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global emergency medicine

Nina Holland
Environmental research and public health in the 21st century face serious challenges such as increased air pollution and global warming, widespread use of potentially harmful chemicals including pesticides, plasticizers, and other endocrine disruptors, and radical changes in nutrition and lifestyle typical of modern societies. In particular, exposure to environmental and occupational toxicants may contribute to the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes, neurodevelopmental deficits, and increased risk of cancer and other multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and asthma...
October 21, 2016: Reviews on Environmental Health
Çiğdem Yılmaz, Gülay Özcengiz
The discovery of penicillin followed by streptomycin, tetracycline, cephalosporins and other natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic antimicrobials completely revolutionized medicine by reducing human morbidity and mortality from most of the common infections. However, shortly after they were introduced to clinical practice, the development of resistance was emerged. The decreasing interest from antibiotic industry in spite of rapid global emergence of antibiotic resistance is a tough dilemma from the pointview of public health...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
Bhakti Hansoti, Adam Levine, Latha Ganti, Rockefeller Oteng, Taylor DesRosiers, Payal Modi, Jeremy Brown
BACKGROUND: Funding for global health has grown significantly over the past two decades. Numerous funding opportunities for international development and research work exist; however, they can be difficult to navigate. The 2013 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on global health and emergency care identified the need to strengthen global emergency care research funding, solidify existing funding streams, and expand funding sources. RESULTS: This piece focuses on the various federal funding opportunities available to support emergency physicians conducting international research from seed funding to large institutional grants...
December 2016: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
Barbara Stetson, Karl E Minges, Caroline R Richardson
Accelerating diabetes rates have resulted in a global public health epidemic. Lifestyle change is a cornerstone of care, yet regimen demands may result in adherence difficulties. Distress, depression, and other psychosocial concerns are higher in those with diabetes. While interventions, such as the Diabetes Prevention Program appear to be effective, further research is needed to support the translation of interventions to prevent diabetes. Studies assessing optimal approaches to promoting effective decision making, coping and adherence are needed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
Tom Blakeman, Kathryn Griffith, Dan Lasserson, Berenice Lopez, Jung Y Tsang, Stephen Campbell, Charles Tomson
OBJECTIVES: Tackling the harm associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) is a global priority. In England, a national computerised AKI algorithm is being introduced across the National Health Service (NHS) to drive this change. The study sought to maximise its clinical utility and minimise the potential for burden on clinicians and patients in primary care. DESIGN: An appropriateness ratings evaluation using the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. SETTING: Clinical scenarios were developed to test the timeliness in (1) communication of AKI warning stage test results from clinical pathology services to primary care, and (2) primary care clinician response to an AKI warning stage test result...
October 11, 2016: BMJ Open
Éverton da Silva Santos, Francielle Pelegrin Garcia, Priscila Miyuki Outuki, Jaqueline Hoscheid, Paulo Roberto Nunes de Goes, Lúcio Cardozo-Filho, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Mara Lane Carvalho Cardoso
Currently, leishmaniasis is difficult to manage owing to the limited choice and high toxicity of available drugs, and emergence of drug-resistant protozoa. Medicinal plants, which produce various bioactive molecules, can help counter this global shortage. In this study, we prepared Pterodon pubescens fruit extracts, which show antileishmanial activity, and developed a nanoemulsion of the optimized extract to improve its performance. The extracts were prepared using conventional methods and a supercritical fluid method and were tested for activity against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and amastigotes...
October 7, 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Yong Yang, Han Cheng, Hui Yan, Peng-Zhan Wang, Rong Rong, Ying-Ying Zhang, Cheng-Bo Zhang, Rui-Kun Du, Li-Jun Rong
Emerging viruses such as Ebola virus (EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), and avian influenza virus H5N1 (AIV) are global health concerns. Since there is very limited options (either vaccine or specific therapy) approved for humans against these viruses, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. Previously we reported a high-throughput screening (HTS) protocol to identify entry inhibitors for three highly pathogenic viruses (EBOV, LASV, and AIV) using a human immunodeficiency virus-based pseudotyping platform which allows us to perform the screening in a BSL-2 facility...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Prasad S Nishtala, Mohammed Saji Salahudeen
BACKGROUND: The global burden of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the trends in use of antidiabetic medicines among older New Zealanders between 2005 and 2013, and to perform a separate analysis by age, sex, ethnicity, district health board domicile and socioeconomic deprivation index. METHODS: The study population included individuals' aged 65 years and older living in New Zealand (NZ) captured in the pharmaceutical collections...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Kabir Sheikh, Mukund Uplekar
BACKGROUND: The unregulated availability and irrational use of tuberculosis (TB) medicines is a major issue of public health concern globally. Governments of many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have committed to regulating the quality and availability of TB medicines, but with variable success. Regulation of TB medicines remains an intractable challenge in many settings, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to elaborate processes of regulation of quality and availability of TB medicines in three LMICs - India, Tanzania, and Zambia - and to understand the factors that constrain and enable these processes...
