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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432404/pediatric-neuro-mri-tricks-to-minimize-sedation
#1
REVIEW
Matthew J Barkovich, Duan Xu, Rahul S Desikan, Cassandra Williams, A James Barkovich
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the workhorse modality in pediatric neuroimaging because it provides excellent soft-tissue contrast without ionizing radiation. Until recently, studies were uninterpretable without sedation; however, given development of shorter sequences, sequences that correct for motion, and studies showing the potentially deleterious effects of sedation on immature laboratory animals, it is prudent to minimize sedation when possible. This manuscript provides basic guidelines for performing pediatric neuro MRI without sedation by both modifying technical factors to reduce scan time and noise, and using a multi-disciplinary team to coordinate imaging with the patient's biorhythms...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431905/dynamic-interhemispheric-competition-and-vestibulo-cortical-control-in-humans-a-theoretical-proposition
#2
REVIEW
Qadeer Arshad
Neuroscientific research has made a concerted effort to determine cortical localisation using various functional imaging techniques. This approach has undoubtedly yielded important novel anatomical knowledge, albeit at times contradictory, regarding the structural organisation of the vestibular cortex. Unfortunately however, this knowledge has not translated to our understanding regarding how neural mechanisms control vestibular function. Based upon recent functional imaging, lesion and neuro-physiological data that has demonstrated (i) the close behavioural and neuro-anatomical relationship between cortical processing of vestibular and spatial attention signals, and (ii) that inducing interhemispheric competition can in-turn strongly modulate vestibular function akin to that observed in cortical lesion patients, I herewith propose the hypothesis that vestibular cortical processing is controlled, as per for spatial attention, via dynamic interhemispheric competition...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428742/a-set-based-mixed-effect-model-for-gene-environment-interaction-and-its-application-to-neuroimaging-phenotypes
#3
Changqing Wang, Jianping Sun, Bryan Guillaume, Tian Ge, Derrek P Hibar, Celia M T Greenwood, Anqi Qiu
Imaging genetics is an emerging field for the investigation of neuro-mechanisms linked to genetic variation. Although imaging genetics has recently shown great promise in understanding biological mechanisms for brain development and psychiatric disorders, studying the link between genetic variants and neuroimaging phenotypes remains statistically challenging due to the high-dimensionality of both genetic and neuroimaging data. This becomes even more challenging when studying gene-environment interaction (G×E) on neuroimaging phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423949/intranasal-chitosan-g-hp%C3%AE-cd-nanoparticles-of-efavirenz-for-the-cns-targeting
#4
Aarti Belgamwar, Shagufta Khan, Pramod Yeole
Incompetence of antiretrovirals (ARV) in complete eradication of HIV from the CNS is the biggest issue in neuro-AIDS treatment. The ineffectiveness is largely due to the poor penetration of ARV. Hence, the present study is attempted to enhance the CNS uptake of efavirenz (EFV) by designing intranasal EFV nanoparticles (EFV-NPs). EFV-NPs were fabricated using chitosan-g-HPβCD by ionic gelation method and optimized using quadratic response surface methodology (RSM) employing two-factor, five-level circumscribed central composite design...
April 19, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418947/sleep-induced-apraxia-of-eyelid-opening
#5
Sara N Reggie, John J Chen, Michael S Lee, Sophia M Chung
BACKGROUND: Apraxia of eyelid opening (AEO) primarily has been described as bilateral loss of volitional ability to open the eyes at certain times and often associated with neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, it can occur in isolation and as an idiopathic phenomenon. There are a few reports of unilateral AEO only on awakening from sleep. We report an additional 11 patients with this unusual variation of AEO. METHODS: Retrospective, observational case series of patients collected from 3 separate neuro-ophthalmology practices...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418336/intracranial-lesions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-morbid-obesity
#6
Ayça Törel Ergür, Sevinç Odabaşı Güneş, Sinan Tan, Ü Ayşe Tandırcıoğlu
BACKGROUND: Intracranial lesions may affect the hypothalamo-hypophyseal axis and lead to some neuro-endocrinological dysfunctions (hyperphagia, sleep disorders and hormonal dysfunctions). There is a very limited number of studies about childhood obesity and intracranial lesions. AIMS: To evaluate the incidence of intracranial lesions and its role in clinical symptoms and aetiology in cases with morbid obesity who have been admitted to the paediatric endocrinology department with this complaint...
