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extracellular secreted protein

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914270/surface-mediated-transfection-of-a-pdna-vector-encoding-short-hairpin-rna-to-downregulate-tgf-%C3%AE-1-expression-for-the-prevention-of-in-stent-restenosis
#1
He Zhang, Ke-Feng Ren, Hao Chang, Jin-Lei Wang, Jian Ji
In-stent restenosis is one of the most serious modes of failure of cardiovascular stent implant. Although drug-eluting stents have been proven to reduce in-stent restenosis, the nonspecific inhibitory effects of anti-proliferative drugs, such as rapamycin, result in delayed re-endothelialization and fatal late stent thrombosis. Although many studies have focused on promoting rapid re-endothelialization, a feasible method of reducing excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production and cell proliferation might provide a promising way to efficiently inhibit the restenosis in vivo...
November 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914020/characterization-of-xylanase-and-cellulase-produced-by-a-newly-isolated-aspergillus-fumigatus-n2-and-its-efficient-saccharification-of-barley-straw
#2
Chaoyang Lin, Zhicheng Shen, Wensheng Qin
Aspergillus fumigatus N2 was isolated from decaying wood. This strain produces extracellular xylanases and cellulases. The highest xylanase (91.9 U/mL) and CMCase (5.61 U/mL) activity was produced when 1% barley straw was used as the carbon source. The optimum pH and temperature for xylanase activity were 6.0 and 65 °C, respectively. CMCase revealed maximum activity at pH 4.0 and in the range of 65 °C. The FPase was optimally active at pH 5.0 and 60 °C. The zymograms produced by the SDS-PAGE resolution of the crude enzymes indicated that multiple enzymes were secreted into the fermentation supernatant...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913415/a-highly-expressed-high-molecular-weight-s-layer-complex-of-pelosinus-strain-ufo1-binds-uranium
#3
Michael P Thorgersen, W Andrew Lancaster, Lara Rajeev, Xiaoxuan Ge, Brian J Vaccaro, Farris L Poole, Adam P Arkin, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Michael W W Adams
: Cells suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl ligands on protein(s). The goal of this project was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203...
December 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911717/extracellular-matrix-endocytosis-in-controlling-matrix-turnover-and-beyond-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Elena Rainero
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of secreted proteins that, beyond providing support for tissues and organs, is involved in the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cell proliferation, polarity, migration and oncogenic transformation. ECM homeostasis is maintained through a tightly controlled balance between synthesis, deposition and degradation. While the role of metalloproteases in ECM degradation is widely recognised, the contribution of ECM internalisation and intracellular degradation to ECM maintenance has been mostly overlooked...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909812/in-phyllodes-tumors-of-the-breast-expression-of-sparc-osteonectin-bm40-mrna-by-in-situ-hybridization-correlates-with-protein-expression-by-immunohistochemistry-and-is-associated-with-tumor-progression
#5
Nah Ihm Kim, Ga-Eon Kim, Ji Shin Lee, Min Ho Park
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The present work was undertaken to detect expression of SPARC mRNA in phyllodes tumors (PTs) and its association with SPARC protein expression. This study also evaluated expression of SPARC mRNA and its correlation between grade and clinical behavior of PTs. In addition, we assessed in PTs the association of expression of SPARC with that of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and of MMP-9. SPARC mRNA expression was determined by RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH) in 50 benign, 22 borderline, and 10 malignant PTs using a tissue microarray...
