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Ischemic cerebral disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352217/bedside-assessment-of-regional-cerebral-perfusion-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-indocyanine-green-in-patients-with-atherosclerotic-occlusive-disease
#1
Hiroshi Saito, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Jun Tanabe, Shinya Kobayashi, Junta Moroi
This pilot study aimed to investigate the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy/indocyanine green (NIRS/ICG) for examining patients with occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Twenty-nine patients with chronic-stage atherosclerotic occlusive cerebrovascular disease were included. The patients were monitored using NIRS at the bedside. Using ICG time-intensity curves, the affected-to-unaffected side ratios were calculated for several parameters, including the maximum ICG concentration (ΔICGmax), time to peak (TTP), rise time (RT), and blood flow index (BFI = ΔICGmax/RT), and were compared to the affected-to-unaffected side ratios of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) obtained using positron emission tomography with 15O-labeled gas...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351682/radial-artery-fascial-flow-through-free-flap-for-combined-revascularization-in-moyamoya-disease
#2
Jonathan Russin, Joseph Carey
BACKGROUND: Free flaps are commonly used by other surgical subspecialties for soft tissue reconstruction and revascularization. Cranial applications of these flaps have been limited to only a single case report. OBJECTIVE: To present a new technique for combined revascularization in moyamoya disease using a flow-through free flap. METHODS: Data were obtained from an Institutional Review Board-approved, prospectively maintained database with informed consent from the patient...
February 1, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351598/smooth-muscle-cells-of-intracranial-vessels-from-development-to-disease
#3
Juhana Frösen, Anne Joutel
Cerebrovascular diseases that cause ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke with subsequent loss of life or functional capacity due to damage of the brain tissue are among the leading causes of human suffering and economic burden inflicted by diseases in the developed world. Diseases affecting intracranial vessels are significant contributors to ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM), which are a collection of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries to veins, are the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children and young adults...
January 16, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350605/in-situ-administration-of-abciximab-for-thrombus-resolution-during-intracranial-bypass-surgery-case-report
#4
Ian A Buchanan, Brian Lee, Arun P Amar, Steven L Giannotta
Abciximab is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist that functions to prevent platelet aggregation, thus reducing thrombus initiation and propagation. It has been widely used during percutaneous endovascular interventions, such as aneurysm coil embolization, angioplasty, atherectomy, and stent placement, as both a preventative and a salvage therapy. The use of abciximab in cardiac and neurosurgical procedures has been associated with a reduced incidence of ischemic complications and a decreased need for repeated intervention...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#5
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344420/the-effects-of-baicalin-and-baicalein-on-cerebral-ischemia-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Wei Liang, Xiaobo Huang, Wenqiang Chen
Ischemic stroke, producing a high mortality and morbidity rate, is a common clinical disease. Enhancing the prevention and control of ischemic stroke is particularly important. Baicalin and its aglycon baicalein are flavonoids extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, an important traditional Chinese herb. In recent years, a growing body of evidences has shown that baicalin and baicalein could be effective in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that baicalin could penetrate the blood-brain barrier and distribute in cerebral nuclei...
December 2017: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340071/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-regulates-microglial-functions-affecting-neuronal-survival-in-the-acute-phase-of-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#7
Seoyeon Bok, Young-Eun Kim, Youngsik Woo, Soeun Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Yoontae Lee, Sang Ki Park, Irving L Weissman, G-One Ahn
Cells universally adapt to ischemic conditions by turning on a transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), in which its role is known to differ widely across many different types of cells. Given that microglia have been reported as an essential mediator of neuroinflammation in many brain diseases, we examined the role of HIF in microglia in the progression of an acute phase of ischemic stroke by challenging our novel strains of myeloid-specific Hif-1α or Hif-2α knockout (KO) mice created by Cre-loxP system via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339666/preventive-cold-acclimation-augments-the-reparative-function-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-mice
#8
Cheng Peng, Li-Ping Wang, Xia Tao, Xiao-Hui Dong, Chun-Fang Xu, Yu Jiang, Chun-Long Liu, Hui-Fang Ma, Chuan Zhang, Alex F Chen, He-Hui Xie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic cold exposure may increase energy expenditure and contribute to counteracting obesity, an important risk factor for cerebrocardiovascular diseases. This study sought to evaluate whether preventive cold acclimation before ischemia onset might be a promising option for preventing cerebral ischemic injury. METHODS: After a 14-day cold acclimation period, young and aged mice were subjected to permanent cerebral ischemia, and histological analyses and behavioral tests were performed...
