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Flax seeds and omega-3 fatty acids

Elizabeth M Sloffer, Shashank Gaur, Nicki J Engeseth, Juan E Andrade
Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are used to prevent and treat moderate and severe acute malnutrition, a leading cause of mortality in children-under-five. The physical and chemical changes of two new LNS products were evaluated before and after accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) according to protocols suggested by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and Doctors without Borders and compared against USAID's A-20 paste as a control. LNS formulas containing Shea butter from the Shea nut tree ( Vitellaria paradoxa ), a common fat source in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, with and without flax-seed oil, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, were developed...
November 8, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
N Abhay Kumar, U J S Prasada Rao, T Jeyarani, D Indrani
The effect of defatted soya flour (DS), flax seed powder (FS) in combination (DSFS) with emulsifiers such as glycerol monostearate, GMS (DSFSG) and sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate, SSL (DSFSS) on the rheological, physico-sensory, protein subunit composition by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), fatty acid profile, and nutritional characteristics of eggless cake was studied. Use of DSFS, DSFSG, and DSFSS increased the amylograph peak viscosity, hot and cold paste viscosities similar to the egg...
October 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
L G Silva, J Bunkers, E M Paula, T Shenkoru, Y Yeh, B Amorati, D Holcombe, A P Faciola
Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow...
April 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Ameneh Cheshmehkani, Ilya S Senatorov, Praveen Kandi, Monalisa Singh, April Britt, Renee Hayslett, Nader H Moniri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Omega-3 fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have long been associated with anti-inflammatory activity and general benefit toward human health. Over the last decade, the identification of a family of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by free-fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, suggest that many effects of PUFA are receptor-mediated...
October 2015: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Karolina Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Anna Kulma, Tadeusz Czuj, Anna Prescha, Magdalena Żuk, Magdalena Grajzer, Marcin Łukaszewicz, Jan Szopa
BACKGROUND: Flaxseed oil is characterized by high content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promoted as a human dietary supplement protecting against atherosclerosis. The disadvantage of the high PUFA content in flax oil is high susceptibility to oxidation, which can result in carcinogenic compound formation. Linola flax cultivar is characterized by high linoleic acid content in comparison to traditional flax cultivars rich in linolenic acid. The changes in fatty acid proportions increase oxidative stability of Linola oil and broaden its use as an edible oil for cooking...
June 30, 2015: BMC Biotechnology
Jason B Turowski, Ralph A Pietrofesa, John A Lawson, Melpo Christofidou-Solomidou, Denis Hadjiliadis
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to advanced lung disease despite aggressive care. Persistent inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to exacerbations and disease progression. Flaxseed (FS), a dietary botanical supplement with high fiber, lignan phenolics, and omega-3 fatty acids has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in murine models of acute and chronic lung injury. This pilot study was designed to determine whether CF patients could tolerate FS, evaluate circulating FS metabolites, and study biomarkers of lung damage, as a prelude to studying clinical outcomes...
May 13, 2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Santosh Kumar, Frank M You, Scott Duguid, Helen Booker, Gordon Rowland, Sylvie Cloutier
The combined SSR-SNP map and 20 QTL for agronomic and quality traits will assist in marker assisted breeding as well as map-based cloning of key genes in linseed. Flax is an important nutraceutical crop mostly because it is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidant compounds. Canada is the largest producer and exporter of oilseed flax (or linseed), creating a growing need to improve crop productivity and quality. In this study, a genetic map was constructed based on selected 329 single nucleotide polymorphic markers and 362 simple sequence repeat markers using a recombinant inbred line population of 243 individuals from a cross between the Canadian varieties CDC Bethune and Macbeth...
May 2015: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Ranil Coorey, Agnes Novinda, Hannah Williams, Vijay Jayasena
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with fish oil, flaxseed, and chia seed on the omega-3 fatty acid composition and sensory properties of hens' eggs. No significant difference in yolk fat content was found between treatments. The fatty acid composition of egg yolk was significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Inclusion of chia at 300 g/kg into the diet produced eggs with the highest concentration of omega-3 fatty acid. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were only detected in eggs from laying hens fed the diet supplemented with fish oil...