March 9, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
Maria Baudin, Ammar M Jumaa, Huda J E Jomma, Mubarak S Karsany, Göran Bucht, Jonas Näslund, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander, Nahla Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that causes infections in animals and human beings in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever lead to mass abortions in livestock, but such abortions have not been identified in human beings. Our aim was to investigate the cause of miscarriages in febrile pregnant women in an area endemic for Rift Valley fever. METHODS: Pregnant women with fever of unknown origin who attended the governmental hospital of Port Sudan, Sudan, between June 30, 2011, and Nov 17, 2012, were sampled at admission and included in this cross-sectional study...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Clayton Dyck, Brent Kvern, Edith Wu, Ryan McKee, Lynda Redwood-Campbell
At a global level, institutions and governments with remarkably different cultures and contexts are rapidly developing family medicine centred health and training programmes. Institutions with established family medicine programmes are willing to lend expertise to these global partners but run the risk of imposing a postcolonial, directive approach when providing consultancy and educational assistance. Reflecting upon a series of capacity building workshops in family medicine developed by the Besrour Centre Faculty Development Working Group, this paper outlines approaches to the inevitable challenges that arise between healthcare professionals and educators of differing contexts when attempting to share experience and expertise...
September 2016: Education for Primary Care
Christoffer Torgaard Thomsen, Michael Eriksen Benros, Lene Halling Hastrup, Per Kragh Andersen, Domenico Giacco, Merete Nordentoft
INTRODUCTION: Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes...
2016: BMJ Open
Nicolaus W Glomb, Manish I Shah, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: There is global variation in the ability of hospital-based emergency centres to provide paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) services. Although minimum standards have been proposed, they may not be applicable in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to identify reasonable minimum standards to provide safe and effective care for acutely ill children in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Using previously proposed standards from the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM), a modified Delphi approach was used to reach agreement regarding minimum standards for PEM in resource-limited settings...
September 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Erica Frank, Kate Tairyan, Michelle Everton, Jennifer Chu, Craig Goolsby, Alisa Hayes, Ann Hulton
BACKGROUND: The WHO has called for the use of computer-aided education to train millions of additional health providers. We herein address this appeal with the first globally available, free, accredited, computer-aided, and peer and mentor-guided course. METHODS: The intervention studied was's first course, "Emergency Medicine (EM) for Senior Medical Students", required for the graduating Classes of 2013 at the University of Missouri (UM) and the U...
September 20, 2016: Healthcare
Glendon Diehl, Nicole Bradstreet, Felicia Monahan
Tasked with analyzing the effectiveness of the Department of Defense's (DoD's) global health engagements, the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) used the Measures Of Effectiveness in Defense Engagement and Learning (MODEL) study to conduct a qualitative analysis of the DoD's response efforts to the Ebola pandemic in West Africa. The research aims to summarize the findings of studies that monitor and evaluate the DoD's response to the Ebola pandemic or compare the effectiveness of different DoD response activities; it further aims to identify common themes around positive and negative lessons learned and recommendations that can be applied to future DoD humanitarian assistance and disaster response efforts...
September 2016: Health Security
Vicente Giner-Galvañ, María José Esteban-Giner, Vicente Pallarés-Carratalá
Modern medicine is characterized by a continuous genesis of evidence making it very difficult to translate the latest findings into a better clinical practice. Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) emerge to provide clinicians evidence-based recommendations for their daily clinical practice. However, the high number of existing CPG as well as the usual differences in the given recommendations usually increases the clinician's confusion and doubts. It has apparently been the case for the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol...
2016: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Nena Kopčavar Guček, Davorina Petek, Igor Švab, Polona Selič
INTRODUCTION: In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. METHODS: In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments...
March 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Maria Gabriela Alvarado, David A Schwartz
Context .- The global epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has emerged as an important public health problem affecting pregnant women and their infants. Objectives .- To review the causal association between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and intrauterine fetal infection, microcephaly, brain damage, congenital malformation syndrome, and experimental laboratory models of fetal infection. Many questions remain regarding the risk factors, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and timing of maternal-fetal transmission and disease...
September 16, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Alexandra Greenberg, Rachel Kiddell-Monroe
In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape...
2016: Globalization and Health
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