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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350290/the-microbiology-and-treatment-of-human-mastitis
#1
REVIEW
Angeliki Angelopoulou, Des Field, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Colin Hill, R Paul Ross
Mastitis, which is generally described as an inflammation of breast tissue, is a common and debilitating disease which frequently results in the cessation of exclusive breastfeeding and affects up to 33% of lactating women. The condition is a primary cause of decreased milk production and results in organoleptic and nutritional alterations in milk quality. Recent studies employing culture-independent techniques, including metagenomic sequencing, have revealed a loss of bacterial diversity in the microbiome of mastitic milk samples compared to healthy milk samples...
January 19, 2018: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349446/ameliorative-role-of-camel-whey-protein-and-rosuvastatin-on-induced-dyslipidemia-in-mice
#2
Nashwa Ahmed El-Shinnawy, Sahar Sobhy Abd Elhalem, Nawal Zakaria Haggag, Gamal Badr
The incidence of obesity is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This work presents a novel approach to study the activity of camel whey protein (WP) with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as a cheap dietary protein substance extracted from camel milk to produce satiety and help in building muscles. Mice model suffering from dyslipidemia as a result of feeding on high fat-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks were administrated with either camel WP and/or rosuvastatin for 4 weeks...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346344/development-of-immune-and-microbial-environments-is-independently-regulated-in-the-mammary-gland
#3
K Niimi, K Usami, Y Fujita, M Abe, M Furukawa, Y Suyama, Y Sakai, M Kamioka, N Shibata, E J Park, S Sato, H Kiyono, H Yoneyama, H Kitazawa, K Watanabe, T Nochi, H Aso
Breastfeeding is important for mammals, providing immunological and microbiological advantages to neonates, together with the nutritional supply from the mother. However, the mechanisms of this functional diversity in the mammary gland remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that, similar to the gastrointestinal tract, the mammary gland develops immune and microbial environments consisting of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the microflora, respectively, both of which are important for protecting neonates and the mother from infectious diseases...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343308/invited-review-genomic-selection-for-small-ruminants-in-developed-countries-how-applicable-for-the-rest-of-the-world
#4
R Mrode, G M Tarekegn, J M Mwacharo, A Djikeng
Improved management and use of estimated breeding values in breeding programmes, have resulted in rapid genetic progress for small ruminants (SR) in Europe and other developed countries. The development of single nucleotide polymorphisms chips opened opportunities for genomic selection (GS) in SR in these countries. Initially focused on production traits (growth and milk), GS has been extended to functional traits (reproductive performance, disease resistance and meat quality). The GS systems have been characterized by smaller reference populations compared with those of dairy cattle and consisting mostly of cross- or multi-breed populations...
January 18, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340710/production-of-plant-derived-polyphenols-in-microorganisms-current-state-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Lars Milke, Jennifer Aschenbrenner, Jan Marienhagen, Nicolai Kallscheuer
Plants synthesize several thousand different polyphenols of which many have the potential to aid in preventing or treating cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, plants usually contain complex polyphenol mixtures impeding access to individual compounds in larger quantities. In contrast, functional integration of biosynthetic plant polyphenol pathways into microorganisms allows for the production of individual polyphenols as chemically distinct compounds, which can be synthesized in large amounts and can be more easily isolated...
January 16, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340071/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-microglial-functions-affecting-neuronal-survival-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#6
Seoyeon Bok, Young-Eun Kim, Youngsik Woo, Soeun Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Yoontae Lee, Sang Ki Park, Irving L Weissman, G-One Ahn
Cells universally adapt to ischemic conditions by turning on a transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), in which its role is known to differ widely across many different types of cells. Given that microglia have been reported as an essential mediator of neuroinflammation in many brain diseases, we examined the role of HIF in microglia in the progression of an acute phase of ischemic stroke by challenging our novel strains of myeloid-specific Hif-1α or Hif-2α knockout (KO) mice created by Cre-loxP system via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336526/human-milk-oligosaccharides-as-promising-antivirals
#7
REVIEW
Vasily Morozov, Grant Hansman, Franz-Georg Hanisch, Horst Schroten, Clemens Kunz
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are diverse unconjugated carbohydrates that are highly abundant in human breast milk. These glycans are investigated in the context of exhibiting multiple functions in infant growth and development. They seem to provide protection against infectious diseases, including a number of poorly manageable viral infections. Although the potential mechanism of the HMO antiviral protection is rather broad, much of the current experimental work has focused on studying of HMO antiadhesive properties...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335921/development-of-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-mycoplasma-bovis
#8
S Behera, R Rana, P K Gupta, D Kumar, Sonal, V Rekha, T R Arun, D Jena
Mycoplasma bovis is one of the important bovine mycoplasma involved in economically important clinical conditions like respiratory diseases, otitis media, and mastitis. The present study was undertaken with the objective of developing a SYBR Green dye-based real-time PCR assay targeting uvrC gene for the diagnosis of M. bovis. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated. The test showed 103-fold more sensitivity than conventional PCR and detected down to 100 fg level of DNA. It was found to be specific, as no cross reactivity was shown with other related bacteria and Mycoplasma species...
