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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538654/a-monitoring-system-for-laying-hens-that-uses-a-detection-sensor-based-on-infrared-technology-and-image-pattern-recognition
#1
Mauro Zaninelli, Veronica Redaelli, Fabio Luzi, Valentino Bontempo, Vittorio Dell'Orto, Giovanni Savoini
In Italy, organic egg production farms use free-range housing systems with a big outdoor area and a flock of no more than 500 hens. With additional devices and/or farming procedures, the whole flock could be forced to stay in the outdoor area for a limited time of the day. As a consequence, ozone treatments of housing areas could be performed in order to reduce the levels of atmospheric ammonia and bacterial load without risks, due by its toxicity, both for hens and workers. However, an automatic monitoring system, and a sensor able to detect the presence of animals, would be necessary...
May 24, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538050/molecular-imaging-of-acute-cardiac-transplant-rejection-animal-experiments-and-prospects
#2
Yihan Chen, Li Zhang, Jinfeng Liu, Pingyu Zhang, Xiaoyuan Chen, Mingxing Xie
Acute rejection (AR) remains the biggest challenge during the 1st year after heart transplantation despite advances in immunosuppressive therapy. The early detection and curbing of AR are crucial to the survival of transplant recipients. However, as the gold standard for AR, endomyocardial biopsy has several limitations because of its inherent invasiveness and morbidity. Traditional imaging techniques such as echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging are of certain value for AR, but their diagnostic criteria and accuracy remain in question...
May 19, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535507/cardiac-cell-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-meta-analysis-from-mouse-studies
#3
Cajetan Immanuel Lang, Markus Wolfien, Anne Langenbach, Paula Müller, Olaf Wolkenhauer, Arash Yavari, Hüseyin Ince, Gustav Steinhoff, Bernd Joachim Krause, Robert David, Änne Glass
AIMS: Stem cell-based regenerative therapies for the treatment of ischemic myocardium are currently a subject of intensive investigation. A variety of cell populations have been demonstrated to be safe and to exert some positive effects in human Phase I and II clinical trials, however conclusive evidence of efficacy is still lacking. While the relevance of animal models for appropriate pre-clinical safety and efficacy testing with regard to application in Phase III studies continues to increase, concerns have been expressed regarding the validity of the mouse model to predict clinical results...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533505/automated-quantification-of-early-bone-alterations-and-pathological-bone-turnover-in-experimental-arthritis-by-in-vivo-pet-ct-imaging
#4
Bianca Hoffmann, Carl-Magnus Svensson, Maria Straßburger, Björn Gebser, Ingo M Irmler, Thomas Kamradt, Hans Peter Saluz, Marc Thilo Figge
The assessment of bone damage is required to evaluate disease severity and treatment efficacy both in arthritis patients and in experimental arthritis models. Today there is still a lack of in vivo methods that enable the quantification of arthritic processes at an early stage of the disease. We performed longitudinal in vivo imaging with [(18)F]-fluoride PET/CT before and after experimental arthritis onset for diseased and control DBA/1 mice and assessed arthritis progression by clinical scoring, tracer uptake studies and bone volume as well as surface roughness measurements...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533365/prediction-of-disease-activity-in-models-of-multiple-sclerosis-by-molecular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-p-selectin
#5
Antoine Philippe Fournier, Aurélien Quenault, Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Maxime Gauberti, Gilles Defer, Denis Vivien, Fabian Docagne, Richard Macrez
New strategies for detecting disease activity in multiple sclerosis are being investigated to ameliorate diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Today, although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to diagnose and monitor multiple sclerosis, no imaging tools exist to predict the evolution of disease and the efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that molecular MRI targeting the endothelial adhesion molecule P-selectin unmasks the pathological events that take place in the spinal cord of mice subjected to chronic or relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#6
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532292/familiarity-with-images-affects-how-dogs-canis-familiaris-process-life-size-video-projections-of-humans
#7
Péter Pongrácz, András Péter, Ádám Miklósi
A central problem of behavioural studies providing artificial visual stimuli for non-human animals is to determine how subjects perceive and process these stimuli. Especially in the case of videos it is important to ascertain that animals perceive the actual content of the images and are not just reacting to the motion cues in the presentation. In the current study we set out to investigate how dogs process life-sized videos. We aimed to find out whether dogs perceive the actual content of video images or whether they only react to the videos as a set of dynamic visual elements...
