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(Mycobacterium OR Tuberculosis) AND B12

Mark W Tenforde, Ashish Yadav, David W Dowdy, Nikhil Gupte, Rupak Shivakoti, Wei-Teng Yang, Noluthando Mwelase, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandy Pillay, Wadzanai Samaneka, Breno Santos, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Srikanth Tripathy, Cynthia Riviere, Sima Berendes, Javier R Lama, Sandra W Cardoso, Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa, Parul Christian, Richard D Semba, Thomas B Campbell, Amita Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study (n=332) within a randomized trial comparing three ART regimens in 1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults from nine countries. A subcohort of 30 patients was randomly selected from each country (n=270)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Prabha M R Adhikari, Mukta N Chowta, John T Ramapuram, Satish Rao, Karthik Udupa, Sahana Devdas Acharya
BACKGROUND: Deficiency of micronutrients is prevalent even before the development of symptoms of HIV disease and is associated with accelerated HIV disease progression. AIMS: This study evaluates the prevalence of folate and Vitamin B12 deficiency in HIV-positive patients with or without tuberculosis (TB) and its association with neuropsychiatric symptoms and immunological response. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional, observational study in an outpatient setting...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Maikel Boot, Marion Sparrius, Kin Ki Jim, Susanna Commandeur, Alexander Speer, Robert van de Weerd, Wilbert Bitter
Tuberculosis can be treated with a 6-month regimen of antibiotics. Although the targets of most of the first-line antibiotics have been identified, less research has focused on the intrabacterial stress responses that follow upon treatment with antibiotics. Studying the roles of these stress genes may lead to the identification of crucial stress-coping mechanisms that can provide additional drug targets to increase treatment efficacy. A three-gene operon with unknown function that is strongly up-regulated upon treatment with isoniazid and ethambutol is the iniBAC operon...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Prabha M Adhikari, Mukta N Chowta, John T Ramapuram, Satish B Rao, Karthik Udupa, Sahana D Acharya
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients such as B12 and folic acid deficiencies are found in higher number in HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a study to examine the effect of Vitamin B12 and folic acid supplementation on neuropsychiatric manifestations, CD4 count, and anthropometric measurements in HIV-positive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three different groups of HIV patients, namely, HIV patients with tuberculosis, HIV patients with neuropsychiatric manifestations, and asymptomatic HIV patients with 50 patients in each group were included in the study...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Ningning Song, Yingying Cui, Zhaoli Li, Liping Chen, Siguo Liu
Rv3291c (MtbLrpA), a transcriptional regulator, belongs to the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) family and is thought to play an important role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis persistence. In this study, we verified 17 novel potential binding sites for MtbLrpA by in vitro binding assays on the basis of previous predictions from an in silico analysis and bacterial one-hybrid (BIH) reporter system. Amino acids, such as tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and histidine, strongly affect the binding affinity of MtbLrpA, and vitamins, including B1, B3, B6, VC, B7, B9, B12, VA, and VK3, also decrease MtbLrpA binding affinity...
April 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
Mahmood Rasool, Arif Malik, Abdul Manan, Khuram Aziz, Amna Mahmood, Saima Zaheer, Naveed Shuja, Mahmood Husain Qazi, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Sajjad Karim
The present study was designed to explore the antioxidative status and circulating biochemical markers having a potential role in the pathogenesis of ethambutol (EMB) induced toxic optic neuropathy (TON) among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Fifty patients under complete therapy of EMB for tuberculosis were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria for patients were to receive EMB everyday during treatment, a dose of 25 mg/kg for initial 2 months and 15 mg/kg during the rest of therapy period...