January 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335084/-influence-of-cow-s-milk-protein-allergy-on-the-diagnosis-of-functional-gastrointestinal-diseases-based-on-the-rome-iv-standard-in-infants-and-young-children
#9
Bo-Wen Feng, Si-Mao Fu, Quan-Shan Zhang, Xiao-Ling Long, Xiao-Ling Xie, Wei Ren, Zhan-Tu Liang, Zhu-Ling Yang, Ang Chen
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) on the diagnosis of functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGID) based on the Rome IV standard in infants and young children. METHODS: A total of 84 children aged 1 month to 3 years who were diagnosed with CMPA were enrolled as the case group, and 84 infants and young children who underwent physical examination and had no CMPA were enrolled as the control group. The pediatricians specializing in gastroenterology asked parents using a questionnaire for the diagnosis of FGID based on the Rome IV standard to assess clinical symptoms and to diagnose FGID...
January 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333846/-food-allergy-in-children-recommendations-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#10
(no author information available yet)
Food allergy arises from a specific immune response induced by food exposure. It is the first cause of anaphylaxis in childhood. Its prevalence increased exponentially in western countries. The proteins most frequently involved in infants are cow's milk and hen's egg; and in adults, seafood. Peanuts have the same frequency in both groups. The clinical manifestations and methodology of study are directly related to the pathophysiology of the disease. Clinical history, skin prick test, patch test, and food oral challenge are essential to arrive at a correct diagnosis, that will avoid unnecessary exclusions or exposures that carry life risk...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332097/is-the-atopy-patch-test-reliable-in-the-evaluation-of-food-allergy-related-atopic-dermatitis
#11
Mahboubeh Mansouri, Elham Rafiee, Sepideh Darougar, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Zahra Chavoshzadeh
BACKGROUND: Aeroallergens and food allergens are found to be relevant in atopic dermatitis. The atopy patch test (APT) can help to detect food allergies in children with atopic dermatitis. This study evaluates if the APT is a valuable tool in the diagnostic workup of children with food allergy-related atopic dermatitis. METHODS: 42 children between 6 months and 12 years of age were selected at the Mofid Children Hospital. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed, and the severity of the disease was determined...
January 13, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331471/symposium-review-novel-strategies-to-genetically-improve-mastitis-resistance-in-dairy-cattle
#12
P Martin, H W Barkema, L F Brito, S G Narayana, F Miglior
Mastitis is a disease of major economic importance to the dairy cattle sector because of the high incidence of clinical mastitis and prevalence of subclinical mastitis and, consequently, the costs associated with treatment, production losses, and reduced animal welfare. Disease-recording systems compiling data from a large number of farms are still not widely implemented around the world; thus, selection for mastitis resistance is often based on genetically correlated indicator traits such as somatic cell count (SCC), udder depth, and fore udder attachment...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331458/genetic-correlations-between-methane-production-and-fertility-health-and-body-type-traits-in-danish-holstein-cows
#13
L Zetouni, M Kargo, E Norberg, J Lassen
Our aim was to investigate the genetic correlations between CH4 production and body conformation, fertility, and health traits in dairy cows. Data were collected from 10 commercial Holstein herds in Denmark, including 5,758 cows with records for body conformation traits, 7,390 for fertility traits, 7,439 for health traits, and 1,397 with individual CH4 measurements. Methane production was measured during milking in automatic milking systems, using a sniffer approach. Correlations between CH4 and several different traits were estimated...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330279/rare-cause-of-isolated-severe-coagulation-failure-in-cirrhosis-traditional-healing-with-fenugreek
#14
Cyriac A Philips, Philip Augustine
Patients with cirrhosis develop decompensation events during the natural history of the disease that encompass ascites, variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy and jaundice. Coagulation failure, defined using the international normalised ratio, even though not a decompensation event, is important in patients with stratifying cirrhosis into those who require liver transplantation for long-term survival. Isolated coagulation failure in cirrhosis is rare and usually occurs with use of anticoagulants in the setting of vascular diseases...
