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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649640/mri-derived-diffusion-parameters-in-the-human-optic-nerve-and-its-surrounding-sheath-during-head-down-tilt
#1
Darius A Gerlach, Karina Marshall-Goebel, Khader M Hasan, Larry A Kramer, Noam Alperin, Joern Rittweger
More than half of astronauts present with significant neuro-ophthalmic findings during 6-month missions onboard the International Space Station. Although the underlying cause of this Microgravity Ocular Syndrome is currently unknown, alterations in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics within the optic nerve sheath may play a role. In the presented study, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess changes in diffusivity of the optic nerve and its surrounding sheath during head-down tilt, a ground-based model of microgravity...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649205/support-vector-machine-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-interoception-does-not-reliably-predict-individual-outcomes-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-panic-disorder-with-agoraphobia
#2
Benedikt Sundermann, Jens Bode, Ulrike Lueken, Dorte Westphal, Alexander L Gerlach, Benjamin Straube, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Andreas Ströhle, André Wittmann, Carsten Konrad, Tilo Kircher, Volker Arolt, Bettina Pfleiderer
BACKGROUND: The approach to apply multivariate pattern analyses based on neuro imaging data for outcome prediction holds out the prospect to improve therapeutic decisions in mental disorders. Patients suffering from panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG) often exhibit an increased perception of bodily sensations. The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether multivariate classification applied to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) interoception paradigm can predict individual responses to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in PD/AG...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646771/efficacy-of-alectinib-in-central-nervous-system-metastases-in-crizotinib-resistant-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-comparison-of-recist-1-1-and-rano-hgg-criteria
#3
Leena Gandhi, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Alice T Shaw, Fabrice Barlesi, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Dong-Wan Kim, D Ross Camidge, Brett G M Hughes, James C-H Yang, Javier de Castro, Lucio Crino, Hervé Léna, Pascal Do, Sophie Golding, Walter Bordogna, Ali Zeaiter, Ahmed Kotb, Shirish Gadgeel
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) progression is common in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving crizotinib. Next-generation ALK inhibitors have shown activity against CNS metastases, but accurate assessment of response and progression is vital. Data from two phase II studies in crizotinib-refractory ALK+ NSCLC were pooled to examine the CNS efficacy of alectinib, a CNS-active ALK inhibitor, using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST version 1...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643997/brain-monitoring-in-adult-and-pediatric-ecmo-patients-the-importance-of-early-and-late-assessments
#4
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio S Taccone, Mirko Belliato, Thijs Delnoij, Paolo Zanatta, Mirjana Cvetkovic, Mark Davidson, Jan Belohlavek, Nashwa Matta, Carl Davis, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Thomas Mueller, Ralf Muellenbach, Dirk Donker, Piero David, Matteo DI Nardo, Dirk Vlasselaers, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Aparna Hoskote
Monitoring brain integrity and neuro-cognitive function is a new and important target for the management of a patient treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in particular because of the increasing awareness of cerebral abnormalities that may potentially occur in this setting. Continuous regular monitoring, as well as repeated assessment for cerebral complications has become an essential element of the ECMO patient management. Besides well-known complications, like bleeding, ischemic stroke, seizures, and brain hypoperfusion, other less defined yet relevant injury and clinical manifestations are increasingly reported and impacting on ECMO patient prognosis at short term...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643616/advanced-neuroimaging-of-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#5
Marco Varrassi, Alessandra Di Sibio, Camilla Gianneramo, Marco Perri, Giorgia Saltelli, Alessandra Splendiani, Carlo Masciocchi
Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is nowadays the most common cause of fatal poisoning worldwide. CO binds to haemoglobin 230-270 times more avidly than oxygen, thus leading to formation of carboxyhaemoglobin with subsequent reduction of tissue oxygenation. Brain is mainly affected due to its high oxygen requirement. Up to two-thirds of patients who survive the acute phase of this pathology present a delayed leukoencephalopathy, usually in a period ranging from two to 40 days. White matter damage closely relates to long-term prognosis of these patients...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640707/response-assessment-in-neuro-oncology-clinical-trials
#6
Patrick Y Wen, Susan M Chang, Martin J Van den Bent, Michael A Vogelbaum, David R Macdonald, Eudocia Q Lee