November 2015: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Douglas B Young, Iñaki Comas, Luiz P S de Carvalho
Comparison of genome sequences from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with phylogenetically-related pathogens Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium kansasii, and Mycobacterium leprae reveals diversity amongst genes associated with vitamin B12-related metabolism. Diversity is generated by gene deletion events, differential acquisition of genes by horizontal transfer, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with predicted impact on protein function and transcriptional regulation. Differences in the B12 synthesis pathway, methionine biosynthesis, fatty acid catabolism, and DNA repair and replication are consistent with adaptations to different environmental niches and pathogenic lifestyles...
2015: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Mitchell L Schubert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the past year's literature regarding the neural, paracrine, hormonal, and intracellular regulation of gastric acid secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastric acid facilitates the digestion of protein as well as the absorption of iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and certain medications. High gastric acidity, in combination with pepsin and lipase, kills ingested microorganisms and may play a role in preventing bacterial overgrowth, enteric infection, and possibly spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
November 2014: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Hyungjin Eoh, Kyu Y Rhee
Few mutations attenuate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) more profoundly than deletion of its isocitrate lyases (ICLs). However, the basis for this attenuation remains incompletely defined. Mtb's ICLs are catalytically bifunctional isocitrate and methylisocitrate lyases required for growth on even and odd chain fatty acids. Here, we report that Mtb's ICLs are essential for survival on both acetate and propionate because of its methylisocitrate lyase (MCL) activity. Lack of MCL activity converts Mtb's methylcitrate cycle into a "dead end" pathway that sequesters tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates into methylcitrate cycle intermediates, depletes gluconeogenic precursors, and results in defects of membrane potential and intrabacterial pH...
April 1, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Krishnamoorthy Gopinath, Atica Moosa, Valerie Mizrahi, Digby F Warner
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is included among a select group of bacteria possessing the capacity for de novo biosynthesis of vitamin B12, the largest and most complex natural organometallic cofactor. The bacillus is also able to scavenge B12 and related corrinoids utilizing an ATP-binding cassette-type protein that is distinct from the only known bacterial B12-specific transporter, BtuFCD. Consistent with the inferred requirement for vitamin B12 for metabolic function, the M. tuberculosis genome encodes two B12 riboswitches and three B12-dependent enzymes...
November 2013: Future Microbiology
Burke A Cunha, Andrew Petelin
BACKGROUND: Determining the cause of fever of unknown origin (FUO) is often a vexing and difficult diagnostic process. In most cases, the signs and symptoms in adult FUOs suggest a malignant, infectious, or rheumatic/inflammatory etiology. The diagnosis of FUO may be narrowed if specific findings are present (eg, hepatosplenomegaly) that limit the diagnostic possibilities. Infectious causes of FUO with hepatosplenomegaly include miliary tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and visceral leishmanosis (kala-azar)...
January 2013: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
M Premkumar, N Gupta, T Singh, T Velpandian
Background. Pancytopenia has multiple etiologies like megaloblastic anemia, aplastic anemia, leukemia, and various infections. We investigated the clinical, etiological and hematological profile including bone marrow morphology of patients with pancytopenia in relation to their vitamin B12 and folic acid status at a tertiary care referral hospital in north India. Methods. A total of 140 consecutive patients with pancytopenia were selected from June 2007 to December 2008. Bone marrow examination and other tests were carried out as warranted, including serum cobalamin and folate assays using liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy (LC MS/MS)...
2012: Anemia
Etsuko Nakasone, Naoko Mato, Masayuki Nakayama, Masashi Bando, Yukihiko Sugiyama
A 57-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a high fever and productive cough. He had a previous history of total gastrectomy and splenectomy at the age of 45 years due to gastric cancer. He also showed severe macrocytic anemia with low vitamin B12, and an infiltrative shadow was found in the right lung on an X-ray. Sputum examination on admission revealed no significant pathogenic bacteria, and an acid-fast stain and a M. tuberculosis PCR test were negative. QuantiFERON TB-2G Test (QFT) was negative on admission...