December 1, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909058/secreted-glioblastoma-nanovesicles-contain-intracellular-signaling-proteins-and-active-ras-incorporated-in-a-farnesylation-dependent-manner
#6
Natalie Luhtala, Aaron Aslanian, John R Yates, Tony Hunter
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are malignant brain tumors with a median survival of less than 18 months. Redundancy of signaling pathways represented within GBMs contributes to their therapeutic resistance. Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles released from cells and present in human biofluids that represent a possible biomarker of tumor signaling state that could aid in personalized treatment. Herein, we demonstrate that mouse GBM cell-derived extracellular nanovesicles resembling exosomes from an H-RasV12 myr-Akt mouse model for GBM are enriched for intracellular signaling cascade proteins (GO: 0007242) and Ras protein signal transduction (GO: 0007265), and contain active Ras...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909054/identification-of-a-substrate-selective-exosite-within-the-metalloproteinase-anthrax-lethal-factor
#7
Allison B Goldberg, Eunice Cho, Chad J Miller, Hua Jane Lou, Benjamin E Turk
The metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is secreted by Bacillus anthracis to promote disease virulence through disruption of host signaling pathways. LF is a highly specific protease, exclusively cleaving mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) and rodent NACHT leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein 1B (NLRP1B). How LF achieves such restricted substrate specificity is not understood. Previous studies have suggested the existence of an exosite interaction between LF and MKKs that promotes cleavage efficiency and specificity...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909049/control-of-secreted-protein-gene-expression-and-the-mammalian-secretome-by-the-metabolic-regulator-pgc-1%C3%AE
#8
Neri Minsky, Robert G Roeder
Secreted proteins serve pivotal roles in the development of multicellular organisms, acting as structural matrix, extracellular enzymes and signal molecules. However, how the secretome is regulated remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, unexpectedly, that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a critical transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, functions to down-regulate expression of diverse genes encoding secreted molecules and extracellular matrix (ECM) components to modulate the secretome...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908613/sparc-interacts-with-actin-in-skeletal-muscle-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#9
Louise H Jørgensen, Pia Lørup Jepsen, Anders Boysen, Line B Dalgaard, Lars G Hvid, Niels Ørtenblad, Dea Ravn, Jeeva Sellathurai, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Hanns Lochmüller, Henrik D Schrøder
The cytoskeleton is an integral part of skeletal muscle structure, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs during various modes of remodeling. We previously found that the extracellular matrix protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is up-regulated and expressed intracellularly in developing muscle, during regeneration and in myopathies, which together suggests that SPARC might serve a specific role within muscle cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry and verified by staining for direct protein-protein interaction, we find that SPARC binds to actin...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#10
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906035/extracellular-vesicles-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoarthritis
#11
REVIEW
Joseph Withrow, Cameron Murphy, Yutao Liu, Monte Hunter, Sadanand Fulzele, Mark W Hamrick
Osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are both debilitating diseases that cause significant morbidity in the US population. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are now recognized to play important roles in cell-to-cell communication by transporting various proteins, microRNAs (miRNAs), and mRNAs. EV-derived proteins and miRNAs impact cell viability and cell differentiation, and are likely to play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of both OA and RA. Some of the processes by which these membrane-bound vesicles can alter joint tissue include extracellular matrix degradation, cell-to-cell communication, modulation of inflammation, angiogenesis, and antigen presentation...
December 1, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905556/cellular-aspartyl-proteases-promote-the-unconventional-secretion-of-biologically-active-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17
#12
Francesca Caccuri, Maria Luisa Iaria, Federica Campilongo, Kristen Varney, Alessandro Rossi, Stefania Mitola, Silvia Schiarea, Antonella Bugatti, Pietro Mazzuca, Cinzia Giagulli, Simona Fiorentini, Wuyuan Lu, Mario Salmona, Arnaldo Caruso
The human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix protein p17 (p17), although devoid of a signal sequence, is released by infected cells and detected in blood and in different organs and tissues even in HIV-1-infected patients undergoing successful combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Extracellularly, p17 deregulates the function of different cells involved in AIDS pathogenesis. The mechanism of p17 secretion, particularly during HIV-1 latency, still remains to be elucidated. A recent study showed that HIV-1-infected cells can produce Gag without spreading infection in a model of viral latency...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901501/identification-and-characterization-of-peptidases-secreted-by-quahog-parasite-unknown-qpx-the-protistan-parasite-of-hard-clams
#13
Ewelina Rubin, Glenn T Werneburg, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, David G Thanassi, Bassem Allam
Quahog parasite unknown (QPX) is a protistan parasite capable of causing deadly infections in the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, one of the most valuable shellfish species in the USA. QPX is an extracellular parasite found mostly in the connective tissue of clam mantle and, in more severe cases of infection, other clam organs. Histopathologic examinations revealed that QPX cells within clam tissues are typically surrounded by hollow areas that have been hypothesized to be, at least in part, a result of extracellular digestion of clam proteins by the parasite...