May 22, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532151/a-biotinylated-bioluminescent-probe-for-long-lasting-targeted-in-vivo-imaging-of-xenografted-brain-tumors-in-mice
#8
Yu Lin Jiang, Yun Zhu, Alfred B Moore, Kayla Miller, Ann-Marie Broome
Bioluminescence is a useful tool for imaging of cancer in in vivo animal models that endogenously express luciferase, an enzyme that requires a substrate for visual readout. Current bioluminescence imaging, using commonly available luciferin substrates, only lasts a short time (15-20 min). To avoid repeated administration of luciferase substrate during cancer detection and surgery, a long lasting bioluminescence imaging substrate or system is needed. A novel water-soluble biotinylated luciferase probe, B-YL (1), was synthesized...
May 22, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531265/utility-of-nonhuman-primates-in-substance-use-disorders-research
#9
Matthew L Banks, Paul W Czoty, Sidney S Negus
Substance use disorders (i.e., drug addiction) constitute a global and insidious public health issue. Preclinical biomedical research has been invaluable in elucidating the environmental, biological, and pharmacological determinants of drug abuse and in the process of developing innovative pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies. For more than 70 years, nonhuman primates have been utilized as research subjects in biomedical research related to drug addiction. There are already several excellent published reviews highlighting species differences in both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between rodents and nonhuman primates in preclinical substance abuse research...
May 20, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530551/angular-velocity-integration-in-a-fly-heading-circuit
#10
Daniel Turner-Evans, Stephanie Wegener, Hervé Rouault, Romain Franconville, Tanya Wolff, Johannes D Seelig, Shaul Druckmann, Vivek Jayaraman
Many animals maintain an internal representation of their heading as they move through their surroundings. Such a compass representation was recently discovered in a neural population in the Drosophila melanogaster central complex, a brain region implicated in spatial navigation. Here, we use two-photon calcium imaging and electrophysiology in head-fixed walking flies to identify a different neural population that conjunctively encodes heading and angular velocity, and is excited selectively by turns in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction...
May 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529640/lung-cancer-targeting-peptides-with-multi-subtype-indication-for-combinational-drug-delivery-and-molecular-imaging
#11
Yi-Hsuan Chi, Jong-Kai Hsiao, Ming-Huang Lin, Chen Chang, Chun-Hsin Lan, Han-Chung Wu
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Most targeted drugs approved for lung cancer treatment are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against EGFR or ALK, and are used mainly for adenocarcinoma. At present, there is no effective or tailored targeting agent for large cell carcinoma (LCC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Therefore, we aimed to identify targeting peptides with diagnostic and therapeutic utility that possess broad subtype specificity for SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529630/spectroscopic-photoacoustic-molecular-imaging-of-breast-cancer-using-a-b7-h3-targeted-icg-contrast-agent
#12
Katheryne E Wilson, Sunitha V Bachawal, Lotfi Abou-Elkacem, Kristen Jensen, Steven Machtaler, Lu Tian, Jürgen K Willmann
Purpose: Breast cancer imaging methods lack diagnostic accuracy, in particular for patients with dense breast tissue, and improved techniques are critically needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antibody-indocyanine green (ICG) conjugates, which undergo dynamic absorption spectrum shifts after cellular endocytosis and degradation, and spectroscopic photoacoustic (sPA) imaging to differentiate normal breast tissue from breast cancer by imaging B7-H3, a novel breast cancer associated molecular target...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#13
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529049/heterogeneity-of-transverse-axial-tubule-system-in-mouse-atria-remodeling-in-atrial-specific-na-ca-2-exchanger-knockout-mice
#14
Xin Yue, Rui Zhang, Brian Kim, Aiqun Ma, Kenneth D Philipson, Joshua I Goldhaber
Transverse-axial tubules (TATs) are commonly assumed to be sparse or absent in atrial myocytes from small animals. Atrial myocytes from rats, cats and rabbits lack TATs, which results in a characteristic "V"-shaped Ca release pattern in confocal line-scan recordings due to the delayed rise of Ca in the center of the cell. To examine TAT expression in isolated mouse atrial myocytes, we loaded them with the membrane dye Di-4-ANEPPS to label TATs. We found that >80% of atrial myocytes had identifiable TATs...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529008/role-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-human-brain-structure-and-function-across-the-lifespan-an-update-on-neuroimaging-findings
#15
REVIEW
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist, Robert Krikorian
There is a substantial body of evidence from animal studies implicating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in neuroinflammatory, neurotrophic, and neuroprotective processes in brain. However, direct evidence for a role of PUFA in human brain structure and function has been lacking. Over the last decade there has been a notable increase in neuroimaging studies that have investigated the impact of PUFA intake and/or blood levels (i.e., biostatus) on brain structure, function, and pathology in human subjects. The majority of these studies specifically evaluated associations between omega-3 PUFA intake and/or biostatus and neuroimaging outcomes using a variety of experimental designs and imaging techniques...