January 2012: Kekkaku: [Tuberculosis]
Nitin K Sethi, Prahlad K Sethi, Josh Torgovnick, Edward Arsura
Primary dementias are the most common cause of memory impairment in patients above the age of 60. Hypothyroidism, depression, vitamin B12 deficiency and infectious diseases such as syphilis at times may present with memory impairment mimicking primary dementias in their clinical presentation. We present here a 64-year-old female who presented with complaints of forgetfulness, confusion, memory loss and impaired concentration for the past 3 months. Neuroimaging and computed tomography of the chest were suggestive of active tuberculosis...
September 2011: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Alain Zingraff Lekoubou Looti, André Pascal Kengne, Vincent de Paul Djientcheu, Callixte T Kuate, Alfred K Njamnshi
BACKGROUND: The relative frequency of compressive and non-compressive myelopathies and their aetiologies have not been evaluated extensively in most sub-Saharan African countries. The case of Cameroon is studied. METHODS: Admission registers and case records of patients in the neurology and neurosurgery departments of the study hospital were reviewed from January 1999 to December 2006. RESULTS: 224 (9.7% of all admissions) cases were non-traumatic paraplegia/paraparesis or tetraplegia/tetraparesis and 147 were due to myelopathies, representing 6...
July 2010: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Lekha Pandit
In hospitals in the tropics, the availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facilities in urban areas and especially in teaching institutions have resulted in white matter diseases being frequently reported in a variety of clinical settings. Unlike the west where multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest white matter disease encountered, in the tropics, there are myriad causes for the same. Infectious and post infectious disorders probably account for the vast majority of these diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection tops the list of infective conditions...
January 2009: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Mayuko Hori, Reiko Yoshida, Isao Aoyama, Sizunori Ichida
A 70-year-old woman was referred and admitted to our hospital with fever of unknown etiology. She had a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Ten weeks before admission she was diagnosed with acute renal failure caused by crescentic glomerulonephritis. Oral steroid therapy was not effective and she required dialysis. On admission, she was started on empiric antibiotic treatment, with the suspicion of bacterial infection. On the 3rd hospital day, she developed sudden hypotension and underwent direct hemoperfusion with a polymyxin B immobilized fiber...
2009: Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi
V P Chukanova, R Sh Valiev, V Ia Gergert, A S Sergeev, L E Pospelov, A F Malenko, I Ia Iksanov
The paper presents the results of a population-based, geneticoepidemiological, and immunological study conducted in two regions of Tatarstan. The population-based risks for tuberculosis were established for males and females. Based on the population and family data, the authors calculated the genetic liability to tuberculosis, namely hereditability that is in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 and includes the contribution of nongenetic and environmental factors. Analysis of the results of immunogenetic studies of the northwestern region of Tatarstan has ascertained that patients have an association with the HLA antigen B22, in the Kama Region there is an association with other HLA antigens: B12 and B16...
2008: Problemy Tuberkuleza i Bolezneĭ Legkikh
Mohammad Tahir, Sanjeev Sinha, S K Sharma, Ronald T Mitsuyasu
We describe an unusual case of a 25-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive male with a pre-treatment CD4 count of 144 cells/microL, who had received highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) consisting of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine for three months, developing immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) manifesting as disseminated tuberculosis (TB), myelopathy, encephalopathy and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). In addition to HAART and antituberculosis treatment (ATT), the patient was given non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral vitamin B12 and heparin, which was later switched to oral warfarin...
October 2008: Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences
S H Downs, P Durr, J Edwards, R Clifton-Hadley
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a continuing problem in British herds. Micro-nutrients are important for the maintenance of well-functioning immune system. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selenium, copper and vitamin B12 status of cattle was associated with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) infection. Between 2002 and 2005, 200 cattle (43% dairy, mean age 4.6 years), reactors according to the standard interpretation of the tuberculin test, and 200 in-contacts (41% dairy, mean age 4.4 years) non-reactors, which had been in contact with cattle with bTB, were selected from herds in England and Wales...
November 17, 2008: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
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