January 2015: Journal of Food Science
Wahid Herchi, Abdullah D Al Hujaili, Faouzi Sakouhi, Khaled Sebei, Hajer Trabelsi, Habib Kallel, Sadok Boukhchina
Changes in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of flaxseed hull during maturation were investigated. P129 hull variety was studied at four maturation stages (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Significant variation in proximate composition and flaxseed hull oil characteristics were observed. A significant increase in the carbohydrates content of the hull was observed during development. The main methyl esters were linolenic acid (48.95 - 51.52 %), oleic acid (20.27-23.41%) and linoleic acid (15.62-17.70%)...
2014: Journal of Oleo Science
Angela M Zivkovic, Natalie Telis, J Bruce German, Bruce D Hammock
This article focuses on the role of omega-3 fatty acids as precursors for lipid signaling molecules known as oxylipins. Although omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases and heart disease, they are generally underrepresented in the American diet. A literature review confirms that the consumption of omega-3 fatty acids - whether in food sources such as walnuts, flax seeds and fatty fish (including salmon and sardines), or in supplements - is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality...
July 2011: California Agriculture
S Andrés, L Morán, N Aldai, M L Tejido, N Prieto, R Bodas, F J Giráldez
Thirty-two Merino lambs fed barley straw and a concentrate formulated either with palm oil (CTRL group) or with linseed (+LS group), both alone or supplemented with quercetin (+QCT group or +LS+QCT group) were used to assess the effects of these dietary supplements on meat quality attributes. After being slaughtered, the longissimus thoracis muscles were used to study the fatty acid (FA) profile in detail, whilst longissimus lumborum slices were stored under refrigerated conditions to determine the lipid stability...
June 2014: Meat Science
Shivanna Naveen, Mahadevappa Siddalingaswamy, Dongzagin Singsit, Farhath Khanum
AIM: In this study polyphenols from pomegranate peel, and n-3 fatty acids with polyphenols from flax seed were evaluated for their anti depression properties in mice exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). METHODS: A total of 40 mice initially trained to consume 2% sucrose solution for 3 weeks were then divided into five groups of eight each. The first group was the normal control, the remaining four groups were exposed to CMS but were force fed with either: 10 mL water per kg bodyweight per day; imipramine (a standard antidepressant) 15 mg kg bodyweight; 30 mg per kg bodyweight polyphenol equivalent extract from pomegranate peel; or 30 mg polyphenols per kg bodyweight with omega-3 fatty acids present, for 50 days...
November 2013: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Ferhat Yuksel, Safa Karaman, Ahmed Kayacier
In the present study, wheat chips enriched with flaxseed flour were produced and response surface methodology was used for the studying the simultaneous effects of flaxseed level (10-20%), frying temperature (160-180 °C) and frying time (40-60 s) on some physicochemical, textural and sensorial properties and fatty acid composition of wheat chips. Ridge analysis was conducted to determine the optimum levels of processing variables. Predictive regression equations with adequate coefficients of determination (R² ≥ 0...
February 15, 2014: Food Chemistry
Jyotsna Rajiv, Dasappa Indrani, Pichan Prabhasankar, G Venkateswara Rao
Flaxseed is a versatile functional ingredient owing to its unique nutrient profile. Studies on the effect of substitution of roasted and ground flaxseed (RGF) at 5, 10, 15 and 20% level on the wheat flour dough properties showed that amylograph peak viscosity, farinograph dough stability, extensograph resistance to extension and extensibility values decreased with the increase in the substitution of RGF from 0-20%. The cookie baking test showed a marginal decrease in spread ratio but beyond substitution of 15% RGF the texture and flavour of the cookies was adversely affected...
