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chia seeds and omega-3 fatty acids

Bruna de Falco, Alberto Fiore, Roberta Rossi, Mariana Amato, Virginia Lanzotti
Chia is a food plant producing seeds which have seen increasing interest owing to their health benefits. This work is the first report on the metabolite profile, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of chia seeds, determined by ultrasound-assisted extraction, coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (UAE GC-MS). Different chia sources were compared: two commercial (black and white) and three early flowering (G3, G8 and G17) mutant genotypes. Organic extracts were mainly composed of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids with alpha-linolenic being the most abundant...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yufei Xue, Baojun Chen, Aung Naing Win, Chun Fu, Jianping Lian, Xue Liu, Rui Wang, Xingcui Zhang, Yourong Chai
Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (ω-3 FAD, D15D) is a key enzyme for α-linolenic acid (ALA) biosynthesis. Both chia (Salvia hispanica) and perilla (Perilla frutescens) contain high levels of ALA in seeds. In this study, the ω-3 FAD gene family was systematically and comparatively cloned from chia and perilla. Perilla FAD3, FAD7, FAD8 and chia FAD7 are encoded by single-copy (but heterozygous) genes, while chia FAD3 is encoded by 2 distinct genes. Only 1 chia FAD8 sequence was isolated. In these genes, there are 1 to 6 transcription start sites, 1 to 8 poly(A) tailing sites, and 7 introns...
2018: PloS One
Katarzyna Marcinek, Zbigniew Krejpcio
Chia has been known for over 5,500 years. Chia seeds were one of the most important components of the diet of Mayas and Aztecs. The chemical composition and technological properties of chia give the plant a high nutritional potential. Chia is a good source of polyunsaturated fatty acids: omega-3 and omega-6, soluble dietary fiber. It also contains appreciable amount of proteins and phytochemicals. Nutritional value of chia is the reason why it is used in prophylaxis of several non-infectious diseases such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer and diabetes...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
Natalia Castejón, Pilar Luna, Francisco J Señoráns
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds contain an important amount of edible oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Fast and alternative extraction techniques based on polar solvents, such as ethanol or water, have become relevant for oil extraction in recent years. However, chia seeds also contain a large amount of soluble fiber or mucilage, which makes difficult an oil extraction process with polar solvents. For that reason, the aim of this study was to develop a gentle extraction method for mucilage in order to extract chia oil with polar solvents using pressurized liquids and compare with organic solvent extraction...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sonia Niculina Suvar, R Bleiziffer, P Podea, A Iordache, C Voica, R Zgavarogea, M Culea
A major cause of cardiovascular diseases and cancer is diet content, so the optimization of micronutrients in food is very important. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation for patients had beneficial effects on subjective global assessment score and metabolic profiles. Fatty acids content and the metal ions in different seeds (e.g. linseed, poppy, grape, hemp, nuts, pumpkin, sesame, watermelon, chia) recommended as food supplements, purchased on the Romanian market, were compared. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as an excellent technique for fatty acids identification and quantitation, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for analytical measurements of metals...
2016: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Faisal Manzoor, Amna Javed, Zafar Ali, Muhammad Nadeem Akhtar, Muhammad Ali, Yasir Hussain
BACKGROUND: Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds have been described as a good source of lipids, protein, dietary fiber, polyphenolic compounds and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The consumption of chia seed oil helps to improve biological markers related to metabolic syndrome diseases. The oil yield and fatty acids composition of chia oil is affected by several factors such as pre-treatment method and size reduction practices. Therefore, the main mandate of present investigate was to study the effect of different seed pre-treatments on yield, fatty acids composition and sensory acceptability of chia oil at different storage intervals and conditions...
September 20, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Rahman Ullah, M Nadeem, A Khalique, M Imran, S Mehmood, A Javid, J Hussain
The ancient grain is becoming enormously popular in modern food regimen in many countries; the higher proportion of α-linolenic acid makes chia the superb source of omega-3 fatty (about 65 % of the oil content). Omega-3 fatty acid has been associated with a large number of physiological functions in human body. Chia seed is a potential source of antioxidants with the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol which are believed to have cardiac, hepatic protective effects, anti-ageing and anti-carcinogenic characteristics...
April 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Azalia Avila-Nava, Lilia G Noriega, Armando R Tovar, Omar Granados, Claudia Perez-Cruz, José Pedraza-Chaverri, Nimbe Torres
SCOPE: There is few information about the possible health effects of a food combination based on a pre-hispanic Mexican diet (PMD). This diet rich in fiber, polyphenols, a healthy ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids, and vegetable protein could improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, gut microbiota and cognitive function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effect of a PMD in a sucrose enriched high-fat model. The PMD contains corn, beans, tomato, nopal, chia and pumpkin seeds in dehydrated form...
January 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
L G Silva, J Bunkers, E M Paula, T Shenkoru, Y Yeh, B Amorati, D Holcombe, A P Faciola
Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow...
