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Taurine AND beta cells

Aza Shetewy, Kayoko Shimada-Takaura, Danielle Warner, Chian Ju Jong, Abu-Bakr Al Mehdi, Mikhail Alexeyev, Kyoko Takahashi, Stephen W Schaffer
Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β-alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has been proposed that at least some of the symptoms are caused by oxidative stress; however, only limited information is available on the mechanism of reactive oxygen species generation. The present study examines the hypothesis that β-alanine reduces cellular levels of taurine, which are required for normal respiratory chain function; cellular taurine depletion is known to reduce respiratory function and elevate mitochondrial superoxide generation...
May 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Takashi Ito, Natsumi Yoshikawa, Hiromi Ito, Stephen W Schaffer
Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Hyun-Soo Shin, Eun-Sun Ryu, Eok-Soo Oh, Duk-Hee Kang
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis of peritoneal mesothelial cells are known to be the earliest mechanisms of peritoneal fibrosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with an unfolded protein response is regarded to have a role in the development of organ fibrosis. To investigate the potential role of ER stress as a target to prevent and/or delay the development of peritoneal fibrosis, we examined the effect of ER stress on EMT or apoptosis of human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and elucidated the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of ER stress preconditioning on TGF-β1-induced EMT...
October 2015: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Ulrike Breitinger, Karim M Raafat, Hans-Georg Breitinger
The inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR), a cys-loop ion channel receptor, mediates rapid synaptic inhibition in spinal cord, brainstem and higher centres of the mammalian central nervous system. Here, modulation of GlyR function by glucose and fructose was examined in recombinant alpha1 and alpha1/beta GlyRs using patch-clamp methods. Glucose was a positive modulator of the receptor, reducing the average EC50 for glycine up to 4.5-fold. Glucose reduced cell-to-cell variability of glycine-mediated currents by stabilizing receptors with low EC50...
September 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Michelle Desforges, Hannah Whittaker, Etaoin Farmer, Colin P Sibley, Susan L Greenwood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Yoshito Abe, Takatoshi Ohkuri, Sachiko Yoshitomi, Shigeru Murakami, Tadashi Ueda
Taurine is one of the osmolytes that maintain the structure of proteins in cells exposed to denaturing environmental stressors. Recently, cryoelectron tomographic analysis of eukaryotic cells has revealed that their cytoplasms are crowded with proteins. Such crowding conditions would be expected to hinder the efficient folding of nascent polypeptide chains. Therefore, we examined the role of taurine on the folding of denatured and reduced lysozyme, as a model protein, under a crowding condition. The results confirmed that taurine had a better effect on protein folding than did β-alanine, which has a similar chemical structure, when the protein to be folded was present at submillimolar concentration...
May 2015: Amino Acids
Hye Yun Kim, Hyunjin V Kim, Jin H Yoon, Bo Ram Kang, Soo Min Cho, Sejin Lee, Ji Yoon Kim, Joo Won Kim, Yakdol Cho, Jiwan Woo, YoungSoo Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a lethal progressive neurological disorder affecting the memory. Recently, US Food and Drug Administration mitigated the standard for drug approval, allowing symptomatic drugs that only improve cognitive deficits to be allowed to accelerate on to clinical trials. Our study focuses on taurine, an endogenous amino acid found in high concentrations in humans. It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties against many forms of dementia. In this study, we assessed cognitively enhancing property of taurine in transgenic mouse model of AD...
2014: Scientific Reports
Mina Mostafavi, Jainee Christa Lewis, Tanisha Saini, Julian Albert Bustamante, Ivan Thomas Gao, Tuyet Thi Tran, Sean Nicholas King, Zhenzhong Huang, Joseph C Chen
BACKGROUND: Genetic models have been developed in divergent branches of the class Alphaproteobacteria to help answer a wide spectrum of questions regarding bacterial physiology. For example, Sinorhizobium meliloti serves as a useful representative for investigating rhizobia-plant symbiosis and nitrogen fixation, Caulobacter crescentus for studying cell cycle regulation and organelle biogenesis, and Zymomonas mobilis for assessing the potentials of metabolic engineering and biofuel production...
2014: BMC Microbiology
Lisa Cadavez, Joel Montane, Gema Alcarraz-Vizán, Montse Visa, Laia Vidal-Fàbrega, Joan-Marc Servitja, Anna Novials
In type 2 diabetes, beta-cell dysfunction is thought to be due to several causes, one being the formation of toxic protein aggregates called islet amyloid, formed by accumulations of misfolded human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). The process of hIAPP misfolding and aggregation is one of the factors that may activate the unfolded protein response (UPR), perturbing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis. Molecular chaperones have been described to be important in regulating ER response to ER stress. In the present work, we evaluate the role of chaperones in a stressed cellular model of hIAPP overexpression...