April 5, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415681/a-reproducible-model-of-intramedullary-spinal-cord-tumor-in-rats-bearing-rg2-cells
#7
Yuandong Zhuang, Wei Zhao, Weiqiang Zhang, Hao Wei, Xinming Huang, Gangfeng Cai, Chaofeng Fu, Chunhua Wang, Rui Wang, Songsheng Shi, Weizhong Yang, Chunmei Chen
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCTs) are lethal diseases to many patients. The lack of adequate animal model has hampered the development of novel treatments. In the current study, a rodent intramedullary glioma model is established to study IMSCT progression. Fischer 344 rats received a intramedullary implantation of RG2 glioma cells. The neurological state of each rat was evaluated on daily basis using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) scale. Rats implanted with RG2 cells developed significant hind limb paraplegia 20 days after implantation...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410605/frosted-branch-angiitis-and-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-as-an-initial-onset-of-neuro-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino Ferreira, Ever Ernesto Caso Rodriguez, Leandro Lara do Prado, Celio Roberto Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo Hirata, Joyce Hisae Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Frosted branch angiitis is a rare, severe condition. It can be either a primary or a secondary condition and is characterized by rapid deterioration of vision and fulminant retinal vasculitis that manifests as diffuse sheathing of retinal vessels, macular edema, papillitis, vitritis and anterior uveitis. We aimed to describe a case of frosted branch angiitis and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis as an initial neuro-Behçet's disease onset. Diagnosis of Behçet's disease was based on the current 2014 International Criteria for Behçet's Disease and the International consensus recommendation criteria for neuro-Behçet's disease...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394816/brain-mri-findings-in-pediatric-patients-post-ecmo
#9
Venessa L Pinto, Sumit Pruthi, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Brian C Bridges, Truc M Le
Neurologic complications can occur with ECMO due to several factors. Prior studies identified neonates as having unique risk factors and neuro-imaging findings post-ECMO. The aim of this study is to describe brain MRI findings of pediatric patients treated with ECMO. We conducted a retrospective study of non-neonatal pediatric patients who underwent a comprehensive brain MRI after ECMO, between January 2000 and July 2015. We identified 47 pediatric patients in the study cohort with a median age of 8 months (IQR 3-170mo) and a median ECMO run duration of 7...
April 6, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394203/dysregulation-of-energy-metabolism-in-multiple-sclerosis-measured-in-vivo-with-diffusion-weighted-spectroscopy
#10
Benedetta Bodini, Francesca Branzoli, Emilie Poirion, Daniel García-Lorenzo, Mélanie Didier, Elisabeth Maillart, Julie Socha, Geraldine Bera, Catherine Lubetzki, Itamar Ronen, Stephane Lehericy, Bruno Stankoff
OBJECTIVE: We employed diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy (DW-MRS), which allows to measure in vivo the diffusion properties of metabolites, to explore the functional neuro-axonal damage and the ongoing energetic dysregulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Twenty-five patients with MS and 18 healthy controls (HC) underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DW-MRS. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of total N-acetyl-aspartate (tNAA) and creatine-phosphocreatine (tCr) were measured in the parietal normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and in the thalamic grey matter (TGM)...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393415/the-insertion-of-electrodes-in-the-brain-for-electrophysiological-recording-or-chronic-stimulation-is-not-associated-with-any-biochemically-detectable-neuronal-injury
#11
Marios S Themistocleous, Damianos E Sakas, Efstathios Boviatsis, George Tagaris, Andreas Kouyialis, Christina Psachoulia, Pantelis Stathis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of brain tissue injury that could be potentially induced by the introduction of a) microrecording electrodes, b) macrostimulation electrodes, or c) chronic stimulation electrodes. We aimed to evaluate whether the use of five simultaneous microrecording tracks is associated with any brain injury not detectable by conventional imaging such as CT or MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 61 patients who underwent surgery for implantation of 121 DBS leads...
April 10, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391601/retrospective-evaluation-of-cerebral-tumors-resect-a-clinical-database-of-pre-operative-mri-and-intra-operative-ultrasound-in-low-grade-glioma-surgeries
#12
Yiming Xiao, Maryse Fortin, Geirmund Unsgård, Hassan Rivaz, Ingerid Reinertsen
PURPOSE: The advancement of medical image processing techniques, such as image registration, can effectively help improve the accuracy and efficiency of brain tumor surgeries. However, it is often challenging to validate these techniques with real clinical data due to the rarity of such publicly available repositories. ACQUISITION AND VALIDATION METHODS: Pre-operative magnetic resonance images (MRI), and intra-operative ultrasound (US) scans were acquired from 23 patients with low-grade glioma who underwent surgeries at St...
April 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390064/pgap3-related-hyperphosphatasia-with-mental-retardation-syndrome-report-of-10-new-patients-and-a-homozygous-founder-mutation
#13
M S Abdel-Hamid, M Y Issa, G A Otaify, S F Abdel-Ghafar, H M Elbendary, M S Zaki
Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome (HPMRS) is caused by recessive mutations in genes involved in the glycosylphosphatidylinsitol pathway, including PGAP3. Herein, we describe 10 patients from 8 Egyptian families presenting with developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, distinct facial dysmorphism and increased alkaline phosphatase. Eight patients had cleft palate, four had postnatal microcephaly and five had seizures. Neuroimaging findings showed thin corpus callosum in 9 patients, mild ventriculomegaly in 3 patients and variable degrees of cerebellar vermis hypoplasia in 4 patients, a finding not previously reported in patients with HPMRS...
