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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943727/a-genomic-signature-for-genotyping-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
David Tarazona, Luis Jaramillo, Victor Borda, Kelly Levano, Marco Galarza, Heinner Guio
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has a vast diversity of genotypes including Beijing, CAS, EAI, Haarlem, LAM, X, Ural, T, AFRI1 and AFRI2. However, genotyping can be expensive, time consuming and in some cases, results may vary depending on methodology used. Here, we proposed a new set of 10 SNPs using a total of 249 MTB genomes, and selected by first the inclusion/ exclusion (IE) criteria using spoligotyping and phylogenies, followed by the selection of the nonsynonymous SNPs present in the most conserved cluster of orthologous groups (COG) of each genotype of MTB...
2017: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943401/crystal-structure-of-l-glutamate-n-acetyltransferase-arga-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Xiuna Yang, Lijie Wu, Yajun Ran, Ao Xu, Bing Zhang, Xiaolin Yang, Rongguang Zhang, Zihe Rao, Jun Li
l-arginine is used as a source of both carbon and nitrogen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and its biosynthesis is essential for the pathogen's survival. MtbArgA (Rv2747) catalyzes the initial step in l-arginine biosynthesis by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to l-glutamate. MtbArgA is a class III N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) with no structural information. Here, we solved the crystal structure of MtbArgA complexed with AcCoA and l-glutamate. The overall structure adopts a classic fold of the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) family, characterized by a "V"-shaped cleft and β-bulge, but uses distinct residues for the binding and reaction of AcCoA...
September 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942842/a-green-fluorescent-protein-based-assay-for-high-throughput-ligand-binding-studies-of-a-mycobacterial-biotin-protein-ligase
#3
Thomas E H Bond, Alanna E Sorenson, Patrick M Schaeffer
Biotin protein ligase (BirA) has been identified as an emerging drug target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis due to its essential metabolic role. Indeed, it is the only enzyme capable of covalently attaching biotin onto the biotin carboxyl carrier protein subunit of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Despite recent interest in this protein, there is still a gap in cost-effective high-throughput screening assays for rapid identification of mycobacterial BirA-targeting inhibitors. We present for the first time the cloning, expression, purification of mycobacterial GFP-tagged BirA and its application for the development of a high-throughput assay building on the principle of differential scanning fluorimetry of GFP-tagged proteins...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942172/antigen-85-complex-as-a-powerful-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immunogene-biology-immune-pathogenicity-applications-in-diagnosis-and-vaccine-design
#4
REVIEW
Mohsen Karbalaei Zadeh Babaki, Saman Soleimanpour, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is one of the most life-threatening mycobacterial species which is increasing the death rate due to emerging multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains. Concerned health authorities worldwide are interested in developing an effective vaccine to prevent the spread of Mtb. After years of research, including successful identification of many Mtb immunogenic molecules, effective therapeutic agents or a vaccine have yet to be found. However, among the identified Mtb immunogenes, antigen 85 (Ag85) complex (Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C) is receiving attention from scientists as it allows bacteria to evade the host immune response by preventing formation of phagolysosomes for eradication of infection...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941991/conservation-in-gene-encoding-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-rv2660-and-a-high-predicted-population-coverage-of-h56-multistage-vaccine-in-south-africa
#5
Angy P Perez-Martinez, Edison Ong, Lixin Zhang, Carl F Marrs, Yongqun He, Zhenhua Yang
H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown...
