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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735303/acid-fast-bacterium-detection-and-identification-from-paraffin-embedded-tissues-using-a-pcr-pyrosequencing-method
#1
Jian R Bao, Richard B Clark, Ronald N Master, Kileen L Shier, Lynn L Eklund
AIMS: Acid-fast bacterium (AFB) identification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is challenging and may not be readily available to the clinical laboratory. A method to detect and identify AFB from FFPE tissues using PCR and pyrosequencing (PCR-Seq) was developed and evaluated. METHODS: The method was validated using spiked cell-clotted paraffin blocks before use with patients' specimens. DNA was extracted from tissue sections, and a 16S rRNA gene fragment was amplified and a signature sequence was produced on a PyroMark ID system...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735154/accuracy-of-c-reactive-protein-as-a-bacterial-infection-marker-in-critically-immunosuppressed-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Vanessa Martins de Oliveira, Rafael Barberena Moraes, Airton Tetelbom Stein, Eliana Márcia Wendland
BACKGROUND: There is a need for a better understanding of the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a valid marker for the detection of bacterial infections in critically immunosuppressed patients. A high negative predictive value of CRP is also needed to rule out sepsis and bacterial infections in immunocompetent patients. However, few studies have evaluated the performance of CRP in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of CRP as a marker of infection in critically immunosuppressed patients...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735047/sesamol-exhibits-potent-antimycobacterial-activity-underlying-mechanisms-and-impact-on-virulence-traits
#3
Sandeep Hans, Sharda Sharma, Saif Hameed, Zeeshan Fatima
OBJECTIVES: Novel strategies to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in Tuberculosis (TB) still remain a concern. Usage of natural compounds nowadays to surmount the increasing burden of MDR-TB has shown promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimycobacterial potential of sesamol (Ses) a natural phenolic compound against Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate for MTB and its underlying mechanism of action along with its effect on mycobacterial virulence traits. METHODS: Cell surface phenotypes were estimated microscopically and spectrophotometrically respectively...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734764/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-like-strains-revealed-specific-genetic-variations-associated-with-virulence-and-drug-resistance
#4
Juan Germán Rodríguez-Castillo, Camilo Pino, Luis Fernando Niño, Juan Carlos Rozo, Claudia Llerena-Polo, Carlos A Parra-López, Andreas Tauch, Martha Isabel Murcia-Aranguren
Isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 2/East-Asian are considered one of the most successful strains due to their increased pathogenicity, hyper-virulence associated with drug resistance, and high transmission. Recent studies in Colombia have shown that the Beijing-like genotype is associated with multidrug-resistance and high prevalence in the southwest of the country, but the genetic basis of its success in dissemination is unknown. In contribution to this matter, we obtained the whole sequences of six genomes of clinical isolates assigned to the Beijing-like genotype...
July 19, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734517/tuberculosis-in-children
#5
REVIEW
Tania A Thomas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734205/identification-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein-reductase-inhibitors-a-combined-in-silico-and-in-vitro-analysis
#6
Mohsin Y Lone, Mohd Athar, Vivek K Gupta, Prakash C Jha
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), had developed evolutionary changes in its genome to adapt for survival and thereby generated multi-drug resistant strains. However, novel drug targets that remained unchanged for their biochemical role has impressed the research community to target such proteins. The comprehensive analysis of multiple protein targets has influenced us to make a consensus structural rule exploited by pharmacophore and other allied techniques from a large repository of protein structures. In this pursuit, we made a retrospective analysis of pharmacophores mapped from the tuberculosis structural proteome and identified unique patterns that can be employed for the novel molecules design...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734101/hla-b-40-356-identified-by-next-generation-sequence-based-typing-in-a-chinese-tuberculosis-patient
#7
J Tang, X Chen, S Liu, X Tian
HLA-B*40:356 differs from B*40:02:01 by only one nucleotide transition, C>A 1040 in exon 6.