April 8, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387340/advances-in-neuro-oncology-imaging
#14
REVIEW
Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks, Elke Hattingen, Nadim Jon Shah
Despite the fact that MRI has evolved to become the standard method for diagnosis and monitoring of patients with brain tumours, conventional MRI sequences have two key limitations: the inability to show the full extent of the tumour and the inability to differentiate neoplastic tissue from nonspecific, treatment-related changes after surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In the past decade, PET involving the use of radiolabelled amino acids has developed into an important diagnostic tool to overcome some of the shortcomings of conventional MRI...
April 7, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386574/quantitative-electroencephalograms-and-neuro-optometry-a-case-study-that-explores-changes-in-electrophysiology-while-wearing-therapeutic-eyeglasses
#15
Deborah Zelinsky, Corey Feinberg
The brain is equipped with a complex system for processing sensory information, including retinal circuitry comprising part of the central nervous system. Retinal stimulation can influence brain function via customized eyeglasses at both subcortical and cortical levels. We investigated cortical effects from wearing therapeutic eyeglasses, hypothesizing that they can create measureable changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) tracings. A Z-Bell(SM) test was performed on a participant to select optimal lenses. An EEG measurement was recorded before and after the participant wore the eyeglasses...
January 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385884/classification-of-high-grade-glioma-into-tumor-and-nontumor-components-using-support-vector-machine
#16
D T Blumenthal, M Artzi, G Liberman, F Bokstein, O Aizenstein, D Ben Bashat
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current imaging assessment of high-grade brain tumors relies on the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology criteria, which measure gross volume of enhancing and nonenhancing lesions from conventional MRI sequences. These assessments may fail to reliably distinguish tumor and nontumor. This study aimed to classify enhancing and nonenhancing lesion areas into tumor-versus-nontumor components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 140 MRI scans obtained from 32 patients with high-grade gliomas and 6 patients with brain metastases were included...
April 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377882/subtle-hippocampal-deformities-in-breast-cancer-survivors-with-reduced-episodic-memory-and-self-reported-cognitive-concerns
#17
Alexandra C Apple, Anthony J Ryals, Kathryn I Alpert, Lynne I Wagner, Pei-An Shih, Mehmet Dokucu, David Cella, Frank J Penedo, Joel L Voss, Lei Wang
Cancer survivors have lingering cognitive problems, however the anatomical basis for these problems has yet to be fully elucidated. Clinical studies as well as animal models of chemotherapy have pinpointed cell and volume loss to the hippocampus, however, few studies have performed shape analysis of the hippocampus on cancer survivors. This study used high-dimensional deformation mapping analysis to test whether localized hippocampal deformation differs in breast cancer survivors who received adjuvant chemotherapy coupled with hormone blockade therapy, and if deformation was related to subjective self-reported concerns and cognitive performance...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374236/novel-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-a-patient-with-short-chain-acyl-coa-dehydrogenase-deficiency
#18
Chiplunkar, Parayil Sankaran Bindu, Madhu Nagappa, Bobby Baby Panikulam, Hanumanthapura R Arvinda, Periyasamy Govindaraj, M M Srinivas Bharath, Narayanappa Gayathri, J N Jessiena Ponmalar, Pavagada S Mathuranath, Sanjib Sinha, Arun B Taly
Reports on magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency, an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ACADS), are limited. Many asymptomatic carriers of ACAD variants have also been described necessitating careful evaluation of clinical and biochemical findings for an accurate diagnosis. Here we report a an infant with short chain acyl -Coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency diagnosed based on the characteristic biochemical findings and confirmed by genetic testing...
April 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373834/adolescents-with-developmental-dyscalculia-do-not-have-a-generalized-magnitude-deficit-processing-of-discrete-and-continuous-magnitudes
#19
Ursina McCaskey, Michael von Aster, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Karin Kucian
The link between number and space has been discussed in the literature for some time, resulting in the theory that number, space and time might be part of a generalized magnitude system. To date, several behavioral and neuroimaging findings support the notion of a generalized magnitude system, although contradictory results showing a partial overlap or separate magnitude systems are also found. The possible existence of a generalized magnitude processing area leads to the question how individuals with developmental dyscalculia (DD), known for deficits in numerical-arithmetical abilities, process magnitudes...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373795/comparison-of-cognitive-parameters-between-bilateral-and-unilateral-hippocampal-sclerosis
#20
Ebru Nur Vanli Yavuz, Başar Bilgiç, Zeliha Matur, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Öget Öktem, Betül Baykan
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies showed that hippocampal sclerosis (HS) patients with unilateral involvement had more diffuse cognitive impairment than expected. Therefore, we aimed to compare the cognitive profiles of bilateral HS (BHS) patients with unilateral HS (UHS) patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients, diagnosed with epilepsy, who fulfilled two major magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) criteria (T1 atrophy and T2-FLAIR hyperintensity) for HS were included. Standard neuro-psychological test (NPT) battery consisted of the Turkish version of 15-word verbal memory processes test, Wechsler memory scale visual reproduction subtest, forward and backward digit span, phonemic and semantic fluency, and Stroop test were applied; and the groups with right HS, left HS, and bilateral HS were compared statistically...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
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