of paramount importance in distant cell-cell communication because they can enter the circulation when secreted and pass through additional biological barriers...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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