May 9, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528655/pulmonary-flow-as-an-improved-method-for-determining-cardiac-output-in-mice-after-myocardial-infarction
#16
Mathew J Platt, Jason S Huber, Keith R Brunt, Jeremy A Simpson
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is a valuable noninvasive technique to estimate cardiac output (CO) from the left ventricle (LV) not only in clinical practice but also in small-animal experiments. CO is used to grade cardiac function and is especially important when investigating cardiac injury (e.g., myocardial infarction [MI]). Critically, MI deforms the LV, invalidating the assumptions fundamental to calculating of cardiac volumes directly from the LV. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if Doppler-derived blood flow through the pulmonary trunk (pulmonary flow [PF]) was an improved method over conventional LV-dependent echocardiography to accurately determine CO after MI...
June 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528635/relocation-is-the-key-to-successful-correlative-fluorescence-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#17
Delfine Cheng, Gerald Shami, Marco Morsch, Minh Huynh, Patrick Trimby, Filip Braet
In this chapter the authors report on an automated hardware and software solution enabling swift correlative sample array mapping of fluorescently stained molecules within cells and tissues across length scales. Samples are first observed utilizing wide-field optical and fluorescence microscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy, using calibration points on a dedicated sample-relocation holder. We investigated HeLa cells in vitro, fluorescently labeled for monosialoganglioside one (GM-1), across both imaging platforms within tens of minutes of initial sample preparation...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527594/whole-globe-biomechanics-using-high-field-mri
#18
Andrew P Voorhees, Leon C Ho, Ning-Jiun Jan, Huong Tran, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin Chan, Ian A Sigal
The eye is a complex structure composed of several interconnected tissues acting together, across the whole globe, to resist deformation due to intraocular pressure (IOP). However, most work in the ocular biomechanics field only examines the response to IOP over smaller regions of the eye. We used high-field MRI to measure IOP induced ocular displacements and deformations over the whole globe. Seven sheep eyes were obtained from a local abattoir and imaged within 48 h using MRI at multiple levels of IOP. IOP was controlled with a gravity perfusion system and a cannula inserted into the anterior chamber...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527366/effect-of-low-protein-diets-in-heavy-pigs-on-dry-cured-ham-quality-characteristics
#19
Silvia Grassi, Ernestina Casiraghi, Simona Benedetti, Cristina Alamprese
The present work aimed at evaluating if heavy pig low-protein diets balanced for amino acid (AA) profile affect the quality characteristics of dry cured hams. To the aim, 40 hams obtained by Italian Duroc×Italian Large White pigs fed three different dietary crude protein and indispensable AA levels were compared with those obtained by a conventional Parma ham Protected Designation of Origin diet (C). No physico-chemical (aw, pH), chemical (gross composition, NaCl, lipid peroxidation, non-protein nitrogen, total volatile bases) or sensory characteristics of hams were systematically affected by the administered diet, animal sex or their interaction with the exception of total and subcutaneous fat (the latter measured by an image analysis procedure)...
May 13, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526817/myelination-of-the-brain-in-major-depressive-disorder-an-in-vivo-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Matthew D Sacchet, Ian H Gotlib
Evidence from post-mortem, genetic, neuroimaging, and non-human animal research suggests that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in brain myelin content. Brain regions implicated in this research, and in MDD more generally, include the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), insula, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We examined whether MDD is characterized by reduced myelin at the whole-brain level and in NAcc, LPFC, insula, sgACC, and mPFC...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
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