September 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941855/diagnosis-of-clinically-suspected-and-unsuspected-tubercular-lymphadenopathy-by-cytology-culture-and-smear-microscopy
#6
Vivek Gupta, Arvind Bhake
BACKGROUND: Tubercular lymphadenopathy (TBLN) accounts for 20-40% cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. But the common presenting symptoms of tuberculosis like fever, cough, weight loss, fatigue, and night sweats are not always associated with tuberculosis lymphadenopathy, thereby, making its diagnosis difficult. Our aim was to study if Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) combined with Zeihl Neelsen stain and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli could improve the diagnostic accuracy in patients clinically suspected and unsuspected for tubercular lymphadenitis...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941853/predominance-of-central-asian-and-european-families-among-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-in-kashmir-valley-india
#7
Gulnaz Bashir, Tehmeena Wani, Pragya Sharma, V M Katoch, Rubina Lone, Azra Shah, Kiran Katoch, D K Kakru, Devendra Singh Chauhan
BACKGROUND: As there are no data available regarding the strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis circulating in Kashmir Valley, India, the current study aimed at describing the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis strains in this region, by spoligotyping and 12-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing (Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeat). METHODS: Sputa from 207 smear positive cases with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture for M...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941848/drug-development-against-tuberculosis-past-present-and-future
#8
REVIEW
Mahesh S Vasava, Manoj N Bhoi, Sanjay K Rathwa, Mayuri A Borad, Sneha G Nair, Hitesh D Patel
Infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was observed as early as 5000 years ago with evidence, which is a primeval enemy of the humanoid race. MTB is the pathogen which is responsible for causing the infectious disease tuberculosis; it remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in poor low-income countries as well as in developing countries because of non-availability of reliable laboratory facilities. The current treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is lengthy, complex, and connected with severe harmful side effects and poor outcomes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941847/role-of-essential-trace-elements-in-tuberculosis-infection-a-review-article
#9
REVIEW
Aliyeh Sargazi, Roghayeh Afsar Gharebagh, Alireza Sargazi, Halimeh Aali, Hamid Owaysee Oskoee, Zahra Sepehri
Malnutrition is one of the risk factors in tuberculosis (TB) infection. Mineral levels perturbation is seen in patients with TB. Moreover there are some strategies to starve pathogens of essential metals. Here we decided to conclude association between some essential elements and TB. Copper, calcium and iron are essential for hosts' immune system although calcium and iron are necessary for Mycobacterium tuberculosis vitality. Changing these elements alongside with anti-TB therapy is suggested for better treatment outcomes...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941042/nanomaterials-in-the-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections
#10
REVIEW
Kaijin Xu, Zhen Chang Liang, Xin Ding, Haiyang Hu, Shaoqiong Liu, Martin Nurmik, Sheng Bi, Feishu Hu, Zhongkang Ji, Jingjing Ren, Shigui Yang, Yi Yan Yang, Lanjuan Li
Despite the tremendous advancements that have been made in biomedical research, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide, outpacing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus as a leading cause of death from an infectious disease. In the light of such significant disease burden, tremendous efforts have been made worldwide to stem this burgeoning spread of disease. The use of nanomaterials in TB management has increased in the past decade, particularly in the areas of early TB detection, prevention, and treatment...
September 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940325/evaluation-of-the-rt-lamp-and-lamp-methods-for-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Dandan Wu, Jiwen Kang, Baosheng Li, Dianxing Sun
BACKGROUND: The current methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are not clinically optimal. Standard culture methods (SCMs) are slow, costly, or unreliable, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) cannot differentiate live Mtb. METHODS: This study compared reverse transcription (RT)-LAMP, LAMP, and an SCM for detecting Mtb. A first experiment tested the sensitivity and specificity of primers for 9 species of Mycobacterium (H37Rv, M. intracellulare, M...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938874/rifampicin-resistance-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-patients-using-genexpert-at-livingstone-central-hospital-for-the-year-2015-a-cross-sectional-explorative-study
#12
Sepiso K Masenga, Harrison Mubila, Benson M Hamooya
BACKGROUND: Since the recent introduction of GeneXepert for the detection of Tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance mutations in both primary resistance and acquired resistance in Zambia, little has been documented in literature on the issue of rifampicin resistance especially in the face of a high National TB burden. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of rifampicin resistance in tuberculosis patients at Livingstone Central Hospital for the year 2015. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Livingstone Central Hospital where we reviewed 152 records (from January 1, 2015 to 31st December, 2015) involving patients who presented with clinically suspected TB or documented TB, whose samples were sent to the laboratory for GeneXpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis/rifampicin testing...
September 22, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938588/calreticulin-modulates-the-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacteria-by-regulating-er-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#13
Sung Hee Jo, Ji-Ae Choi, Yun-Ji Lim, Junghwan Lee, Soo-Na Cho, Sung-Man Oh, Dam Go, Seon-Hwa Kim, Chang-Hwa Song
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-mediated apoptosis is a host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Calreticulin (CRT) is the major calcium-binding chaperone protein. Previous reports have suggested a close relationship between the cell-surface expression of CRT and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CRT during Mtb infection was examined. The results showed that Mtb infection induces CRT production by macrophages and that CRT levels are correlated with the degree of apoptotic cell death...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937879/advax4-delta-inulin-combination-adjuvant-together-with-ecmx-a-fusion-construct-of-three-protective-mtb-antigens-induces-a-potent-th1-immune-response-and-protects-mice-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#14
Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Renato Beilner Machado, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, André Kipnis, Nikolai Petrovsky, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a main public health concern and 10.4 million new cases occurred in 2015 around the world. BCG is the only approved vaccine against TB, but has variable efficacy and new vaccines are needed. We developed two new mTB vaccine candidates based on the recombinant fusion proteins, rCMX and rECMXformulated with Advax4, a new combination adjuvant combining delta inulin, CpG oligonucleotide and murabutide. When BALB/c mice were immunized three times intramuscularly with these vaccine formulationsInjection of Advax4 alone increased the percentage of lymphatic endothelial cells and activated macrophages (F480/CD11b(+)) in the draining lymph nodes consistent with a chemotactic adjuvant effect...
