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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931237/histone-methyltransferase-set8-epigenetically-reprograms-host-immune-responses-to-assist-mycobacterial-survival
#1
Vikas Singh, Praveen Prakhar, R S Rajmani, Kasturi Mahadik, Salik Miskat Borbora, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
NQO1 and TRXR1 are important host reductases implicated in the regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Although the transcriptional machinery governing these processes have been extensively investigated, the associated epigenetic regulatory events remain unclear. Here, we report that SET8, a histone H4 lysine 20 monomethylase (H4K20me1), is highly induced during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection that orchestrates immune evasion strategies through the induction of NQO1 and TRXR1 in vivo. SET8, along with FoxO3a, mediates an active NQO1-PGC1-α complex, which promotes the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype, and assists TRXR1-regulated arrest of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931146/a-rare-case-of-subcutaneous-abscess-with-intercostal-muscles-involvement-by-pleural-tuberculosis-in-a-malagasy-young-traveller
#2
Silvia Spoto, Massimo Ciccozzi, Silvia Angeletti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931126/cutaneous-mycobacterium-gordonae-infection-in-an-elderly-diabetic-returned-traveller
#3
Ibrahim Al-Busaidi, Daniel Wong, Andrea K Boggild
Mycobacterium gordonae, a low pathogenicity organism, is rarely implicated in skin and soft tissue infections. We present a 77-year-old returned diabetic traveler from rural Sudan with cutaneous M. gordonae infection. Several months of ciprofloxacin, rifampin and ethambutol led to resolution of his plaque, without signs of recurrence at 6-month follow-up.
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931117/migrant-tuberculosis-patient-needs-and-health-system-response-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#4
Naomi Tschirhart, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
This article aims to identify how the health system in Tak province, Thailand has responded to migrants' barriers to tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Our qualitatively driven multi-methods project utilized focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and a survey of community health volunteers to collect data in 2014 from multiple perspectives. Migrants identified legal status and transportation difficulties as the primary barriers to seeking TB treatment. Lack of financial resources and difficulties locating appropriate and affordable health services in other Thai provinces or across the border in Myanmar further contributed to migrants' challenges...
October 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930979/analysis-of-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-as-a-tool-for-studying-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-and-treatment-in-non-human-primates
#5
Alexander G White, Pauline Maiello, M Teresa Coleman, Jaime A Tomko, L James Frye, Charles A Scanga, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn
Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the number one infectious agent in the world today. With the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, new clinically relevant methods are needed that evaluate the disease process and screen for potential antibiotic and vaccine treatments. Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has been established as a valuable tool for studying a number of afflictions such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammation/infection. Outlined here are a number of strategies that have been employed to evaluate PET/CT images in cynomolgus macaques that are infected intrabronchially with low doses of M...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930847/guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-axonal-polyneuropathy-associated-with-toscana-virus-infection-a-case-report
#6
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli, Paola De Mitri, Donata Guidetti
RATIONALE: Numerous cases of post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne emerging pathogen in the Mediterranean area. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for acute facial weakness, associated to numbness paraesthesias at lower and upper limbs. The neurological examination revealed facial diplegia and reduced tendon reflexes. The nerve conduction studies documented an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN); the lumbar puncture detected albuminocytologic dissociation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930653/fishing-for-answers-in-human-mycobacterial-infections
#7
Miriam Bolz, Joel D Ernst
Two recent studies (Cambier et al., 2017; Madigan et al., 2017) reveal in vivo functions for specific phenolic glycolipids (PGLs) in the mycobacteria that cause tuberculosis or leprosy. M. tuberculosis (and M. marinum) PGL promotes bacterial spread to growth-permissive macrophages, while M. leprae PGL-1 induces macrophages to cause nerve demyelination characteristic of human leprosy.
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930506/tuberculosis-elimination-in-the-united-states-the-need-for-renewed-action
#8
Ronald Bayer, Kenneth G Castro
Once called "the captain of all these men of death," tuberculosis continues to kill 1.8 million people globally each year. In 2014, the World Health Assembly embraced an ambitious resolution to reduce deaths from tuberculosis by 95% by 2035. But despite such global concern, tuberculosis has all but..
September 21, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930287/exposure-to-human-alveolar-lining-fluid-enhances-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-efficacy-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-cd8-t-cell-dependent-manner
#9
J I Moliva, A P Hossfeld, C H Canan, V Dwivedi, M D Wewers, G Beamer, J Turner, J B Torrelles
Current tuberculosis (TB) treatments include chemotherapy and preventative vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). In humans, however, BCG vaccination fails to fully protect against pulmonary TB. Few studies have considered the impact of the human lung mucosa (alveolar lining fluid (ALF)), which modifies the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) cell wall, revealing alternate antigenic epitopes on the bacterium surface that alter its pathogenicity. We hypothesized that ALF-induced modification of BCG would induce better protection against aerosol infection with M...
September 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930150/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-broncho-alveolar-lavage-by-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Stefano Leo, Nadia Gaïa, Etienne Ruppé, Stephane Emonet, Myriam Girard, Vladimir Lazarevic, Jacques Schrenzel
The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. We extracted DNA from the BAL sample with protocols based either on sequential lysis of human and bacterial cells or on the mechanical disruption of all cells...