2014: PloS One
Alessandra Stacchiotti, Francesca Rovetta, Matteo Ferroni, Giovanni Corsetti, Antonio Lavazza, Giorgio Sberveglieri, Maria Francesca Aleo
Cisplatin (CisPt) is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug whose side effects include muscle weakness and cachexia. Here we analysed CisPt-induced atrophy in C2C12 myotubes by a multidisciplinary morphological approach, focusing on the onset and progression of autophagy, a protective cellular process that, when excessively activated, may trigger protein hypercatabolism and atrophy in skeletal muscle. To visualize autophagy we used confocal and transmission electron microscopy at different times of treatment and doses of CisPt...
2014: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Tai Tien Tran, Anfeng Mu, Yuka Adachi, Yasushi Adachi, Shigeru Taketani
δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is widely used in the treatment of cancer, as photodynamic therapy (PDT). To clarify the mechanisms of ALA uptake by tumor cells, we have examined the ALA-induced accumulation of protoporphyrin by the treatment of colon cancer DLD-1 and epithelial cancer HeLa cells with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related compounds. When the cells were treated with GABA, taurine and β-alanine, the level of protoporphyrin was decreased, suggesting that plasma membrane transporters involved in the transport of neurotransmitters contribute to the uptake of ALA...
September 2014: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Qinru Sun, Haitao Hu, Weixi Wang, Hui Jin, Gaifeng Feng, Ning Jia
Amyloid β (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Studies indicate that Aβ causes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurons loss in vivo and in vitro. Taurine, a naturally occurring β-amino acid in the brain, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties. In the present study, the effects of taurine on cell viability and mitochondrial function in Aβ1-42-treated SK-N-SH cells were investigated. Pretreatment of taurine significantly attenuated Aβ1-42-induced neuronal death...
May 9, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Arefeh Jafarian, Mohammad Taghikhani, Saeid Abroun, Zahra Pourpak, Amir Allahverdi, Masoud Soleimani
Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of β cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs)...
July 2014: Molecular Biology Reports
Fatma E Agha, Eman R Youness, Mai M H Selim, Hanaa H Ahmed
The study was aimed to estimate whether pre-treatment with sodium selenite or taurine would reverse kidney damage induced by intraperitoneal injection of mercuric chloride in rats. Animals were divided into six groups: (1) control group; (2) sodium selenite group; (3) taurine group; (4) HgCl2 group; (5) sodium selenite pretreated group; (6) taurine pretreated group. The results demonstrated that HgCl2 causes significant enhancement in serum malondialdehyde (MDA), creatinine, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), cystatin C, nephrin and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels accompanied with significant reduction in serum nitric oxide (NO) level...
June 2014: Renal Failure
Asami Hagiwara, Sonoko Ishizaki, Kenji Takehana, Shoji Fujitani, Ichiro Sonaka, Hideo Satsu, Makoto Shimizu
Taurine deficiency has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and complications of advanced hepatic diseases. The molecular basis for a low level of taurine associated with hepatic failure is largely unknown. Using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhotic rat model, we found that the activity and expression of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in taurine synthesis, were significantly decreased in the liver of these rats. To investigate the underlying mechanisms for the suppression, we examined the effects of pathological cytokines on CDO expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells...
May 2014: Amino Acids
Sarantos Kyriakopoulos, Karen M Polizzi, Cleo Kontoravdi
Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are widely used for the production of biopharmaceuticals; however, our understanding of several physiological elements that contribute to productivity is limited. One of these is amino acid transport and how its limitation and/or regulation might affect productivity. To further our understanding, we have examined the expression of 40 mammalian amino acid transporter genes during batch cultures of three CHO cell lines: a non-producer and two antibody-producing cell lines with different levels of productivity...
December 2013: Journal of Biotechnology
Olav Albert Christophersen
There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se...
2012: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Florian Lang, Elisabeth Lang, Michael Föller
Suicidal erythrocyte death (eryptosis) is characterized by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptotic cells adhere to the vascular wall and are rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis is stimulated by an increase in cytosolic Ca(2)+ activity, ceramide, hyperosmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion, hyperthermia, and a wide variety of xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin and nitric oxide...
October 2012: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
Takuya Usui, Yoshiyuki Kubo, Shin-Ichi Akanuma, Ken-Ichi Hosoya
The supply of L-carnosine, a bioactive dipeptide of β-alanine and l-histidine, to the retina across the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was studied. The in vivo and in vitro studies revealed low uptake activities for [(3)H]Gly-Sar, a representative dipeptide, suggesting that l-carnosine transport plays only a minor role at the BRB. The in vivo study using rats showed approximately 18- and 23-fold greater retinal uptake indexes (RUI) for [(3)H]β-alanine and [(3)H]l-histidine compared with that of a paracellular marker, respectively...
August 2013: Experimental Eye Research
Thiago Martins Batista, Priscilla Muniz Ribeiro da Silva, Andressa Godoy Amaral, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Boschero, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a cellular response to increased intra-reticular protein accumulation or poor ER function. Chronic activation of this pathway may lead to beta cell death and metabolic syndrome (MS). Poor nutrition during perinatal period, especially protein malnutrition, is associated with increased risk for MS in later life. Here, we analyzed the effects of taurine (TAU) supplementation upon insulin secretion and ER stress marker expression in pancreatic islets and in the liver from mice fed a low-protein diet...
2013: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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