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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918442/the-role-of-periostin-in-lung-fibrosis-and-airway-remodeling
#1
REVIEW
David N O'Dwyer, Bethany B Moore
Periostin is a protein that plays a key role in development and repair within the biological matrix of the lung. As a matricellular protein that does not contribute to extracellular matrix structure, periostin interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins to regulate the composition of the matrix in the lung and other organs. In this review, we discuss the studies exploring the role of periostin to date in chronic respiratory diseases, namely asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Asthma is a major health problem globally affecting millions of people worldwide with significant associated morbidity and mortality...
September 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915597/il-8-promotes-inflammatory-mediators-and-stimulates-activation-of-p38-mapk-erk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-reduction-of-jnk-in-hnscc
#2
Leong-Perng Chan, Cheng Liu, Feng-Yu Chiang, Ling-Feng Wang, Ka-Wo Lee, Wan-Ting Chen, Po-Lin Kuo, Chia-Hua Liang
This investigation identifies interleukin 8 (IL-8) as the main inflammatory mediator in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The expressions of chemokines of IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6 and the cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were higher in HNSCC patient tissues than in non-cancerous matched tissues (NCMT) whereas the expression of IL-10 was lower. IL-8 is most highly expressed in the tissues of patients with HNSCC. Treatment of HNSCC cells with IL-8 increased the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and reduced IL-10 expression; the increase in the expression of IL-1β was particularly considerable...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914804/the-role-of-erk-signaling-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
Katharina Birkner, Beatrice Wasser, Julia Loos, Alexander Plotnikov, Rony Seger, Frauke Zipp, Esther Witsch, Stefan Bittner
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling plays a crucial role in regulating immune cell function and has been implicated in autoimmune disorders. To date, all commercially available inhibitors of ERK target upstream components, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase/ERK kinase (MEKs), but not ERK itself. Here, we directly inhibit nuclear ERK translocation by a novel pharmacological approach (Glu-Pro-Glu (EPE) peptide), leading to an increase in cytosolic ERK phosphorylation during T helper (Th)17 cell differentiation...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913500/neuroendocrine-stress-response-implications-for-cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury
#4
REVIEW
J Mauricio Del Rio, Alina Nicoara, Madhav Swaminathan
Surgical stress causes biochemical and physiologic perturbations of every homeostatic axis. These alterations include volume/baroreceptor regulation, sympathetic activation, parasympathetic suppression, neuroendocrine activation, acute phase response protein synthesis and secretion, immune response modulation and long-term behavioral adaptation. The kidney is central to the stress response because of its main role in the maintenance of water, electrolyte balance and hence, intracellular and extracellular compartments, including the intravascular volume...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911210/a20-an-essential-component-of-the-ubiquitin-editing-protein-complex-is-a-negative-regulator-of-inflammation-in-human-myometrium-and-foetal-membranes
#5
Martha Lappas
STUDY QUESTION: Does A20 regulate mediators involved in the terminal processes of human labour in primary myometrial and amnion cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: A20 is a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) responsive gene that acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB-induced expression of pro-labour mediators. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Inflammation is commonly implicated in spontaneous preterm birth and the processes involved in rupture of foetal membranes and uterine contractions...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911209/intracellular-activation-of-ovastacin-mediates-pre-fertilization-hardening-of-the-zona-pellucida
#6
Hagen Körschgen, Michael Kuske, Konstantin Karmilin, Irene Yiallouros, Melanie Balbach, Julia Floehr, Dagmar Wachten, Willi Jahnen-Dechent, Walter Stöcker
STUDY QUESTION: How and where is pro-ovastacin activated and how does active ovastacin regulate zona pellucida hardening (ZPH) and successful fertilization? STUDY FINDING: Ovastacin is partially active before exocytosis and pre-hardens the zona pellucida (ZP) before fertilization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The metalloproteinase ovastacin is stored in cortical granules, it cleaves zona pellucida protein 2 (ZP2) upon fertilization and thereby destroys the ZP sperm ligand and triggers ZPH...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911184/subcellular-localization-and-function-study-of-a-secreted-phospholipase-c-from-nocardia-seriolae
#7
Liqun Xia, Haiying Liang, Liang Xu, Jianlin Chen, Michaël Bekaert, Honglian Zhang, Yishan Lu
Fish nocardiosis is a chronic systemic granulomatous disease, and Nocardia seriolae is the main pathogen that causes it. The pathogenesis and virulence factors of N. seriolae are not fully understood. A phospholipase C (PLC), which is likely to be a secreted protein targeting host cell mitochondria, was found by a bioinformatics analysis of the whole genome sequence of N. seriolae. In order to determine the subcellular localization and study the preliminary function of PLC from N. seriolae (NsPLC), in this study gene cloning, secreted protein identification, subcellular localization in host cells and apoptosis detection of NsPLC were carried out...