April 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Bernard Wallner
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), including omega-3, omega-6 polyunsaturated and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids, are essential components and modulators of neuromembranes and may affect various aspects of physiology and cognition. UFAs are suggested to positively affect spatial learning and memory and also to diminish the negative consequences of physiological stress on cognitive abilities. Due to pronounced sex differences in neurophysiological functions, we hypothesize that these UFA-related effects might differ between male and female individuals...
2015: PloS One
Sreedhar R V, Priya Kumari, Sunny D Rupwate, Ram Rajasekharan, Malathi Srinivasan
Chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae), is a rediscovered crop with great importance in health and nutrition and is also the highest known terrestrial plant source of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA). At present, there is no public genomic information or database available for this crop, hindering research on its genetic improvement through genomics-assisted breeding programs. The first comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptome profile of developing Salvia hispanica L...
2015: PloS One
Ranil Coorey, Agnes Novinda, Hannah Williams, Vijay Jayasena
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil...
January 2015: Journal of Food Science
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Bernard Wallner
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 poly- and omega-9 monounsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients and major components of neuronal cell membranes. They play a major role in modulating brain functions and physiology and may therefore diminish behavioral and physiological stress reactions in corroboration with decreased cortisol concentrations. Functionally, cortisol itself can modulate several behaviors and also the fatty acid metabolism in the long term. But only little is known about the behavioral and physiological influences of dietary UFAs in a social group, where individuals are regularly exposed to stressful situations...
2014: PloS One
John P Chamberland, Hyun-Seuk Moon
Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω-3 fatty acis or n-3 fatty acid) are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. Numerous test tube and animal studies have shown that omega-3 fatty acids may prevent or inhibit the growth of cancers, suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids are important in cancer physiology. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is one of an essential omega-3 fatty acid and organic compound found in seeds (chia and flaxseed), nuts (notably walnuts), and many common vegetable oils...
March 2015: Familial Cancer
Lara Costantini, Lea Lukšič, Romina Molinari, Ivan Kreft, Giovanni Bonafaccia, Laura Manzi, Nicolò Merendino
In this study, chia seed flour, which is rich in omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid, and common and tartary buckwheat flour, which has a high antioxidant activity, were integrated into different types of bread with the aim of improving their nutritional value and healthy features. Our results indicate that bread made with chia and tartary buckwheat flour was more acceptable in many nutritional aspects compared to the control (common wheat bread); it contained a higher amount of protein (20%), insoluble dietary fibres (74%), ash (51%), and alpha-linolenic acid (67...
December 15, 2014: Food Chemistry
Ganesh Diwakar, Jatinder Rana, Lisa Saito, Doug Vredeveld, Dorothy Zemaitis, Jeffrey Scholten
In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis...
September 2014: Fitoterapia
George E Inglett, Diejun Chen, Sean Liu
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 fatty acids of chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) and soluble β-glucan of oat products are known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Nutrim, oat bran concentrate (OBC), and whole oat flour (WOF) were composited with finely ground chia, and used in cookies at 20% replacement of wheat flour for improved nutritional and physical quality. The objective was to evaluate physical properties of chia-oat composites, dough, and cookies. RESULTS: These composites had improved water-holding capacities compared to the starting materials...
December 2014: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Olga Radočaj, Etelka Dimić, Rong Tsao
UNLABELLED: A mixture, simplex centroid, 2 components experimental design was used to evaluate the addition of hemp seed oil press-cake and decaffeinated green tea leaves, as functional ingredients to assess nutritional characteristics and antioxidant properties of gluten-free crackers. All samples with added hemp flour had much better nutritional qualities than the brown rice flour crackers in terms of higher protein, crude fibers, minerals, and essential fatty acids content. Likewise, all samples with added decaffeinated green tea leaves had much better antioxidant properties than crackers with no added green tea leaves...
March 2014: Journal of Food Science
Hemant Poudyal, Sunil K Panchal, Leigh C Ward, Jennifer Waanders, Lindsay Brown
Age-related physiological changes develop at the same time as the increase in metabolic syndrome in humans after young adulthood. There is a paucity of data in models mimicking chronic diet-induced changes in human middle age and interventions to reverse these changes. This study measured the changes during chronic consumption of a high-carbohydrate (as cornstarch), low-fat (C) diet and a high-carbohydrate (as fructose and sucrose), high-fat (H) diet in rats for 32 wk. C diet feeding induced changes without metabolic syndrome, such as disproportionate increases in total body lean and fat mass, reduced bone mineral content, cardiovascular remodeling with increased systolic blood pressure, left ventricular and arterial stiffness, and increased plasma markers of liver injury...
June 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
A Antruejo, J O Azcona, P T Garcia, C Gallinger, M Rosmini, R Ayerza, W Coates, C D Perez
1. Diets high in total lipids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and having high ω-6:ω-3 fatty acid ratios, have been shown to be related to increased instances of coronary heart disease, while diets high in ω-3 fatty acids have been shown to decrease the risk. 2. Feeding ω-3 fatty acid diets to laying hens has been shown to improve the quality of eggs produced in terms of saturation and ω-3 content. 3. A study was undertaken to determine if the ω-3 fatty acid source, when fed to hens, influences the amount transferred to eggs...
December 2011: British Poultry Science
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