Development of novel therapies for CNS tumors requires reliable assessment of response and progression. This requirement has been particularly challenging in neuro-oncology for which contrast enhancement serves as an imperfect surrogate for tumor volume and is influenced by agents that affect vascular permeability, such as antiangiogenic therapies. In addition, most tumors have a nonenhancing component that can be difficult to accurately quantify. To improve the response assessment in neuro-oncology and to standardize the criteria that are used for different CNS tumors, the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group was established...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640699/brain-tumor-imaging
#7
Kevin M Brindle, José L Izquierdo-García, David Y Lewis, Richard J Mair, Alan J Wright
Modern imaging techniques, particularly functional imaging techniques that interrogate some specific aspect of underlying tumor biology, have enormous potential in neuro-oncology for disease detection, grading, and tumor delineation to guide biopsy and resection; monitoring treatment response; and targeting radiotherapy. This brief review considers the role of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography in these areas and discusses the factors that limit translation of new techniques to the clinic, in particular, the cost and difficulties associated with validation in multicenter clinical trials...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619493/dynamic-4d-cta-for-neuro-vascular-pathologies-a-case-series
#8
Ahmed Alnemari, Tarek R Mansour, Mohamad Bazerbashi, Mark Buehler, Jason Schroeder, Daniel Gaudin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to illustrate, summarize, and review the multifaceted application of four-dimensional computed tomography angiography (4D-CTA) in the characterization and diagnosis of various cerebrovascular and tumor-associated vascular pathologies through the presentation of clinical cases including acute/chronic stroke, arteriovenous malformations, aneurysm, moya-moya disease, and the hypervascularity associated with a tumor and its relationship to pre-operative embolization...
June 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617224/enigma-viewer-interactive-visualization-strategies-for-conveying-effect-sizes-in-meta-analysis
#9
Guohao Zhang, Peter Kochunov, Elliot Hong, Sinead Kelly, Christopher Whelan, Neda Jahanshad, Paul Thompson, Jian Chen
BACKGROUND: Global scale brain research collaborations such as the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis) consortium are beginning to collect data in large quantity and to conduct meta-analyses using uniformed protocols. It becomes strategically important that the results can be communicated among brain scientists effectively. Traditional graphs and charts failed to convey the complex shapes of brain structures which are essential to the understanding of the result statistics from the analyses...
June 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616821/re-irradiation-after-gross-total-resection-of-recurrent-glioblastoma-spatial-pattern-of-recurrence-and-a-review-of-the-literature-as-a-basis-for-target-volume-definition
#10
Christoph Straube, Greeshma Elpula, Jens Gempt, Julia Gerhardt, Stefanie Bette, Claus Zimmer, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Bernhard Meyer, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: Currently, patients with gross total resection (GTR) of recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) undergo adjuvant chemotherapy or are followed up until progression. Re-irradiation, as one of the most effective treatments in macroscopic rGBM, is withheld in this situation, as uncertainties about the pattern of re-recurrence, the target volume, and also the efficacy of early re-irradiation after GTR exist. METHODS: Imaging and clinical data from 26 consecutive patients with GTR of rGBM were analyzed...
June 14, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615894/unknown-patients-and-neurology-casualty-services-in-an-indian-metropolitan-city-a-decades-experience
#11
Achary Umesh, Guru S Gowda, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Bharath Rose Dawn, Ragasudha Botta, Ravi Yadav, Suresh Bada Math
OBJECTIVES: A large number of unknown patients without any personal, family, or other identification details represent a unique problem in the neurological emergency services of developing countries like India in a context of legal, humanitarian, and treatment issues. These patients pose a diagnostic and management challenge to treating physicians and staff. There are sparse data on these patients. The objective of this study was to know the clinical, socio-demographic, and investigational profile of "unknown" patients...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615730/pain-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-a-neuro-immune-collaboration
#12
REVIEW
Katayoon Bidad, Eric Gracey, Kasey S Hemington, Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Karen D Davis, Robert D Inman
Clinicians have commonly differentiated chronic back pain into two broad subsets: namely, non-inflammatory (or mechanical) back pain and inflammatory back pain. As the terminology suggests, the latter category, in which ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is prominent, presupposes a close link between pain and inflammation. Advances in research into the genetics and immunology of AS have improved our understanding of the inflammatory processes involved in this disease, and have led to the development of potent anti-inflammatory biologic therapeutic agents...