September 15, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906477/microrna-signaling-in-embryo-development
#8
REVIEW
Nicole Gross, Jenna Kropp, Hasan Khatib
Expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is essential for embryonic development and serves important roles in gametogenesis. miRNAs are secreted into the extracellular environment by the embryo during the preimplantation stage of development. Several cell types secrete miRNAs into biological fluids in the extracellular environment. These fluid-derived miRNAs have been shown to circulate the body. Stable transport is dependent on proper packaging of the miRNAs into extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes. These vesicles, which also contain RNA, DNA and proteins, are on the forefront of research on cell-to-cell communication...
September 14, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904531/potential-therapeutic-mechanisms-and-tracking-of-transplanted-stem-cells-implications-for-stroke-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Yanhong Zhang, Honghong Yao
Stem cell therapy is a promising potential therapeutic strategy to treat cerebral ischemia in preclinical and clinical trials. Currently proposed treatments for stroke employing stem cells include the replacement of lost neurons and integration into the existing host circuitry, the release of growth factors to support and promote endogenous repair processes, and the secretion of extracellular vesicles containing proteins, noncoding RNA, or DNA to regulate gene expression in recipient cells and achieve immunomodulation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903971/extracellular-s100a9-protein-in-bone-marrow-supports-multiple-myeloma-survival-by-stimulating-angiogenesis-and-cytokine-secretion
#10
Kim De Veirman, Nathan De Beule, Ken Maes, Eline Menu, Elke De Bruyne, Hendrik De Raeve, Karel Fostier, Jerome Moreaux, Alboukadel Kassambara, Dirk Hose, Roy Heusschen, Helena Eriksson, Karin Vanderkerken, Els Van Valckenborgh
Dysregulated expression of S100 protein family members is associated with cancer proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and inflammation. S100A9 induces myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) accumulation and activity. MDSCs, immunosuppressive cells that contribute to tumor immune escape, are the main producers of S100A9. In this study, we evaluated the role of extracellular S100A9 and the therapeutic relevance of S100A9 inhibition in multiple myeloma (MM), using the immunocompetent murine 5T33MM model. We demonstrated the presence of S100A9 and its receptor TLR4 in both monocytic and granulocytic MDSCs in human and mouse samples...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901407/colon-cancer-recurrence%C3%A2-associated-genes-revealed-by-wgcna-co%C3%A2-expression-network-analysis
#11
Xiaofeng Zhai, Qingfeng Xue, Qun Liu, Yuyu Guo, Zhe Chen
The present study aimed to identify the recurrence‑associated genes in colon cancer, which may provide theoretical evidence for the development of novel methods to prevent tumor recurrence. Colon cancer and matched normal samples microarray data (E‑GEOD‑39582) were downloaded from ArrayExpress. Genes with significant variation were identified, followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Subsequently, the co‑expression network of DEGs was constructed using the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) method, which was verified using the validation dataset...
August 31, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894469/ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-limbal-epithelial-cells-using-human-placenta-derived-and-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#12
Sang Min Nam, Yong-Sun Maeng, Eung Kweon Kim, Kyoung Yul Seo, Helen Lew
Ex vivo culture of human limbal epithelial cells (LECs) is used to treat limbal stem cell (LSC) deficiency, a vision loss condition, and suitable culture systems using feeder cells or serum without animal elements have been developed. This study evaluated the use of human umbilical cord or placenta mesenchymal stem cells (C-MSCs or P-MSCs, resp.) as feeder cells in an animal/serum-free coculture system with human LECs. C-/P-MSCs stimulated LEC colony formation of the stem cell markers (p63, ABCG2) and secreted known LEC clonal growth factors (keratinocyte growth factor, β-nerve growth factor)...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893556/the-ilk-mmp9-mrtf-axis-is-crucial-for-endmt-differentiation-of-endothelial-cells-in-a-tumor-microenvironment
#13
Wojciech M Ciszewski, Katarzyna Sobierajska, Marta E Wawro, Wanda Klopocka, Natasza Chefczyńska, Angelika Muzyczuk, Kamil Siekacz, Agata Wujkowska, Jolanta Niewiarowska
Increasing evidence indicates that the tumor microenvironment is a critical factor supporting cancer progression, chemoresistance and metastasis. Recently, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been recognized as a crucial tumor stromal component promoting cancer growth and invasiveness via modulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, tumor metabolism and immune reprogramming. One of the main sources of CAFs are endothelial cells undergoing the endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). EndMT is mainly promoted by the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) family secreted by tumor cells, though the role of particular members in EndMT regulation remains poorly understood...
September 8, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892824/resolvin-d1-increases-mucin-secretion-in-cultured-rat-conjunctival-goblet-cells-via-multiple-signaling-pathways
#14
Marit Lippestad, Robin R Hodges, Tor P Utheim, Charles N Serhan, Darlene A Dartt
Purpose: Goblet cells in the conjunctiva secrete mucin into the tear film protecting the ocular surface. The proresolution mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) regulates mucin secretion to maintain homeostasis during physiological conditions and in addition, actively terminates inflammation. We determined the signaling mechanisms used by RvD1 in cultured rat conjunctival goblet cells to increase intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) and induce glycoconjugate secretion. Methods: Increase in [Ca2+]i were measured using fura 2/AM and glycoconjugate secretion determined using an enzyme-linked lectin assay with the lectin Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin 1...
