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(Mycobacterium AND Tuberculosis)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775608/regulation-of-the-gyr-operon-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-overlapping-promoters-dna-topology-and-reiterative-transcription
#1
Rajiv Kumar Jha, Priyanka Tare, Valakunja Nagaraja
DNA gyrase introduces negative supercoils into DNA to maintain topological homeostasis. The genes encoding gyrase, gyrB and gyrA, form a dicistronic operon in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and other actinobacteria. Earlier work indicated that DNA relaxation stimulates the expression of the gyr genes, a phenomenon termed relaxation-stimulated transcription (RST). The present study addresses the underlying mechanism of gyr operon regulation. The operon is regulated by overlapping and divergently oriented promoters located upstream of gyrB...
May 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774850/mycobacterium-bovis-infection-of-red-fox-france
#2
Lorraine Michelet, Krystel De Cruz, Sylvie Hénault, Jennifer Tambosco, Céline Richomme, Édouard Réveillaud, Hélène Gares, Jean-Louis Moyen, María Laura Boschiroli
Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild red foxes was found in southern France, where livestock and other wildlife species are infected. Foxes frequently interact with cattle but have been underestimated as a reservoir of M. bovis. Our results suggest a possible role of the red fox in the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774213/a-rapid-growth-independent-antibiotic-resistance-detection-test-by-sybr-green-propidium-iodide-viability-assay
#3
Jie Feng, Rebecca Yee, Shuo Zhang, Lili Tian, Wanliang Shi, Wen-Hong Zhang, Ying Zhang
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have caused huge concerns and demand innovative approaches for their prompt detection. Current antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST) rely on the growth of the organisms which takes 1-2 days for fast-growing organisms and several weeks for slow growing organisms. Here, we show for the first time the utility of the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI) viability assay for rapidly identifying antibiotic resistance in less than 30 min for major, antibiotic-resistant, fast-growing bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Acinetobacter baumannii for bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents and in 16 h for extremely rapid detection of drug resistance for isoniazid and pyrazinamide in slow-growing Mycobacterium tuberculosis ...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774023/ferritin-h-deficiency-in-myeloid-compartments-dysregulates-host-energy-metabolism-and-increases-susceptibility-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#4
Vineel P Reddy, Krishna C Chinta, Vikram Saini, Joel N Glasgow, Travis D Hull, Amie Traylor, Fernanda Rey-Stolle, Miguel P Soares, Rajhmun Madansein, Md Aejazur Rahman, Coral Barbas, Kievershen Nargan, Threnesan Naidoo, Pratistadevi K Ramdial, James F George, Anupam Agarwal, Adrie J C Steyn
Iron is an essential factor for the growth and virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) . However, little is known about the mechanisms by which the host controls iron availability during infection. Since ferritin heavy chain (FtH) is a major intracellular source of reserve iron in the host, we hypothesized that the lack of FtH would cause dysregulated iron homeostasis to exacerbate TB disease. Therefore, we used knockout mice lacking FtH in myeloid-derived cell populations to study Mtb disease progression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773780/moving-closer-to-tuberculosis-elimination-through-institutional-scientific-collaboration-opportunities-for-cuba-and-the-usa
#5
Helena J Chapman, Luisa A Armas-Pérez, Michael Lauzardo, Edilberto R González-Ochoa
Global efforts to eliminate tuberculosis by 2050 continue to challenge health systems. In countries with low reported tuberculosis incidence, such as the USA (3.1/100,000 population) and Cuba (6.9/100,000), differences in classification by income level and health systems' overall organizational structure are evident. However, the two countries' low tuberculosis incidence, geographic proximity, robust research capacity and shared health priority for tuberculosis elimination provide fertile territory to strengthen collaboration for tuberculosis control in clinical, laboratory and community settings...
