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Taurine AND NAD

Chengshi Wang, Ling Li, Shuyun Liu, Guangneng Liao, Lan Li, Younan Chen, Jingqiu Cheng, Yanrong Lu, Jingping Liu
Increasing evidence indicates that obesity is highly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist has shown benefits on kidney diseases, but its direct role on kidney metabolism in obesity is still not clear. This study aims to investigate the protection and metabolic modulation role of liraglutide (Lira) on kidney of obesity. Rats were induced obese by high-fat diet (HFD), and renal function and metabolism changes were evaluated by metabolomic, biological and histological methods...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Ni Tang, Cheng-Fu Tan, Wei-Wei Liu, Jie Yan, Chao Wang, Mi Liu, Dong-Hai Lin, Cai-Hua Huang, Lin Du, Mei-Lin Chen, Jiao-Lan Li, Ding-Ming Zhu
OBJECTIVE: We have repeatedly demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) of "Neiguan"(PC 6) can improve myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the metabolomic profile of peripheral blood se-rum and myocardium involving EA-induced improvement of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. METHODS: Thirty male SD rats were equally randomized into blank control, model and EA groups...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Stephen W Schaffer, Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Chian Ju Jong, Takashi Ito, Kyoko Takahashi
Taurine is a β-amino acid found in high concentrations in excitable tissues, including the heart. A significant reduction in myocardial taurine content leads to the development of a unique dilated, atrophic cardiomyopathy. One of the major functions of taurine in the heart is the regulation of the respiratory chain. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that taurine deficiency-mediated defects in respiratory chain function lead to impaired energy metabolism and reduced ATP generation. We found that while the rate of glycolysis was significantly enhanced in the taurine-deficient heart, glucose oxidation was diminished...
February 2016: Amino Acids
Ebru Selin Selen, Zeinab Bolandnazar, Marco Tonelli, Daniel E Bütz, Julia A Haviland, Warren P Porter, Fariba M Assadi-Porter
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p < 0...
August 7, 2015: Journal of Proteome Research
Junia C Santos-Silva, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Jean F Vettorazzi, Esperanza Irles, Sarah Rickli, Patrícia C Borck, Patricia M Porciuncula, Ivan Quesada, Angel Nadal, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro
Taurine (Tau) regulates β-cell function and glucose homeostasis under normal and diabetic conditions. Here, we assessed the effects of Tau supplementation upon glucose homeostasis and the morphophysiology of endocrine pancreas, in leptin-deficient obese (ob) mice. From weaning until 90-day-old, C57Bl/6 and ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (C, CT, ob and obT). Obese mice were hyperglycemic, glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and exhibited higher hepatic glucose output. Tau supplementation did not prevent obesity, but ameliorated glucose homeostasis in obT...
August 2015: Amino Acids
Joungil Choi, Krish Chandrasekaran, Tyler G Demarest, Tibor Kristian, Su Xu, Kadambari Vijaykumar, Kevin Geoffrey Dsouza, Nathan R Qi, Paul J Yarowsky, Rao Gallipoli, Lauren G Koch, Gary M Fiskum, Steven L Britton, James W Russell
OBJECTIVES: Diabetes leads to cognitive impairment and is associated with age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, understanding diabetes-induced alterations in brain function is important for developing early interventions for neurodegeneration. Low-capacity runner (LCR) rats are obese and manifest metabolic risk factors resembling human "impaired glucose tolerance" or metabolic syndrome. We examined hippocampal function in aged LCR rats compared to their high-capacity runner (HCR) rat counterparts...
August 2014: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Dan-Dan Wei, Ge-Dong, Ping-Ping Guo, Jun-Song Wang, Ming-Hui Li, Ming-Hua Yang, Ling-Yi Kong
Anisatin is the main convulsant component in plants of the genus Illicium, many of which are important spices or folk medicines. The neurotoxicity of anisatin has been widely investigated, mainly focusing on its action on the γ-amino butyrate (GABA) system; however, little is known about the metabolic alterations that it causes. In this study, a NMR-based metabolomic approach was performed on the extracts of cortexes and cerebellums of mice administered with anisatin to explore the metabolic events associated with its intoxication...
November 2014: Molecular BioSystems
Hongyu Li, Bo Chen, Xue Shao, Zhengtao Hu, Yi Deng, Ruiming Zhu, Yan Li, Baolai Zhang, Jing Hou, Changman Du, Qian Zhao, Dengqi Fu, Qian Bu, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from cigarette smoke and therefore induces a number of chronic illnesses with the widespread use of tobacco products. Studies have shown a few cerebral metabolites modified by nicotine; however, endogenous metabolic profiling in brain has not been well explored. RESULTS: H NMR-based on metabonomics was applied to investigate the endogenous metabolic profiling of brain hippocampus, nucleus acumens (NAc), prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum...
2014: BMC Neuroscience
Ann-Katrin Felux, Karin Denger, Michael Weiss, Alasdair M Cook, David Schleheck
Hypotaurine (HT; 2-aminoethane-sulfinate) is known to be utilized by bacteria as a sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy for growth, as is taurine (2-aminoethane-sulfonate); however, the corresponding HT degradation pathway has remained undefined. Genome-sequenced Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 utilized HT (and taurine) quantitatively for heterotrophic growth and released the HT sulfur as sulfite (and sulfate) and HT nitrogen as ammonium. Enzyme assays with cell extracts suggested that an HT-inducible HT:pyruvate aminotransferase (Hpa) catalyzes the deamination of HT in an initial reaction step...