September 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892788/triptolide-suppresses-growth-and-hormone-secretion-in-murine-pituitary-corticotroph-tumor-cells-via-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#15
Ran Li, Zhuo Zhang, Junwen Wang, Yiming Huang, Wei Sun, Ruifan Xie, Feng Hu, Ting Lei
Triptolide is a principal diterpene triepoxide from the Chinese medical plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f., whose extracts have been utilized in dealing with diverse diseases in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Recently, the antitumor effect of triptolide has been found in several pre-clinical neoplasm models, but its effect on pituitary corticotroph adenomas has not been investigated so far. In this study, we are aiming to figure out the antitumor effect of triptolide and address the underlying molecular mechanism in AtT20 murine corticotroph cell line...
September 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891814/fibroblast-specific-tgf-%C3%AE-smad2-3-signaling-underlies-cardiac-fibrosis
#16
Hadi Khalil, Onur Kanisicak, Vikram Prasad, Robert N Correll, Xing Fu, Tobias Schips, Ronald J Vagnozzi, Ruijie Liu, Thanh Huynh, Se-Jin Lee, Jason Karch, Jeffery D Molkentin
The master cytokine TGF-β mediates tissue fibrosis associated with inflammation and tissue injury. TGF-β induces fibroblast activation and differentiation into myofibroblasts that secrete extracellular matrix proteins. Canonical TGF-β signaling mobilizes Smad2 and Smad3 transcription factors that control fibrosis by promoting gene expression. However, the importance of TGF-β-Smad2/3 signaling in fibroblast-mediated cardiac fibrosis has not been directly evaluated in vivo. Here, we examined pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis in fibroblast- and myofibroblast-specific inducible Cre-expressing mouse lines with selective deletion of the TGF-β receptors Tgfbr1/2, Smad2, or Smad3...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891420/influence-of-al-iii-on-biofilm-and-its-extracellular-polymeric-substances%C3%AF-eps%C3%AF-in-sequencing-batch-biofilm-reactors-sbbrs
#17
Xuewei Hu, Lei Yang, Xinke Lai, Qi Yao, Kai Chen
This paper presented the influence of Al (III) on biodegradability, micromorphology, composition and functional groups characteristics of the biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), during different growth phases. The sequencing batch biofilm reactors (SBBRs) were developed to cultivate biofilms under different Al (III) dosage. The results elucidated that Al (III) affected biofilm development adversely at the beginning of biofilm growth, but promoted the biofilm mass and improved the biofilm activity with the growth of biofilm...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890882/neutrophils-to-the-roscue-mechanisms-of-nadph-oxidase-activation-and-bacterial-resistance
#18
REVIEW
Giang T Nguyen, Erin R Green, Joan Mecsas
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by NADPH oxidase play an important role in antimicrobial host defense and inflammation. Their deficiency in humans results in recurrent and severe bacterial infections, while their unregulated release leads to pathology from excessive inflammation. The release of high concentrations of ROS aids in clearance of invading bacteria. Localization of ROS release to phagosomes containing pathogens limits tissue damage. Host immune cells, like neutrophils, also known as PMNs, will release large amounts of ROS at the site of infection following the activation of surface receptors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889977/novel-organelles-with-elements-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-secretion-systems-weaponize-parasites-of-drosophila
#19
Mary Ellen Heavner, Johnny Ramroop, Gwenaelle Gueguen, Girish Ramrattan, Georgia Dolios, Michael Scarpati, Jonathan Kwiat, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rong Wang, Shaneen Singh, Shubha Govind
The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887420/the-flexibility-rigidity-coordination-of-dense-exopolysaccharide-matrix-in-terrestrial-cyanobacteria-acclimated-to-periodic-desiccation
#20
Wen Liu, Lijuan Cui, Haiyan Xu, Zhaoxia Zhu, Xiang Gao
A dense exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix is crucial for cyanobacterial survival in terrestrial xeric environments, in which cyanobacteria undergo frequent expansion and shrinkage processes during environmental desiccation-rehydration cycles. However, it is unclear how terrestrial cyanobacteria coordinate the structural dynamics of the EPS matrix upon the expansion and shrinkage to avoid potential mechanical stress while benefiting from the matrix. In the present study, we sought to answer this question by investigating the gene expression, protein dynamics, enzymatic characteristics and biological roles of WSPA, an abundantly secreted protein, in the representative terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme The results demonstrated that WSPA is a novel β-galactosidase that facilitates softening of the EPS matrix by breaking the polysaccharide backbone under substantial moisture or facilitates the thickening and re-linkage of the broken matrix upon drying process, and thus these regulations are well correlated with moisture availability or desiccation-rehydration cycles...
September 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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