January 12, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325892/added-sugar-intake-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2003-2012
#15
Catherine E Cioffi, Janet Figueroa, Jean A Welsh
BACKGROUND: Despite associations of dietary added sugar with excess weight gain and chronic disease risk, intake among most Americans exceeds the recommended limits (<10% total energy). Maternal diet plays an important role in pregnancy-related outcomes, but little is known about the extent of added sugar intake during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To assess intake and identify the top sources of added sugars in the diets of pregnant vs nonpregnant women in the United States...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325516/brucellosis-remains-a-neglected-disease-in-the-developing-world-a-call-for-interdisciplinary-action
#16
K A Franc, R C Krecek, B N Häsler, A M Arenas-Gamboa
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is an endemic zoonotic disease in most of the developing world that causes devastating losses to the livestock industry and small-scale livestock holders. Infected animals exhibit clinical signs that are of economic significance to stakeholders and include reduced fertility, abortion, poor weight gain, lost draught power, and a substantial decline in milk production. In humans, brucellosis typically manifests as a variety of non-specific clinical signs. Chronicity and recurring febrile conditions, as well as devastating complications in pregnant women are common sequelae...
January 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321918/reproductive-management-in-dairy-cows-the-future
#17
REVIEW
Mark A Crowe, Miel Hostens, Geert Opsomer
Background: Drivers of change in dairy herd health management include the significant increase in herd/farm size, quota removal (within Europe) and the increase in technologies to aid in dairy cow reproductive management. Main body: There are a number of key areas for improving fertility management these include: i) handling of substantial volumes of data, ii) genetic selection (including improved phenotypes for use in breeding programmes), iii) nutritional management (including transition cow management), iv) control of infectious disease, v) reproductive management (and automated systems to improve reproductive management), vi) ovulation / oestrous synchronisation, vii) rapid diagnostics of reproductive status, and viii) management of male fertility...
2018: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319881/systemic-il-2-anti-il-2ab-complex-combined-with-sublingual-immunotherapy-suppresses-experimental-food-allergy-in-mice-through-induction-of-mucosal-regulatory-t-cells
#18
Paola L Smaldini, Fernando Trejo, José L Cohen, Eliane Piaggio, Guillermo H Docena
Therapeutic tolerance restoration has been proven to modify food allergy in patients and animal models and although sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has showed promise, combined therapy may be necessary to achieve a strong and long-term tolerance. In this work, we combined SLIT with systemic administration of IL-2 associated with an anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody (IL-2/anti-IL-2Ab complex or IL-2C) to reverse the IgE-mediated experimental allergy. Balb/c mice were sensitized with cholera toxin and milk proteins and orally challenged with allergen to elicit hypersensitivity reactions...
January 10, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314061/sensory-quality-of-milk-fat-with-low-cholesterol-content-fractioned-by-molecular-distillation
#19
Julia Berti, Nelson R Grosso, Héctor Fernandez, María C Pramparo, María F Gayol
BACKGROUND: Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) is a valuable ingredient in several industries, but its cholesterol content is a disadvantage because it is associated to several diseases. The objective of this study was to remove the largest amount possible of cholesterol from anhydrous milk fat (AMF), using molecular distillation, and to analyze the sensory properties of the obtained product. AMF was subjected to various molecular distillation arrangements. RESULTS: The first set of experiments involved molecular distillations performed over a range of evaporation temperatures...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313754/adipoq-45t%C3%A2-g-polymorphism-food-ingestion-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-elderly-persons
#20
Vanessa R Retamoso, Patrícia Maurer, Lyana B Feijóo, Graziela M S Tavares, Vanusa Manfredini, Jacqueline C E Piccoli
INTRODUCTION: The current nutritional transition process contributes further to accelerate the onset of metabolic disorders, as do a number of environmental factors that lead to the diagnosis of chronic diseases, as a diet of low nutritional value, is possibly related to the incidence of metabolic syndrome. In addition to these factors, metabolic syndrome may also be related to genetic factors, the ADIPOQ + 45T> G polymorphism has been associated with serum adiponectin levels, insulin sensitivity, and obesity, which affects adiponectin levels act as protective factor for cardiovascular disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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