January 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335619/cytokine-mif-enhances-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-impact-for-therapy-in-ischemic-stroke
#9
Yu-Chuan Liu, Yung-Hsu Tsai, Sung-Chun Tang, Houng-Chi Liou, Kai-Hsiang Kang, Horng-Huei Liou, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Wen-Mei Fu
Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with limited therapeutic options. It is very urgent to find a new target for drug development. Here we found that the blood level of MIF in ischemic stroke patients is upregulated. To figure out the pathological role of MIF in ischemic stroke, both in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. For in vitro studies, primary cortical neuron cultures and adult rat brain endothelial cells (ARBECs) were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) rodent models were used for in vivo studies...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329693/bold-fmri-signal-in-stroke-patients-and-its-importance-for-prognosis-in-the-subacute-disease-period-preliminary-report
#10
Anetta Lasek-Bal, Joanna Kidoń, Monika Błaszczyszyn, Bartłomiej Stasiów, Amadeusz Żak
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows for the assessment of neuronal activity through the blood-level-dependent signal. The purpose of study was to evaluate the pattern of brain activity in fMRI in patients with ischemic stroke and to assess the potential relationship between the activity pattern and the neurological/functional status. METHODS: The fMRI was performed in patients up to 4th day of stroke. All the patients were analyzed according to NIHSS on 1st day and mRankin scale on 14th day of stroke, followed by analyzing of fMRI signal...
December 24, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329654/uhplc-ltq-orbitrap-based-metabolomics-coupled-with-metabolomics-pathway-analysis-method-for-exploring-the-protection-mechanism-of-kudiezi-injection-in-a-rat-anti-ischemic-cerebral-reperfusion-damage-model
#11
Si-Yi Liu, Wei Cai, Fei Wang, Ying Liu, Zhan-Peng Shang, Xiu-Ping Zhang, Zi-Jian Wang, Jian-Qiu Lu, Jia-Yu Zhang
Kudiezi injection has been used extensively in the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. However, its therapeutic effects and underlying mechanism of action are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to clarify the protective mechanisms of Kudiezi injection on cerebral ischemic injury, using metabolomics methods. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was introduced in rats to build the cerebral ischemic damage. UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-based analytical method was established for analysis of the metabolites...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327107/imaging-of-pediatric-neurovascular-emergencies
#12
Yang Tang, William C Goodman, Michael D Maldonado, Xinli Du
Pediatric strokes are rare but critical diagnoses to make in the emergency setting. They are associated with a set of pathologies that are not frequently encountered in the adult population. Some of these diseases have variable clinical presentations and imaging appearance depending on the age of onset and severity of the underlying pathologies. This article reviews the differential diagnoses and noninvasive imaging evaluation of pediatric cerebral ischemic and hemorrhagic diseases.
January 11, 2018: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326378/the-casper-stent-system-for-carotid-artery-stenosis
#13
Sebastian J Mutzenbach, Katharina Millesi, Cornelia Roesler, Erasmia Broussalis, Slaven Pikija, Johann Sellner, Lukas Machegger, Christoph J Griessenauer, Monika Killer-Oberpfalzer
PURPOSE: To report the results of a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data evaluating the safety and efficacy of a double layer stent engineered for carotid artery occlusive disease. METHODS: Between January 2014 and February 2017, 138 patients (25.4% women; median age 71 years) underwent Casper stent implantation for carotid artery stenosis. Eligibility criteria included stenosis >70% of vessel diameter (or >50% diameter with ulceration) in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic patients with >80% stenosis at the carotid bifurcation or in the proximal internal carotid artery...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325919/patients-with-cerebral-stroke-have-an-increased-risk-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#14
Chen-Shu Chang, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Chun-Hui Liao
BACKGROUND: Medical complications following stroke often result in significant morbidity. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) between patients with stroke and those without stroke in Taiwan. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study included 18,412 patients newly diagnosed as having stroke during 2000-2006 and 18,412 patients without stroke frequency-matched by sex, age, and index year...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323198/paroxysmal-nocturnal-hemoglobinuria-pnh-brain-mri-ischemic-lesions-in-neurologically-asymtomatic-patients
#15
Wilma Barcellini, Elisa Scola, Silvia Lanfranconi, Marika Grottaroli, Francesca Binda, Bruno Fattizzo, Anna Zaninoni, Gloria Valcamonica, Claudia Maria Cinnante, Carla Boschetti, Massimiliano Buoli, Carlo Alfredo Altamura, Nereo Bresolin, Fabio Triulzi, Alberto Zanella, Agostino Cortelezzi
This study investigated for the first time brain ischemic involvement in 19 consecutive neurologically asymptomatic PNH patients by non-enhanced cerebral MRI, and by intracranial arterial and venous angio-MRI. Eleven cases (58%, 7 aged <65) showed pathological findings: 9 white matter (WM) abnormalities related to chronic ischemic small vessel disease, 2 a focal abnormality >5 mm, and 5 cases a score >4 by the age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) scale. Compared with age and sex-matched controls (1:2 ratio), patients showed an increased frequency of periventricular WM vascular degeneration (32% versus 5...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316542/microrna-9a-5p-alleviates-ischemia-injury-after-focal-cerebral-ischemia-of-the-rat-by-targeting-atg5-mediated-autophagy
#16
Ning Wang, Lei Yang, Huixue Zhang, Xiaoyu Lu, Jianjian Wang, Yuze Cao, Lixia Chen, Xiaokun Wang, Lin Cong, Jie Li, Na Wang, Zhaojun Liu, Lihua Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have suggested that autophagy is activated in distinct cerebrovascular diseases, including stroke. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism of autophagy under stroke remained elusive. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunctions of microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathological process of stroke. Therefore, this study was taken to identify the effect of microRNA-9a-5p (miR-9a-5p) on autophagy in rats following stroke. METHODS: The rat model of focal cerebral ischemia was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery; The neurological outcomes were defined by neurological evaluation and infarct volume; The western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to detected the protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and autophagy related 5 (ATG5); The mRNA level of miR-9a-5p, LC3 and ATG5 were quantified by real-time RT-PCR; The luciferase activities of ATG5 and miR-9a-5p was detected by luciferase assay...