July 22, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733940/pituitary-tuberculoma-a-rare-cause-of-sellar-mass
#8
REVIEW
H M Zia-Ul-Hussnain, M Farrell, S Looby, W Tormey, M Javadpour, S Mcconkey, C J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary tuberculosis is an uncommon cause of sellar mass [1]; the estimated prevalence worldwide is not known, and there have been no reports of the condition occurring in Ireland. Tuberculosis of the pituitary gland may present as a sellar mass or with symptoms of hypopituitarism. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old woman, with a short prodromal history without endocrine symptoms, was found to have pituitary tuberculosis after the demonstration of a sellar mass on MRI, and lumbar puncture findings consistent with lymphocytic meningitis...
July 21, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733605/genexpert-mtb-rif-assay-in-the-diagnosis-of-urinary-tuberculosis-from-urine-specimens
#9
Yu Pang, Yuanyuan Shang, Jie Lu, Qian Liang, Lingling Dong, Yunxu Li, Liping Zhao, Guanglu Jiang, Hairong Huang
Conventional bacteriological methods are not generally helpful in diagnosing urinary tuberculosis (UTB). GeneXpert is endorsed for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis, whereas the data on its utility for urine specimens is limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its performance on urine specimens in a country with high TB incidence. A total of 163 suspected UTB patients were consecutively enrolled in the analysis, including 37 (22.7%) culture-positive and 44 (27.0%) clinically diagnosed UTB cases. Compared with conventional culture, the sensitivity of GeneXpert (94...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733601/anti-tubercular-activity-of-pyrazinamide-is-independent-of-trans-translation-and-rpsa
#10
Nicholas A Dillon, Nicholas D Peterson, Heather A Feaga, Kenneth C Keiler, Anthony D Baughn
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first line anti-tubercular drug for which the mechanism of action remains unresolved. Recently, it was proposed that the active form of PZA, pyrazinoic acid (POA), disrupts the ribosome rescue process of trans-translation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This model suggested that POA binds within the carboxy-terminal domain of ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA) and inhibits trans-translation leading to accumulation of stalled ribosomes. Here, we demonstrate that M. tuberculosis RpsA interacts with single stranded RNA, but not with POA...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733429/proteogenomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-immune-antigens-in-mycobacterium-vaccae
#11
Jianhua Zheng, Lihong Chen, Liguo Liu, Haifeng Li, Bo Liu, Dandan Zheng, Tao Liu, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Jian Yang, Xiaobing Zhang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in developing countries. Neonatal BCG vaccination occurs in various regions, but the level of protection varies in different populations. Recently, Mycobacterium vaccae is found to be an immunomodulating therapeutic agent that could confer a significant level of protection against TB. It is the only vaccine in a phase III trial from WHO to assess its efficacy and safety in preventing TB disease in people with latent TB infection. However, the mechanism of immunotherapy of M...
July 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733107/mortality-trends-for-tuberculosis-in-european-union-countries-2000-2010
#12
Moad J Al-Rahamneh, Anas Al-Rahamneh, Francisco Guillén-Grima, Alberto Arnedo-Pena, Inés Aguinaga-Ontoso
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to update and analyze tuberculosis (TB) mortality data in the European Union between 2000 and 2010 separately for men and women and try to detect if there have been any changes in trends in each country and the association with the economic situation and inequalities. METHODS: Data were extracted for tuberculosis deaths in 2000-2010 for 29 European Union countries and for Switzerland, via the World Health Organization (WHO) European detailed mortality database (DMDB), using the Mortality tabulation list 1 (MTL1) codes for men and women separately for one age group (20-85+)...
July 18, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733089/a-computational-protocol-for-the-discovery-of-lead-molecules-targeting-dna-unique-to-pathogens
#13
Akhilesh Mishra, Pradeep Pant, Nirotpal Mrinal, B Jayaram
With the rapid emergence of drug resistant pathogens, it has become imperative to develop alternative medications as well as find new drug targets to overcome this crisis. Hence, this has become prime focus of several academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we report a computational protocol for identifying unique DNA sequence(s) in the pathogen which is absent in human and related non-pathogenic strains of the microbe. In order to use the unique sequence as drug target, the protocol, in the second step, uses virtual screening against a million compound library to identify candidate small molecules which can bind to these unique DNA targets in the pathogen only...