September 22, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937657/synthesis-of-2-4-diaminopyrimidine-core-based-derivatives-and-biological-evaluation-of-their-anti-tubercular-activities
#15
Yifan Ouyang, Hao Yang, Peng Zhang, Yu Wang, Sargit Kaur, Xuanli Zhu, Zhe Wang, Yutong Sun, Wei Hong, Yun Fong Ngeow, Hao Wang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic, potentially fatal disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The dihyrofolate reductase in Mtb (mt-DHFR) is believed to be an important drug target in anti-TB drug development. This enzyme contains a glycerol (GOL) binding site, which is assumed to be a useful site to improve the selectivity towards human dihyrofolate reductase (h-DHFR). There have been previous attempts to design drugs targeting the GOL binding site, but the designed compounds contain a hydrophilic group, which may prevent the compounds from crossing the cell wall of Mtb to function at the whole cell level...
September 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937645/bioelectrochemical-detection-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esat-6-in-an-antibody-based-biomicrosystem
#16
Danna Sepulveda, Miguel A Aroca, Andres Varela, Patricia Del Portillo, Johann F Osma
Bioelectrochemical sensing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through electro-immunosensors is a promising technique to detect relevant analytes. In general, immunosensors require the formation of organic assemblies by the adsorption of molecular constituents. Moreover, they depend on the correct immobilization of the bio-recognition element in the biosensor. These procedures cannot be easily monitored without the use of invasive methods. In this work, an impedance analysis technique was used, as a non-invasive method, to measure and differentiate the manufacturing stages of the sensors...
September 22, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936998/venous-thromboembolism-due-to-hyperhomocysteinaemia-and-tuberculosis
#17
Ankush Chaudhary, Unnati Desai, Jyotsna M Joshi
An 18-year-old male presented to our hospital with complaints of episodic abdominal pain, dry cough and right pleuritic chest pain. He was diagnosed as a case of right tuberculous pleural effusion on the basis of the pleural fluid Genexpert report of Mycobacterium tuberculosis detected sensitive to rifampicin and was started on antituberculous therapy. Forty-five days later, he presented with acute onset breathlessness, swelling of the right leg, streaky haemoptysis and a fresh left-sided pleural effusion. Evaluation revealed venous thromboembolism (right lower lobar segment pulmonary embolism with right leg deep vein thrombosis)...
May 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935874/concordant-and-discordant-gene-expression-patterns-in-mouse-strains-identify-best-fit-animal-model-for-human-tuberculosis
#18
Teresa Domaszewska, Lisa Scheuermann, Karin Hahnke, Hans Mollenkopf, Anca Dorhoi, Stefan H E Kaufmann, January Weiner
Immunity in infection, inflammation and malignancy differs markedly in man and mouse. Still, we learn about human immunity in large extent from experimental mouse models. We propose a novel data integration approach which identifies concordant and discordant gene expression patterns of the immune responses in heterologous data sets. We have conducted experiments to compare human and murine transcriptional responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in whole blood (WB) as well as macrophages and compared them with simulated as well as publicly available data...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935371/a-sir2-family-protein-rv1151c-deacetylates-hu-to-alter-its-dna-binding-mode-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Chinmay Anand, Rajni Garg, Soumitra Ghosh, Valakunja Nagaraja
Till recently, knowledge about epigenetic regulation in bacterial world confined largely to DNA methylation. Lysine acetylation/deacetylation of histones is a major contributor for chromatin dynamics in eukaryotes. However, little is known about such epigenetic changes brought about by post-translational modifications in bacteria. Here, we describe an example of such mechanism occurring in a histone like protein, HU from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Previously, we demonstrated the interaction and acetylation of Mtb HU (MtHU) by one of the acetyl transferases, Eis...
September 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935157/thermal-lysis-and-isothermal-amplification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37rv-in-one-tube
#20
Prasad Shetty, Dipayan Ghosh, Debjani Paul
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of high mortality rates in developing countries. Sample preparation is one of the major challenges in developing an inexpensive point-of-care device for rapid and confirmed detection of tuberculosis. Existing chemical and mechanical lysis methods are unsuitable for field applications, as they require intermediate wash steps, manual intervention or separate lysis equipment. We report a one-step reaction protocol (65°C and 60min) for the H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that (i) completely disinfects the mycobacteria culture, (ii) lyses the cells and (iii) performs helicase dependent amplification on the extracted DNA...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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