June 2013: Journal of Bacteriology
Svend Høime Hansen, Niels Grunnet
Biochemistry textbook presentations of bioenergetics and mitochondrial function normally focus on the chemiosmotic theory with introduction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain, the proton and electrical gradients and subsequent oxidative phosphorylation and ATP-production by ATP synthase. The compound glutathione (GSH) is often mentioned in relation to mitochondrial function, primarily for a role as redox scavenger. Here we argue that its role as redox pair with oxidised glutathione (GSSG) is pivotal with regard to controlling the electrical or redox gradient across the mitochondrial inner-membrane...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ming Sun, Yumei Zhao, Yi Gu, Chao Xu
Taurine is reported to reduce tissue damage induced by inflammation and to protect the brain against experimental stroke. The objective of this study was to investigate whether taurine reduced ischemic brain damage through suppressing inflammation related to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) in a rat model of stroke. Rats received 2 h ischemia by intraluminal filament and were then reperfused. Taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 1 h after ischemia. Treatment with taurine markedly reduced neurological deficits, lessened brain swelling, attenuated cell death, and decreased the infarct volume 72 h after ischemia...
May 2012: Amino Acids
Kashyap G Pandya, Maulik R Patel, Cesar A Lau-Cam
BACKGROUND: Poly(ADP-ribose) is a NAD+-requiring, DNA-repairing, enzyme playing a central role in pancreatic beta-cell death and in the development of endothelial dysfunction in humans and experimental animals. PARP activation is also relevant to the development of complications of diabetes. Hence, agents capable of inhibiting PARP may be useful in preventing the development of diabetes and in slowing down complications of diabetes. METHODS: PARP inhibition was assessed with a colorimetric assay kit...
2010: Journal of Biomedical Science
Jutta Mayer, Alasdair M Cook
Homotaurine (3-aminopropanesulfonate), a natural product and an analogue of GABA (4-aminobutyrate), was found to be a sole source of nitrogen for Cupriavidus necator (Ralstonia eutropha) H16, whose genome sequence is known. Homotaurine nitrogen was assimilated into cell material, and the quantitative fate of the organosulfonate was sulfopropanoate, which was recovered in the growth medium. The first scalar reaction was shown to be inducible homotaurine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, which released 3-sulfopropanal from homotaurine...
October 2009: Journal of Bacteriology
Insong James Lee, Kellie Hom, Guoyun Bai, Michael Shapiro
The high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra as applied to Caco-2 cells during their differentiation into enterocyte like cells are presented. The data clearly reveal differences in the metabolic profiles over time as the Caco-2 cells differentiate. In the (1)H NMR spectra, the aliphatic regions from 4.5 to 1.0 ppm are dominated by peaks from myo-inositol, creatine, taurine, glutamine, glutamate, phosphatidylcholine, choline, alanine and lactate. While a majority of metabolites are present at both the early undifferentiated state and the late differentiated states, the levels of certain metabolites are seen to change dramatically, and in particular, the ratio of myo-inositol and taurine...
August 2009: Journal of Proteome Research
Ying Jin, Lorraine Brennan
Homocysteine is an amino acid that is an important risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Increased homocysteine levels induce neuronal cell death in a variety of neuronal types. However, very few studies have probed the effects of homocysteine in astrocytes. The present study investigated the effects of homocysteine on primary cultures of astrocytes by exposing astrocytes to 400 microM homocysteine for 20 h. Metabolic extracts of cells were prepared following a 4-h incubation in minimum medium with 5...
June 2008: Neurochemistry International
Mark F McCarty
Although nitric oxide of endothelial origin plays a major role in warding off inappropriate thrombus formation, platelets also express the "constitutive" isoform of nitric oxide synthase (cNOS). Activation of this enzyme by calcium influx during platelet aggregation provides an important feedback signal that dampens platelet recruitment. Platelets also express a membrane-bound NAD(P)H oxidase complex, activated by collagen receptors, that produces superoxide. Superoxide can directly quench NO; moreover, by giving rise to peroxynitrite, it can oxidize the cNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), thereby suppressing cNOS activity and converting it to superoxide generator...
2007: Medical Hypotheses
S Trump, S Laudi, N Unruh, R Goelz, D Leibfritz
OBJECT: The measurement of different urine components and their changes over time may provide comprehensive and early information about perinatal metabolic processes and physiological changes. We hypothesized that (1) H-NMR-spectroscopy generating a complex spectral profile without pre-selection of urinary metabolites could identify metabolites determining the neonatal physiological status and discriminating between different metabolic states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied spot urine of three groups of neonates (healthy term-born, term-born with non-specific bacterial infections, and preterm neonates) for the first 6 days of life using (1) H-NMR-spectroscopy...
December 2006: Magma
Lusong Luo, Melissa B Pappalardi, Peter J Tummino, Robert A Copeland, Marie E Fraser, Piotr K Grzyska, Robert P Hausinger
The Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are a catalytically diverse family of nonheme iron enzymes that oxidize their primary substrates while decomposing the 2-oxoglutarate cosubstrate to form succinate and CO(2). We report a generic assay for these enzymes that uses succinyl-coenzyme A synthetase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase to couple the formation of the product succinate to the conversion of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. We demonstrate the utility of this new method by measuring the kinetic parameters of two bacterial Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases...
June 1, 2006: Analytical Biochemistry
Sonja Weinitschke, Katharina Styp von Rekowski, Karin Denger, Alasdair M Cook
Eighteen enrichment cultures with taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) as the sole source of combined nitrogen under aerobic conditions were all successful, and 24 pure cultures were obtained. Only three of the cultures yielded an inorganic product, sulfate, from the sulfonate moiety of taurine, and the others were presumed to yield organosulfonates. Sulfoacetate, known from Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 under these conditions, was not detected in any culture, but sulfoacetaldehyde (as a hydrazone derivative) was tentatively detected in the outgrown medium of nine isolates...
April 2005: Microbiology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 4, 1965: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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