November 22, 2016: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900687/cloning-and-expression-of-metagenomic-dna-in-streptomyces-lividans-and-subsequent-fermentation-for-optimized-production
#14
Yuriy Rebets, Jan Kormanec, Andriy Lutzhetskyy, Kristel Bernaerts, Jozef Anné
The choice of an expression system for the metagenomic DNA of interest is of vital importance for the detection of any particular gene or gene cluster. Most of the screens to date have used the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli as a host for metagenomic gene libraries. However, the use of E. coli introduces a potential host bias since only 40 % of the enzymatic activities may be readily recovered by random cloning in E. coli. To recover some of the remaining 60 %, alternative cloning hosts such as Streptomyces spp...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895643/azithromycin-attenuates-pseudomonas-induced-lung-inflammation-by-targeting-bacterial-proteins-secreted-in-the-cultured-medium
#15
Teresinha Leal, Gabriella Bergamini, François Huaux, Nadtha Panin, Sabrina Noel, Barbara Dhooghe, Jeremy B Haaf, Pierluigi Mauri, Sara Motta, Dario Di Silvestre, Paola Melotti, Claudio Sorio
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa airway infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Azithromycin improves the related clinical outcomes, but its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that azithromycin downregulates P. aeruginosa-induced pro-inflammatory responses by modifying release of bacterial proteins. METHODS: We monitored inflammatory markers in lungs of CF mutant mice and their littermate controls in response to conditioned media (CM) collected from the reference P...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895129/the-predicted-lytic-transglycosylase-hpah-from-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-vesicatoria-associates-with-the-type-iii-secretion-system-and-promotes-effector-protein-translocation
#16
Jens Hausner, Nadine Hartmann, Michael Jordan, Daniela Büttner
Pathogenicity of the Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system, which spans both bacterial membranes and translocates effector proteins into plant cells. The assembly of the T3S system presumably involves the predicted lytic transglycosylase (LT) HpaH, which is encoded adjacent to the T3S gene cluster. Bacterial LTs degrade peptidoglycan and often promote the formation of membrane-spanning macromolecular protein complexes. In the present study, we show that HpaH localizes to the bacterial periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan as well as to components of the T3S system including the predicted periplasmic inner rod proteins HrpB1 and HrpB2 as well as the pilus protein HrpE...
November 28, 2016: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894104/proteomic-profiling-of-nci-60-extracellular-vesicles-uncovers-common-protein-cargo-and-cancer-type-specific-biomarkers
#17
Stephanie N Hurwitz, Mark A Rider, Joseph L Bundy, Xia Liu, Rakesh K Singh, David G Meckes
Packed with biological information, extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer exciting promise for biomarker discovery and applications in therapeutics and non-invasive diagnostics. Currently, our understanding of EV contents is confined by the limited cells from which vesicles have been characterized utilizing the same enrichment method. Using sixty cell lines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI-60), here we provide the largest proteomic profile of EVs in a single study, identifying 6,071 proteins with 213 common to all isolates...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893988/endothelin-signaling-in-bone
#18
REVIEW
Jasmin Kristianto, Michael G Johnson, Rafia Afzal, Robert D Blank
The endothelin (ET) system includes 3 small peptide hormones and a pair of G protein-coupled receptors. All 3 ETs are secreted as biologically inert precursors that must be activated by proteolytic cleavage after secretion. This reaction can be catalyzed by a pair of specific, membrane-bound extracellular ET converting enzymes or by nonspecific tissue proteases. The ET1/EDNRA axis is essential in development, with knockout mice for either displaying a similar phenotype featuring multiple defects of the craniofacial skeleton and cardiac outflow tract...
November 11, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891773/cigarette-smoke-alters-the-secretome-of-lung-epithelial-cells
#19
Alessandra Mossina, Christina Lukas, Juliane Merl-Pham, Franziska E Uhl, Kathrin Mutze, Andrea Schamberger, Claudia Staab-Weijnitz, Jie Jia, Ali Ö Yildirim, Melanie Königshoff, Stefanie M Hauck, Oliver Eickelberg, Silke Meiners
Cigarette smoke is the most relevant risk factor for the development of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many of its more than 4500 chemicals are highly reactive thereby altering protein structure and function. Here, we used subcellular fractionation coupled to label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to globally assess alterations in the proteome of different compartments of lung epithelial cells upon exposure to cigarette smoke extract. Proteomic profiling of the human alveolar-derived cell line A549 revealed the most pronounced changes within the cellular secretome with preferential downregulation of proteins involved in wound healing and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization...
November 28, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891125/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acids-contribute-to-biofilm-formation-and-plant-root-colonization-in-selected-environmental-isolates-of-bacillus-subtilis
#20
Yiyang Yu, Fang Yan, Yun Chen, Christopher Jin, Jian-Hua Guo, Yunrong Chai
Bacillus subtilis is long known to produce poly-γ-glutamic acids (γ-PGA) as one of the major secreted polymeric substances. In B. subtilis, the regulation of γ-PGA production and its physiological role are still unclear. B. subtilis is also capable of forming structurally complex multicellular communities, or biofilms, in which an extracellular matrix consisting of secreted proteins and polysaccharides holds individual cells together. Biofilms were shown to facilitate B. subtilis-plant interactions. In this study, we show that different environmental isolates of B...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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