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MafA AND supplements

I Yilmaz, A E Sariboyaci, C Subasi, E Karaoz
BACKGROUND: The differentiation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) has great promise for type-1 diabetes for cellular treatment. Therefore, different strategies have been reported so far for derivation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) from ESCs. Providing similar microenvironmental conditions as in vivo, functional differentiation of stem cells into desired cell types could be obtained in vitro. The aim of the present research was to utilize differentiation potential of ESCs to IPCs by co-culture with mouse pancreatic islets (mPIs) for the first time...
February 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Junia C Santos-Silva, Rosane Aparecida Ribeiro, Jean F Vettorazzi, Esperanza Irles, Sarah Rickli, Patrícia C Borck, Patricia M Porciuncula, Ivan Quesada, Angel Nadal, Antonio C Boschero, Everardo M Carneiro
Taurine (Tau) regulates β-cell function and glucose homeostasis under normal and diabetic conditions. Here, we assessed the effects of Tau supplementation upon glucose homeostasis and the morphophysiology of endocrine pancreas, in leptin-deficient obese (ob) mice. From weaning until 90-day-old, C57Bl/6 and ob mice received, or not, 5% Tau in drinking water (C, CT, ob and obT). Obese mice were hyperglycemic, glucose intolerant, insulin resistant, and exhibited higher hepatic glucose output. Tau supplementation did not prevent obesity, but ameliorated glucose homeostasis in obT...
August 2015: Amino Acids
Jaeseok Han, Benbo Song, Jiun Kim, Vamsi K Kodali, Anita Pottekat, Miao Wang, Justin Hassler, Shiyu Wang, Subramaniam Pennathur, Sung Hoon Back, Michael G Katze, Randal J Kaufman
Proinsulin misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) initiates a cell death response, although the mechanism(s) remains unknown. To provide insight into how protein misfolding may cause β-cell failure, we analyzed mice with the deletion of P58(IPK)/DnajC3, an ER luminal co-chaperone. P58(IPK-/-) mice become diabetic as a result of decreased β-cell function and mass accompanied by induction of oxidative stress and cell death. Treatment with a chemical chaperone, as well as deletion of Chop, improved β-cell function and ameliorated the diabetic phenotype in P58(IPK-/-) mice, suggesting P58(IPK) deletion causes β-cell death through ER stress...
August 2015: Diabetes
Dana Berneman-Zeitouni, Kfir Molakandov, Marina Elgart, Eytan Mor, Alessia Fornoni, Miriam Ramírez Domínguez, Julie Kerr-Conte, Michael Ott, Irit Meivar-Levy, Sarah Ferber
Lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) display instructive roles in directly reprogramming adult cells into alternate developmental fates, in a process known as transdifferentiation. The present study analyses the hypothesis that despite being fast, transdifferentiation does not occur in one step but is rather a consecutive and hierarchical process. Using ectopic expression of Pdx1 in human liver cells, we demonstrate that while glucagon and somatostatin expression initiates within a day, insulin gene expression becomes evident only 2-3 days later...
2014: PloS One
Vikash Reebye, Pål Sætrom, Paul J Mintz, John J Rossi, Noriyuki Kasahara, Georgios Nteliopoulos, Joanna Nicholls, Abdelali Haoudi, Myrtle Gordon, Nagy A Habib
Upon functional loss of insulin producing islet β-cells, some patients with diabetes become dependent on life-long insulin supplementation therapy. Bioengineering surrogate insulin producing cells is an alternative replacement strategy. We have developed a novel approach using short-activating RNA oligonucleotides to differentiate adult human CD34(+) cells into insulin-secreting cells. By transfecting RNA to increase transcript levels of the master regulator of insulin biosynthesis, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), several pancreatic endodermal genes were upregulated during the differentiation procedure...
2013: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Yu Zhou, David L Mack, J Koudy Williams, Sayed-Hadi Mirmalek-Sani, Emily Moorefield, So-Young Chun, Jun Wang, Diego Lorenzetti, Mark Furth, Anthony Atala, Shay Soker
Insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes does not prevent serious long-term complications including vascular disease, neuropathy, retinopathy and renal failure. Stem cells, including amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells - highly expansive, multipotent and nontumorigenic cells - could serve as an appropriate stem cell source for β-cell differentiation. In the current study we tested whether nonhuman primate (nhp)AFS cells ectopically expressing key pancreatic transcription factors were capable of differentiating into a β-cell-like cell phenotype in vitro...
2013: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Cristina Aguayo-Mazzucato, Ann Marie Zavacki, Alejandra Marinelarena, Jennifer Hollister-Lock, Ilham El Khattabi, Alessandro Marsili, Gordon C Weir, Arun Sharma, P Reed Larsen, Susan Bonner-Weir
Neonatal β cells do not secrete glucose-responsive insulin and are considered immature. We previously showed the transcription factor MAFA is key for the functional maturation of β cells, but the physiological regulators of this process are unknown. Here we show that postnatal rat β cells express thyroid hormone (TH) receptor isoforms and deiodinases in an age-dependent pattern as glucose responsiveness develops. In vivo neonatal triiodothyronine supplementation and TH inhibition, respectively, accelerated and delayed metabolic development...
May 2013: Diabetes
Bipasha Bose, Sudheer P Shenoy, Sudhakar Konda, Pralhad Wangikar
hESC (human embryonic stem cells), when differentiated into pancreatic β ILC (islet-like clusters), have enormous potential for the cell transplantation therapy for Type 1 diabetes. We have developed a five-step protocol in which the EBs (embryoid bodies) were first differentiated into definitive endoderm and subsequently into pancreatic lineage followed by formation of functional endocrine β islets, which were finally matured efficiently under 3D conditions. The conventional cytokines activin A and RA (retinoic acid) were used initially to obtain definitive endoderm...
November 1, 2012: Cell Biology International
Charlotte G Neumann, Luohua Jiang, Robert E Weiss, Monika Grillenberger, Constance A Gewa, Jonathan H Siekmann, Suzanne P Murphy, Nimrod O Bwibo
The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart...
April 14, 2013: British Journal of Nutrition
Mingming Cao, Yang Long, Yuzhen Tong, Jun Wan, Nanwei Tong
PPARδ, a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor superfamily, plays a key role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cellular lipid and energy metabolism. Therefore, PPARδ may represent a new target for the treatment of obesity, hyperlipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. MafA is a β-cell-specific and glucose-regulated transcriptional activator for insulin gene expression and plays a crucial role in pancreas development, β-cell differentiation as well as maintenance of β-cell function...
July 2012: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Cai-Xia Jin, Wen-Lin Li, Fang Xu, Zhen H Geng, Zhi-Ying He, Juan Su, Xin-Rong Tao, Xiao-Yan Ding, Xin Wang, Yi-Ping Hu
The conversion of expandable liver progenitor cells into pancreatic beta cells would provide a renewable cell source for diabetes cell therapy. Previously, we reported the establishment of liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs). In this work, LEPCs were modified into EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs, cells with stable expression of both Pdx-1 and EGFP. Unlike previous work, with persistent expression of Pdx-1, EGFP/Pdx-1 LEPCs acquired the phenotype of pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells rather than giving rise to insulin-producing cells directly...
May 1, 2008: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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