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613308/on-chip-cryo-anesthesia-of-drosophila-larvae-for-high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-applications
#13
Amrita Ray Chaudhury, Ryan Insolera, Ran-Der Hwang, Yih-Woei Fridell, Catherine Collins, Nikos Chronis
We present a microfluidic chip for immobilizing Drosophila melanogaster larvae for high resolution in vivo imaging. The chip creates a low-temperature micro-environment that anaesthetizes and immobilizes the larva in under 3 minutes. We characterized the temperature distribution within the chip and analyzed the resulting larval body movement using high resolution fluorescence imaging. Our results indicate that the proposed method minimizes submicron movements of internal organs and tissue without affecting the larva physiology...
June 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607759/a-composite-measure-to-explore-visual-disability-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Valentina Poretto, Maria Petracca, Catarina Saiote, Enricomaria Mormina, Jonathan Howard, Aaron Miller, Fred D Lublin, Matilde Inglese
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide complementary information on visual system damage in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to determine whether a composite OCT/MRI score, reflecting cumulative damage along the entire visual pathway, can predict visual deficits in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). METHODS: Twenty-five PPMS patients and 20 age-matched controls underwent neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation, spectral-domain OCT, and 3T brain MRI...
April 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605426/biomarkers-of-cerebral-injury-and-inflammation-in-pediatric-tuberculous-meningitis
#15
Ursula K Rohlwink, Katya Mauff, Katalin A Wilkinson, Nico Enslin, Emmanuel Wegoye, Robert J Wilkinson, Anthony A Figaji
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) leads to death or disability in half the affected individuals. Tools to assess severity and predict outcome are lacking. Neuro-specific biomarkers could serve as markers of the severity and evolution of brain injury, but have not been widely explored in TBM. We examined biomarkers of neurological injury (neuromarkers) and inflammation in pediatric TBM and their association with outcome. Methods: Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with TBM and hydrocephalus taken on admission and over 3 weeks were analysed for neuromarkers S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and multiple inflammatory markers...
June 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593535/neuro-cardiac-imaging-has-a-proven-value-in-patient-management-con
#16
Riccardo Liga, Arthur J H A Scholte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592382/incidence-of-mri-detected-brain-lesions-and-neurocognitive-function-after-electrical-cardioversion-in-anticoagulated-patients-with-persistent-atrial-fibrillation
#17
B Bellmann, J B Fiebach, S Guttmann, T Lin, K G Haeusler, R Bathe-Peters, L Köhler, D Steffens, M Kasner, V Tscholl, P Nagel, M Roser, U Landmesser, A Rillig
BACKGROUND: After electrical cardioversion (eCV) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), the risk for clinically apparent cerebral thromboembolism is increased in the subsequent weeks. To date, there is little evidence on the incidence of acute brain lesions (ABL) detected with cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after eCV, in particular in patients treated with the Non-Vitamin K Antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC). AIMS: The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the incidence of MRI-detected ABL, as well as the neuro-cognitive function after eCV in patients with persistent AF using NOACs as compared to phenprocoumon...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588464/neural-basis-of-video-gaming-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Marc Palaus, Elena M Marron, Raquel Viejo-Sobera, Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584409/neurological-outcomes-following-suicidal-hanging-a-prospective-study-of-101-patients
#19
Mohammed Turab Jawaid, S Deepak Amalnath, D K S Subrahmanyam
CONTEXT: Survivors of suicidal hanging can have variable neurological outcomes - from complete recovery to irreversible brain damage. Literature on the neurological outcomes in these patients is confined to retrospective studies and case series. Hence, this prospective study was carried out. AIMS: The aim is to study the neurological outcomes in suicidal hanging. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study carried out from July 2014 to July 2016...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583042/cervical-cord-decompression-following-embolisation-of-a-giant-cervical-vertebro-vertebral-arteriovenous-fistula
#20
George H Tse, Umang J Patel, Stuart C Coley, Richard A Dyde
Arteriovenous fistulation between the vertebral arteries to extradural (epidural) veins, termed vertebro-vertebral arteriovenous fistulae, are uncommon diagnoses without established diagnostic algorithms or treatment options. Minimal evidence exists describing the management of this pathology. Endovascular treatment was performed under general anaesthesia by coil occlusion of the vertebral artery from the point of the fistula to the mid-vertebral artery. Repeat magnetic resonance angiographic imaging one week following the procedure confirmed an 80% reduction in the size of the epidural vein and decompression of the cervical spinal cord...
January 1, 2017: Interventional Neuroradiology
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