April 2018: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773644/bhlhe40-is-an-essential-repressor-of-il-10-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#6
Jeremy P Huynh, Chih-Chung Lin, Jacqueline M Kimmey, Nicholas N Jarjour, Elizabeth A Schwarzkopf, Tara R Bradstreet, Irina Shchukina, Oleg Shpynov, Casey T Weaver, Reshma Taneja, Maxim N Artyomov, Brian T Edelson, Christina L Stallings
The cytokine IL-10 antagonizes pathways that control Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb ) infection. Nevertheless, the impact of IL-10 during Mtb infection has been difficult to decipher because loss-of-function studies in animal models have yielded only mild phenotypes. We have discovered that the transcription factor basic helix-loop-helix family member e40 (Bhlhe40) is required to repress Il10 expression during Mtb infection. Loss of Bhlhe40 in mice results in higher Il10 expression, higher bacterial burden, and early susceptibility similar to that observed in mice lacking IFN-γ...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773408/discrepancy-in-the-genotypic-versus-phenotypic-testing-for-resistance-to-rifampicin-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-case-report
#7
Loreto Rapún Mas, Itziar Angulo López, Álvaro Cecilio Irazola, Ana Isabel Betrán Escartín
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773323/primary-laryngeal-tuberculosis-our-experiences-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-in-eastern-india
#8
Santosh Kumar Swain, Ishwar Chandra Behera, Mahesh Chandra Sahu
INTRODUCTION: Primary laryngeal tuberculosis is a chronic bacterial infection of the larynx by Mycobacterium tuberculosis without affecting the lungs. It is a rare type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis seen in clinical practice. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of primary laryngeal tuberculosis at a tertiary care teaching hospital in eastern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 11 cases of primary laryngeal tuberculosis managed between December 2013 and January 2018...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773279/-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-cervical-adenitis-in-children-2-cases
#9
N Sigg, S Bailleul, J-M Turmel, G Legrand, S Kettani, L Martin
BACKGROUND: Cervical lymphadenitis is the most common manifestation of infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in immunocompetent children. Nevertheless, it is poorly known by dermatologists. Its incidence, which is currently increasing since the cessation of BCG vaccination in 2007, raises several issues regarding its pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report two cases of NTM adenitis: one in a 2-year-old girl vaccinated with BCG and one in an unvaccinated 22-month-old boy, in whom a misleading presentation led to delayed diagnosis...
May 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773170/iron-and-innate-antimicrobial-immunity-depriving-the-pathogen-defending-the-host
#10
REVIEW
Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as 'nutritional immunity'. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772937/evaluation-of-sulphonamide-derivatives-acting-as-inhibitors-of-human-carbonic-anhydrase-isoforms-i-ii-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-%C3%AE-class-enzyme-rv3273
#11
Tanvi V Wani, Silvia Bua, Pravin S Khude, Abdul H Chowdhary, Claudiu T Supuran, Mrunmayee P Toraskar
A series of novel sulphonamide derivatives was obtained from sulphanilamide which was N4-alkylated with ethyl bromoacetate followed by reaction with hydrazine hydrate. The hydrazide obtained was further reacted with various aromatic aldehydes. The novel sulphonamides were characterised by infrared, mass spectrometry, 1 H- and 13 C-NMR and purity was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Human (h) carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms hCA I and II and Mycobacterium tuberculosis β-CA encoded by the gene Rv3273 (mtCA 3) inhibition activity was investigated with the synthesised compounds which showed promising inhibition...
December 2018: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771143/cell-envelope-lipids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#12
Parul Singh, Nagender Rao Rameshwaram, Sudip Ghosh, Sangita Mukhopadhyay
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular bacterium that persists and replicates inside macrophages. The bacterium possesses an unusual lipid-rich cell envelope that provides a hydrophobic impermeable barrier against many environmental stressors and allows it to survive extremely hostile intracellular surroundings. Since the lipid-rich envelope is crucial for M. tuberculosis virulence, the components of the cell wall lipid biogenesis pathways constitute an attractive target for the development of vaccines and antimycobacterial chemotherapeutics...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770360/biomarkers-associated-with-death-after-initiating-treatment-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-in-patients-with-very-low-cd-4-cells
#13
Fred R Sattler, Daniel Chelliah, Xingye Wu, Alejandro Sanchez, Michelle A Kendall, Evelyn Hogg, David Lagat, Umesh Lalloo, Valdilea Veloso, Diane V Havlir, Alan Landay
Background: The risk of short-term death for treatment naive patients dually infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV may be reduced by early anti-retroviral therapy. Of those dying, mechanisms responsible for fatal outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that greater malnutrition and/or inflammation when initiating treatment are associated with an increased risk for death. Methods: We utilized a retrospective case-cohort design among participants of the ACTG A5221 study who had baseline CD4 < 50 cells/mm3 ...