October 2012: Journal of Food Science and Technology
T D Turner, C Mapiye, J L Aalhus, A D Beaulieu, J F Patience, R T Zijlstra, M E R Dugan
The potential to increase n-3 fatty acid (FA) intake via flaxseed fed pork is underestimated when restricted to pure longissimus muscle, whereas a combination of muscle and adipose tissue is typically consumed. Presently, the FA content of pigs fed 0%, 5% and 10% dietary flaxseed for 11 weeks was measured in loin, picnic and butt primals (lean muscle with epimysium (L), L plus seam fat (LS), and LS plus 5 mm backfat (LSS)). The n-3 FA content necessary for an enrichment claim in Canada (300 mg/100 g serving) was exceeded in L from all primals when feeding 5% flaxseed, being 4 fold that of controls (P<0...
January 2014: Meat Science
Laiel C Soliman, Kingsley K Donkor, John S Church, Bruno Cinel, Dipesh Prema, Michael E R Dugan
A lower dietary omega-6/omega-3 (n-6/n-3) fatty acid ratio (<4) has been shown to be beneficial in preventing a number of chronic illnesses. Interest exists in developing more rapid and sensitive analytical methods for profiling fatty acid levels in foods. An aqueous CE method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 n-3 and n-6 relevant fatty acids. The effect of pH and concentration of buffer, type and concentration of organic modifier, and additive on the separation was investigated in order to determine the best conditions for the analysis...
October 2013: Journal of Separation Science
Xue Pan, Rodrigo M P Siloto, Aruna D Wickramarathna, Elzbieta Mietkiewska, Randall J Weselake
The oil from flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) has high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3(cis)(Δ9,12,15)) and is one of the richest sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs). To produce ∼57% ALA in triacylglycerol (TAG), it is likely that flax contains enzymes that can efficiently transfer ALA to TAG. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic characterization of TAG-synthesizing enzymes from flax. We identified several genes encoding acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGATs) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferases (PDATs) from the flax genome database...
August 16, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Erfan Eilati, Janice M Bahr, Dale Buchanan Hales
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Prevention may be the best approach to reduce ovarian cancer. Flaxseed is the richest vegetable source of omega-3 fatty acids which may be effective in the prevention of ovarian cancer. Prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) is the most pro-inflammatory ecoisanoid and one of the downstream products of two isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes: COX-1 and COX-2. Our objective was to determine if long-term consumption of a flaxseed enriched diet decreased ovarian cancer severity and incidence in the laying hen and to investigate its potential correlation with the expression of COX enzymes and PGE₂ concentration...
September 2013: Gynecologic Oncology
Zoitza Ostojich Cuevas, Elba Sangronis
In recent years, the consumption of flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) has been promoted as a functional food for its health benefits, mainly attributable to its content of omega-3 fatty acids, lignans and dietary fiber. This study evaluated the microbiological quality, chemical composition and antioxidant properties of flaxseed grown in Venezuela and compared them to the values of a Canadian variety widely sold in the country. Total coliforms, molds and yeasts, S. aureus and sporulated of the genera Bacillus (aerobic) and Clostridium (anaerobic), moisture, fat, protein, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble, mucilage, minerals, fatty acid profile, equivalent HCN content, aw, color, polyphenols and antioxidant properties, like antiradical efficiency (AE), concentration of antioxidant needed to decrease the initial concentration by 50 %EC50) and the time required to reach the EC50 (TEC50) were evaluated...
June 2012: Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
A Hawkins, K Yuan, C K Armendariz, G Highland, N M Bello, T Winowiski, J S Drouillard, E C Titgemeyer, B J Bradford
Flaxseed is a potent source of the n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), yet most ALA is lost during ruminal biohydrogenation when ground flaxseed is fed to ruminants. Heat processing and urea formaldehyde condensation polymer (UFCP) treatment of flaxseed were investigated as possible means of protecting ALA from ruminal degradation. Ground flaxseed (GF), heated ground flaxseed (HGF), or UFCP-treated ground flaxseed (UFCPGF) were incubated for 0, 4, 8, and 12h in 4 ruminally cannulated multiparous lactating Holstein cows...
June 2013: Journal of Dairy Science
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