December 22, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315561/faim2-contributes-to-neuroprotection-by-erythropoietin-in-transient-brain-ischemia
#17
Daniel Komnig, Karen Gertz, Pardes Habib, Kay W Nolte, Tareq Meyer, Marc A Brockmann, Matthias Endres, Birgit Rathkolb, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jörg B Schulz, Björn H Falkenburger, Arno Reich
Delayed cell death in the penumbra region of acute ischemic stroke occurs through apoptotic mechanisms, making it amenable to therapeutic interventions. Fas/CD95 mediates apoptotic cell death in response to external stimuli. In mature neurons, Fas/CD95 signaling is modulated by Fas-apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2 (Faim2), which reduces cell death in animal models of stroke, meningitis, and Parkinson disease. Erythropoietin (EPO) has been studied as a therapeutic strategy in ischemic stroke. Erythropoietin stimulates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which regulates Faim2 expression...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313183/predictors-of-unknown-cancer-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#18
Sonia Quintas, Jacobo Rogado, Pedro Gullón, Vilma Pacheco-Barcia, Julio Dotor García-Soto, Gemma Reig-Roselló, Rebeca Mondéjar, Ramón Colomer, Jose Vivancos
Stroke is the second most frequent neurologic finding in postmortem studies of cancer patients. It has also been described as the first expression of an occult cancer. We have studied patients diagnosed with cancer after an ischemic stroke (IS) and we analyze differences with non-tumor patients. Single cohort longitudinal retrospective study of patients admitted to our center with IS diagnosis from 1 January 2012 to 12 December 2014. All patients were followed for 18 months. Patients with transient ischemic infarction or cerebral hemorrhage, active cancer or in the last 5 years, inability to follow-up or absence of complete complementary study (holter-EKG, echocardiogram, and dupplex/angiography-CT) were excluded...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310285/silver-nanoparticles-as-matrix-for-maldi-fticr-ms-profiling-and-imaging-of-diverse-lipids-in-brain
#19
Ming Guan, Zhen Zhang, Shilei Li, Jian'an Liu, Lu Liu, Hui Yang, Yangyang Zhang, Tie Wang, Zhenwen Zhao
Owing to the diversity of lipids, profiling and imaging multiple classes of lipids in one analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) is a great challenge. In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was used as the matrix for MALDI MSI for the first time to simultaneously analyze 10 classes of lipids from the brain. This analysis included fatty acids and their derivatives, sterols, CPAs, LPA and PAs, LPE and PEs, LPC and PCs, PS, Cers, SMs, and MAGs and DAGs, and other small metabolites...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296623/clarion-call-for-histopathological-clot-analysis-in-cryptogenic-ischemic-stroke-implications-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
Sonu Bhaskar, Dennis Cordato, Cecilia Cappelen-Smith, Andrew Cheung, David Ledingham, David Celermajer, Christopher Levi
Diagnosis, treatment, and secondary management of cryptogenic stroke patients pose a formidable challenge. The scenario is further complicated in patients with native and prosthetic valvular heart disease. We present a case study of a 36-year-old man who received intravenous thrombolysis (IV-tPA) and endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for presumed "cryptogenic" complete middle cerebral artery infarction who made a surprisingly excellent clinical recovery despite poor baseline and postintervention neuroimaging...
December 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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