2018: Pathogens & Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769379/activation-of-bacterial-histidine-kinases-insights-into-the-kinetics-of-the-cis-autophosphorylation-mechanism
#14
Gaurav D Sankhe, Narendra M Dixit, Deepak K Saini
Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are central to bacterial adaptation. However, the mechanisms underlying the reactions involving TCS proteins and their reaction rates are largely undetermined. Here, we employed a combined experimental and theoretical approach to elucidate the kinetics of autophosphorylation of three histidine kinases (HKs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , viz. , MtrB, PrrB, and PhoR, all known to play a role in regulating its virulence. Using wild-type and mutant proteins, we performed dimerization assays, thermophoretic-affinity measurements, and competition-based phosphorylation assays to establish that for HK, MtrB autophosphorylation occurs in cis , similar to what has been proposed for the PhoR and PrrB HKs...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769016/whole-genome-sequencing-data-of-1110-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-identifies-insertions-and-deletions-associated-with-drug-resistance
#15
Xi Zeng, Jamie Sui-Lam Kwok, Kevin Yi Yang, Kenneth Siu-Sing Leung, Mai Shi, Zhiyuan Yang, Wing-Cheong Yam, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is one of the major challenges in tuberculosis (TB) treatment. However, known mutations cannot explain all of the cases of resistance and little research has focused on the relationship between insertions / deletions (indels) and drug resistance. RESULTS: Here, we retrieved whole genome sequencing data of 743 drug-resistant MTB strains and 367 pan-susceptible strains from TB patients from the public domain to identify novel genomic markers of drug resistance...
May 16, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768562/microscopic-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-direct-or-processed-sputum-smears
#16
José Luiz de Oliveira Magalhães, Juliana Figueiredo da Costa Lima, Ana Albertina de Araújo, Ilyana Oliveira Coutinho, Nilma Cintra Leal, Alzira Maria Paiva de Almeida
INTRODUCTION: Microscopic identification of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) from direct smears of sputum (DS) is widely used for detection, but has limited sensitivity. Here, we assessed the yield of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) detection in processed sputum smears (PSS). METHODS: Sputum samples were simultaneously analyzed by direct sputum smearing and after chemical treatment and spontaneous sedimentation. RESULTS: Of the 1,719 samples analyzed, 16...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768381/tuberculous-pleurisy-mimicking-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-previously-healthy-young-adult-a-case-report
#17
Daizo Yaguchi, Motoshi Ichikawa, Masato Shizu, Noriko Inoue, Daisuke Kobayashi, Naoyuki Imai, Masao Ito
RATONALE: Sometimes, pleural effusion accompanying an acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection or tuberculous pleurisy has similar analysis results. We report a case of tuberculous pleurisy which was initially diagnosed as acute M pneumoniae infection, which is of special interest because anti-Mycoplasma antibody results were positive, which served as a red herring. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 20-year-old woman visited the outpatient emergency romm of our hospital for chief complaints of high fever, dry cough, and pleuralgia persiting for 2 days...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767993/multi-metallic-microparticles-increase-the-potency-of-rifampicin-against-intracellular-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Timothy Ellis, Michele Chiappi, Andres Garcia-Trenco, Maryam Al-Ejji, Srijata Sarkar, Theoni K Georgiou, Milo Sebastian Peter Shaffer, Teresa D Tetley, Stephan Schwander, Mary P Ryan, Alexandra E Porter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) has the extraordinary ability to adapt to the administration of antibiotics through the development of resistance mechanisms. By rapidly exporting drugs from within the cytosol, these pathogenic bacteria diminish antibiotic potency and drive the presentation of drug tolerant tuberculosis (TB). The membrane integrity of M.tb is pivotal in retaining these drug-resistant traits. Silver (Ag) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are established antimicrobial agents that effectively compromise membrane stability, giving rise to increased bacterial permeability to antibiotics...
May 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767194/qm-mm-simulations-identify-the-determinants-of-catalytic-activity-differences-between-type-ii-dehydroquinase-enzymes
#19
Emilio Lence, Marc W van der Kamp, Concepción González-Bello, Adrian J Mulholland
Type II dehydroquinase enzymes (DHQ2), recognized targets for antibiotic drug discovery, show significantly different activities dependent on the species: DHQ2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtDHQ2) and Helicobacter pylori (HpDHQ2) show a 50-fold difference in catalytic efficiency. Revealing the determinants of this activity difference is important for our understanding of biological catalysis and further offers the potential to contribute to tailoring specificity in drug design. Molecular dynamics simulations using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics potential, with correlated ab initio single point corrections, identify and quantify the subtle determinants of the experimentally observed difference in efficiency...
May 16, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765994/heterologous-expression-purification-and-characterization-of-the-hspx-ppe44-and-esxv-proteins-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#20
Yousef Amini, Mohsen Tafaghodi, Saeid Amel Jamehdar, Zahra Meshkat, Bagher Moradi, Mojtaba Sankian
Background: Subunit vaccines are appropriate vaccine candidates for the prevention of some infections. In this study, three immunogenic proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , including HspX, Ppe44, and EsxV as a new construction, were expressed alone and as a fusion protein to develop a new vaccine candidate against tuberculosis infection. Methods: To make the fusion protein, the three genes were linked together by AEAAAKEAAAKA linkers and inserted into pET21b and pET32b vectors...
April 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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