July 18, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732078/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-indeterminate-results-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#14
Hong-Joon Shin, Tae-Ok Kim, Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Jin-Sun Chang, Seong Ahn, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing (QFT-GIT) at Chonnam National University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731663/-pulmonary-actinomycosis-and-tuberculosis-a-comorbidity-pediatric-case
#15
Elsa D Bisero, Graciela F Luque, Cristina N Rizzo, Alejandra E Zapata, María S Cuello
Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative infection, produced by anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria or microaerobic Actinomyces species. It is rare in children and adolescents and it is more common in immunocompromised. Mycobacterium tuberculosis collaborates on the development of the disease. Pulmonary involvement appears as a picture of chronic condensation that does not improve with conventional antibiotic treatment. Classic complications affecting the thoracic wallwith drainage in «sulfur granule» and fistulization are described less frequently nowadays...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730969/the-battle-for-iron-between-humans-and-microbes
#16
Peggy L Carver
Iron is an essential micronutrient for bacteria, fungi, and humans; as such, each has evolved specialized iron uptake systems to acquire iron from the extracellular environment and a complex 'tug of war' has evolved between human hosts and pathogenic microorganisms in the battle for this vital nutrient. In humans, sequestration (hiding) of iron from invading pathogens is often successful; however, many pathogens have evolved mechanisms to circumvent this approach. Clinically, controversy continues whether iron overload or administration of iron results in an increased risk of infection...
July 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730751/tuberculosis-and-biologics-in-rheumatology-india-a-special-situation
#17
REVIEW
Rohini Handa, Sundeep Upadhyaya, Sanjiv Kapoor, Ramesh Jois, Bimlesh D Pandey, Anuj K Bhatnagar, Ashwani Khanna, Vishal Goyal, Kamal Kumar
India has a huge patient burden of rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatoid arthritis. The use of biologics has transformed the treatment paradigm for RD; however, biologic treatment-related infections (especially tuberculosis [TB]) are an area of potential concern for TB-endemic nations like India. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy impairs the physiological TNF-mediated signaling and may cause reactivation and dissemination of latent TB infection (LTBI). Careful screening is, thus, crucial in RD patients who are about to commence anti-TNF treatment...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730222/tuberculosis-and-its-particularities-in-romania-and-worldwide
#18
Floarea Mimi NiŢu, Mihai Olteanu, Costin Teodor Streba, Gabriela Jimborean, Paraschiva Postolache, Milena Adina Man, Antigona Carmen Trofor, Roxana Maria Nemeş, Livia Dragonu, Mădălina Olteanu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health issue, with a rising incidence since the beginning of this century. It poses a severe mortality risk and also poses a serious economic risk as it reduces the working capacity of an individual in the most productive part of life. Developing countries face widespread tuberculosis infection - up to 95% of all cases and 98% of deaths, respectively. It is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the Koch bacillus) that can be contracted from either humans or animal hosts...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729708/new-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-clonal-complexes-in-china-revealed-by-phylogenetic-and-bayesian-population-structure-analyses-of-24-loci-miru-vntrs
#19
Chao Zheng, Yann Reynaud, Changsong Zhao, Thierry Zozio, Song Li, Dongxia Luo, Qun Sun, Nalin Rastogi
Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis constitutes the most predominant lineage in East Asia. Beijing epidemiology, evolutionary history, genetics are studied in details for years revealing probable origin from China followed by worldwide expansion, partially linked to higher mutation rate, hypervirulence, drug-resistance, and association with cases of mixed infections. Considering huge amount of data available for 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats, we performed detailed phylogenetic and Bayesian population structure analyses of Beijing lineage strains in mainland China and Taiwan using available 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data extracted from publications or the SITVIT2 database (n = 1490)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729474/trilateral-overlap-of-tuberculosis-diabetes-and-hiv-1-in-a-high-burden-african-setting-implications-for-tb-control
#20
Tolu Oni, Natacha Berkowitz, Mmamapudi Kubjane, Rene Goliath, Naomi S Levitt, Robert J Wilkinson
The diabetes mellitus burden is growing in countries where tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1 remain major challenges, threatening TB control efforts. This study determined the association between TB and diabetes/impaired glucose regulation in the context of HIV-1.A cross-sectional study was conducted at a TB clinic in Cape Town (South Africa). Participants were screened for diabetes and impaired glucose regulation using fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c).414 TB and 438 non-TB participants were enrolled...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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