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Taurine AND NAD ratio

Stephen W Schaffer, Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Chian Ju Jong, Takashi Ito, Kyoko Takahashi
Taurine is a β-amino acid found in high concentrations in excitable tissues, including the heart. A significant reduction in myocardial taurine content leads to the development of a unique dilated, atrophic cardiomyopathy. One of the major functions of taurine in the heart is the regulation of the respiratory chain. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that taurine deficiency-mediated defects in respiratory chain function lead to impaired energy metabolism and reduced ATP generation. We found that while the rate of glycolysis was significantly enhanced in the taurine-deficient heart, glucose oxidation was diminished...
February 2016: Amino Acids
Insong James Lee, Kellie Hom, Guoyun Bai, Michael Shapiro
The high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra as applied to Caco-2 cells during their differentiation into enterocyte like cells are presented. The data clearly reveal differences in the metabolic profiles over time as the Caco-2 cells differentiate. In the (1)H NMR spectra, the aliphatic regions from 4.5 to 1.0 ppm are dominated by peaks from myo-inositol, creatine, taurine, glutamine, glutamate, phosphatidylcholine, choline, alanine and lactate. While a majority of metabolites are present at both the early undifferentiated state and the late differentiated states, the levels of certain metabolites are seen to change dramatically, and in particular, the ratio of myo-inositol and taurine...
August 2009: Journal of Proteome Research
Ying Jin, Lorraine Brennan
Homocysteine is an amino acid that is an important risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Increased homocysteine levels induce neuronal cell death in a variety of neuronal types. However, very few studies have probed the effects of homocysteine in astrocytes. The present study investigated the effects of homocysteine on primary cultures of astrocytes by exposing astrocytes to 400 microM homocysteine for 20 h. Metabolic extracts of cells were prepared following a 4-h incubation in minimum medium with 5...
June 2008: Neurochemistry International
I G Obrosova, C Van Huysen, L Fathallah, X Cao, M J Stevens, D A Greene
The role for nerve blood flow (NBF) vs. other factors in motor nerve conduction (MNC) slowing in short-term diabetes was assessed by evaluating alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin on NBF, MNC, as well as metabolic imbalances and oxidative stress in the neural tissue. Control and diabetic rats were treated with or without prazosin (5 for 3 wk). NBF was measured by hydrogen clearance. Both endoneurial vascular conductance and MNC velocity were decreased in diabetic rats vs. controls, and this decrease was prevented by prazosin...
August 2000: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
I G Obrosova, M J Stevens
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in glutathione and NAD(P)-redox status, taurine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glucose utilization, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lenses and to assess whether these changes can be prevented with dietary taurine supplementation. METHODS: The experimental groups included control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a 3-week duration of diabetes fed unsupplemented or taurine (1% or 5%)-supplemented diets. The levels of glucose, sorbitol, fructose, myo-inositol, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glycolytic intermediates, malate, alpha-glycerophosphate, and adenine nucleotides were assayed in individual lenses spectrofluorometrically by enzymatic methods, reduced glutathione (GSH) spectrofluorometrically with O-phthaldialdehyde, MDA colorimetrically with N-methyl-2-phenylindole, and taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography...
March 1999: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
I Obrosova, X Cao, D A Greene, M J Stevens
The study was aimed at evaluating changes in lens antioxidant status, glucose utilization, redox state of free cytosolic NAD(P)-couples and adenine nucleotides in rats with 6-week streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and to assess a possibility of preventing them by DL-alpha-lipoic acid. Rats were divided into control and diabetic groups treated with and without DL-alpha-lipoic acid (100 mg x kg body weight(-1) x day(-1), i.p.). The concentrations of glucose, sorbitol, fructose, myo-inositol, oxidized glutathione, glycolytic intermediates, malate, alpha-glycerophosphate, and adenine nucleotides were assayed in individual lenses spectrofluorometrically by enzymatic methods, reduced glutathione and ascorbate--colorimetrically, and taurine by HPLC...
December 1998: Diabetologia
M G Buse, D A Weigand, D Peeler, M P Hedden
The free amino acid content of diaphragm muscles of control and diabetic rats was studied 5 days after the injection of streptozotocin. Muscles were prepared for analysis either immediately after sacrifice or following incubation in balanced salt solution containing 5.5 mM glucose, with or without an electron acceptor, 0.02 mM methylene blue. Diaphragms of diabetic rats contained significantly more free taurine, glutamate, and branched chain amino acids than the controls at sacrifice, and significantly less glutamine, serine, asparagine, lysine, arginine, histidine, threonine, citrulline, and carnosine...
July 1980: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
S Miyazaki, H Tanaka, R Horikawa, H Tsuchiya, K Imai
With use of an anion-exchange packing, TSK Gel IEX 540 DEAE, for high-performance liquid column chromatography, glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were separated in 10 min and detected with a differential refractometer. Human bile could be analyzed after a simple pretreatment. The purity of the peaks of glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids in human bile was confirmed by enzymatic determinations using 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid:NAD oxidoreductase. The molar ratios of the two forms of the conjugates (glycine/taurine ratios) in bile from normal subjects and from patients suffering from various hepatobiliary diseases were measured...
February 8, 1980: Journal of Chromatography
L I Nefedov, M I Bukhmet, Iu M Ostrovskiĭ, A R Moroz
A single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) to mongrel albino rats causes a 6-hour increase in the 2-oxoglutarate level and the free NAD+/NADH ratio in liver mitochondria. The levels of taurine and taurocholates as well the activity of cysteine oxidase in liver tissues remains thereby unchanged, whereas the cysteine transaminase activity diminishes. In the heart and brain of experimental animals the activity of both enzymes is decreased. In the liver, blood plasma and heart of experimental animals, the Ala and Ser levels are low, whereas the taurine content is elevated both in blood plasma and brain...
July 1989: Biokhimii︠a︡
I M Mankovska, V I Nosar, A I Nazarenko, T M Govorukha, L V Bratus
It is shown that preliminary taurine treatment prevents the disturbances of energy metabolism in the brain, heart and liver tissues of Wistar rats with acute hypoxic hypoxia. Administration of taurine restored to normal the parameters of adenine pool: the concentration of ATP increased within the cytoplasm, while that of ADP and AMP diminished; mitochondrial respiration proceeded more rapidly; the concentrations of pyruvate and malate decreased; isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, P/O and NAD/NADH ratios increased...
September 1992: Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal
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