September 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930028/mycobacterium-riyadhense-in-saudi-arabia
#11
Bright Varghese, Mushirah Abdulaziz Enani, Sahar Althawadi, Sameera Johani, Grace Mary Fernandez, Hawra Al-Ghafli, Sahal Al-Hajoj
We explored in detail the nationwide existence of Mycobacterium riyadhense in Saudi Arabia. In 18 months, 12 new cases of M. riyadhense infection were observed, predominantly among Saudi nationals, as a cause of pulmonary disease. M. riyadhense may be emerging as a more common pathogen in Saudi Arabia.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930016/mycobacterium-orygis-lymphadenitis-in-new-york-usa
#12
Luis A Marcos, Eric D Spitzer, Rahul Mahapatra, Yupo Ma, Tanya A Halse, Joseph Shea, Michelle Isabelle, Pascal Lapierre, Vincent E Escuyer
We report a case of lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium orygis in an immunocompetent person in Stony Brook, New York, USA. Initial real-time PCR assay failed to provide a final subspecies identification within the M. tuberculosis complex, but whole-genome sequencing characterized the isolate as M. orygis.
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930014/surveillance-of-extrapulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-oregon-usa-2007-2012
#13
Emily Henkle, Katrina Hedberg, Sean D Schafer, Kevin L Winthrop
Limited data are available describing extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in the general population. We describe results from statewide population-based laboratory surveillance in Oregon, USA, during 2007-2012. We defined a case of extrapulmonary NTM infection as >1 isolate from skin/soft tissue, disseminated sites, lymph node, joint, or other sites. The annual incidence of extrapulmonary NTM infection (other than Mycobacterium gordonae) was stable, averaging 1.5 cases/100,000 population...
October 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929912/in%C3%A2-vivo-induction-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-guinea-pig-model
#14
Georgina Filio-Rodríguez, Iris Estrada-García, Patricia Arce-Paredes, María M Moreno-Altamirano, Sergio Islas-Trujillo, M Dolores Ponce-Regalado, Oscar Rojas-Espinosa
In 2004, a novel mechanism of cellular death, called 'NETosis', was described in neutrophils. This mechanism, different from necrosis and apoptosis, is characterized by the release of chromatin webs admixed with microbicidal granular proteins and peptides (NETs). NETs trap and kill a variety of microorganisms. Diverse microorganisms, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are NET inducers in vitro. The aim of this study was to examine whether M. tuberculosis can also induce NETs in vivo and if the NETs are bactericidal to the microorganism...
January 1, 2017: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929728/-undocumented-immigrants-what-do-we-know-about-their-health
#15
Giovanni Baglio, Raffaele Di Palma, Erica Eugeni, Antonio Fortino
In Italy, immigrants represent a "fuzzy" set, to which it is difficult to apply dichotomous categories as a classification (i.e., regular/irregular, economic/forced, etcetera). These categories lose its meaning when used to study health phenomena. Rather, the epidemiological profile of such a heterogeneous population depends on the varying influence of health determinants in the life-course of migration. This article builds on those assumptions, and analyses the health of irregularly- staying immigrants by adopting a global approach to the migration phenomenon...
May 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928997/neurosyphilis-with-concomitant-cryptococcal-and-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-aids-report-of-a-unique-case
#16
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza, Rita N Nwanyanwu
Meningitis in individuals living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is most frequently infectious in origin and usually due to opportunistic infections. The most common pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treponema pallidum causes neurosyphilis and can complicate HIV infections at any time after the initial infection. Simultaneous infections of the central nervous system caused by these pathogens are very uncommon even in the setting of severe immunosuppression...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928976/disseminated-tuberculosis-presenting-as-cold-abscess-of-the-thyroid-gland-a-case-report
#17
Kiran Dv, Karthik Gunasekaran, Ajay Kumar Mishra, Ramya Iyyadurai
Tubercular involvement of the thyroid gland is a rare entity. Tuberculosis of thyroid gland can present as cold abscess, multinodular goitre, acute abscess or generalized goitre. Clinically, these patients can be euthyroid, hypothyroid or hyperthyroid. Diagnosis is made by fine needle aspiration and demonstration of acid fast bacilli. Here, we report the case of a 46-year-old male who presented with disseminated extrapulmonary tuberculosis with obstructive hydrocephalus and cold abscess of the thyroid gland...
September 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928738/age-stratified-t-cell-responses-in-children-infected-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#18
Alexandra Dreesman, Véronique Corbière, Violette Dirix, Kaat Smits, Sara Debulpaep, Iris De Schutter, Myriam Libin, Mahavir Singh, Anne Malfroot, Camille Locht, Françoise Mascart
Tuberculosis (TB) in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB) is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI). Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928454/a-comprehensive-characterization-of-pnca-polymorphisms-that-confer-resistance-to-pyrazinamide
#19
Adam N Yadon, Kashmeel Maharaj, John H Adamson, Yi-Pin Lai, James C Sacchettini, Thomas R Ioerger, Eric J Rubin, Alexander S Pym
Tuberculosis chemotherapy is dependent on the use of the antibiotic pyrazinamide, which is being threatened by emerging drug resistance. Resistance is mediated through mutations in the bacterial gene pncA. Methods for testing pyrazinamide susceptibility are difficult and rarely performed, and this means that the full spectrum of pncA alleles that confer clinical resistance to pyrazinamide is unknown. Here, we performed in vitro saturating mutagenesis of pncA to generate a comprehensive library of PncA polymorphisms resultant from a single-nucleotide polymorphism...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928442/genome-wide-association-and-hla-region-fine-mapping-studies-identify-susceptibility-loci-for-multiple-common-infections
#20
Chao Tian, Bethann S Hromatka, Amy K Kiefer, Nicholas Eriksson, Suzanne M Noble, Joyce Y Tung, David A Hinds
Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry...
September 19, 2017: Nature Communications
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