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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722599/assessment-of-fecal-exposure-pathways-in-low-income-urban-neighborhoods-in-accra-ghana-rationale-design-methods-and-key-findings-of-the-sanipath-study
#1
Katharine Robb, Clair Null, Peter Teunis, Habib Yakubu, George Armah, Christine L Moe
Rapid urbanization has contributed to an urban sanitation crisis in low-income countries. Residents in low-income, urban neighborhoods often have poor sanitation infrastructure and services and may experience frequent exposure to fecal contamination through a range of pathways. There are little data to prioritize strategies to decrease exposure to fecal contamination in these complex and highly contaminated environments, and public health priorities are rarely considered when planning urban sanitation investments...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721020/access-to-credible-information-on-schizophrenia-patients-medication-adherence-by-prescribers-can-change-their-treatment-strategies-evidence-from-an-online-survey-of-providers
#2
Jason Shafrin, Suepattra G May, Anshu Shrestha, Charles Ruetsch, Nicole Gerlanc, Felicia Forma, Ainslie Hatch, Darius N Lakdawalla, Jean-Pierre Lindenmayer
OBJECTIVE: Overestimating patients' medication adherence diminishes the ability of psychiatric care providers to prescribe the most effective treatment and to identify the root causes of treatment resistance in schizophrenia. This study was conducted to determine how credible patient drug adherence information (PDAI) might change prescribers' treatment decisions. METHODS: In an online survey containing 8 clinical case vignettes describing patients with schizophrenia, health care practitioners who prescribe antipsychotics to patients with schizophrenia were instructed to choose a preferred treatment recommendation from a set of predefined pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707451/perceptions-of-key-participants-about-botswana-adolescents-risks-of-unplanned-pregnancy-sexually-transmitted-diseases-and-hiv-qualitative-findings
#3
Mabel K M Magowe, Esther Seloilwe, Kefalotse Dithole, Janet St Lawrence
AIM: The qualitative research findings are reported on the perceptions of key participants in Botswana about adolescent sexuality problems and the feasibility (with suggestions) of an adolescent prevention intervention. METHODS: Twenty adult key participants who were selected through purposive sampling from schools and youth centers responded to open-ended questions during face-to-face individual in-depth interviews that were conducted between December, 2011 and January, 2012 in Gaborone, Botswana...
July 13, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704467/locomotor-adaptability-in-persons-with-unilateral-transtibial-amputation
#4
Benjamin J Darter, Amy J Bastian, Erik J Wolf, Elizabeth M Husson, Bethany A Labrecque, Brad D Hendershot
BACKGROUND: Locomotor adaptation enables walkers to modify strategies when faced with challenging walking conditions. While a variety of neurological injuries can impair locomotor adaptability, the effect of a lower extremity amputation on adaptability is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Determine if locomotor adaptability is impaired in persons with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA). METHODS: The locomotor adaptability of 10 persons with a TTA and 8 persons without an amputation was tested while walking on a split-belt treadmill with the parallel belts running at the same (tied) or different (split) speeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685859/bird-community-responses-to-habitat-creation-in-a-long-term-large-scale-natural-experiment
#5
Robin C Whytock, Elisa Fuentes-Montemayor, Kevin Watts, Patanjaly Barbosa De Andrade, Rory Whytock, Paul French, Nicholas Macgregor, Kirsty J Park
Ecosystem function and resilience are compromised when habitats become fragmented due to land-use change. This has led to national and international conservation strategies aimed at restoring habitat extent and improving functional connectivity (i.e. maintaining dispersal processes). However, biodiversity responses to landscape-scale habitat creation and the relative importance of spatial and temporal scales is poorly understood, and there is disagreement over which conservation strategies should be prioritised...
July 7, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675065/hypomethylating-agents-hma-treatment-for-myelodysplastic-syndromes-alternatives-in-the-frontline-and-relapse-settings
#6
Natalie Uy, Abhay Singh, Steven D Gore, Thomas Prebet
Hypomethylating agents (HMA) have played a pivotal role for treating myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) over the past decade, inducing sustained hematological responses and delaying progression to leukemia. However, a vast majority of patients will experience treatment failure within 2 years, with poor prognoses and limited options, and management of this growing patient population remains unclear. Areas Covered: With the introduction of new agents in the MDS field, a better understanding of the biology of MDS, and updated information on standard of care options (including allogeneic transplantation), we re-evaluate the global treatment strategy in MDS via novel agents, focusing in particular on investigational approaches for patients who fail to respond to HMA when applicable...
July 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668084/factors-influencing-the-ownership-and-utilization-of-long-lasting-insecticidal-nets-for-malaria-prevention-in-ethiopia
#7
Admasu Tassew, Richard Hopkins, Wakgari Deressa
BACKGROUND: Utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is regarded as key malaria prevention and control strategy. However, studies have reported a large gap in terms of both ownership and utilization particularly in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). With continual efforts to improve the use of LLIN and to progress malaria elimination, examining the factors influencing the ownership and usage of LLIN is of high importance. Therefore, the current study was conducted to examine the level of ownership and use of LLIN along with identification of associated factors at household level...
July 1, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660347/bioinspired-magnetic-reception-and-multimodal-sensing
#8
Brian K Taylor
Several animals use Earth's magnetic field in concert with other sensor modes to accomplish navigational tasks ranging from local homing to continental scale migration. However, despite extensive research, animal magnetic reception remains poorly understood. Similarly, the Earth's magnetic field offers a signal that engineered systems can leverage to navigate in environments where man-made positioning systems such as GPS are either unavailable or unreliable. This work uses a behavioral strategy inspired by the migratory behavior of sea turtles to locate a magnetic goal and respond to wind when it is present...
August 2017: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654254/development-strategies-and-prospects-of-nano-based-smart-pesticide-formulation
#9
Xiang Zhao, Haixin Cui, Yan Wang, Changjiao Sun, Bo Cui, Zhanghua Zeng
Pesticides are important inputs for enhancing crop productivity and preventing major biological disasters. However, more than 90% of pesticides run off into the environment and residue in agricultural products in process of application, due to the disadvantages of conventional pesticide formulation such as use of harmful solvent, poor dispersion, dust drift, etc. In recent years, using nanotechnology to create novel formulations has shown great potential in improving the efficacy and safety of pesticides. The development of nano-based pesticide formulation aims at precise release of necessary and sufficient amounts of their active ingredients, in responding to environmental triggers and biological demands through controlled release mechanisms...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646502/the-liver-gut-microbiota-axis-modulates-hepatotoxicity-of-tacrine-in-the-rat
#10
Lian Yee Yip, Chiu Cheong Aw, Sze Han Lee, Yi Shuen Hong, Han Chen Ku, Winston Hecheng Xu, Jessalyn Mei Xuan Chan, Eleanor Jing Yi Cheong, Kern Rei Chng, Amanda Hui Qi Ng, Niranjan Nagarajan, Ratha Mahendran, Yuan Kun Lee, Edward R Browne, Eric Chun Yong Chan
The gut microbiota possesses diverse metabolic activities but its contribution towards heterogeneous toxicological responses is poorly understood. Here, we elucidate the role of the liver-gut microbiota axis in underpinning the hepatotoxicity of tacrine. We employed an integrated strategy combining pharmacokinetics, toxicology, metabonomics, genomics and metagenomics to elucidate and validate the mechanism of tacrine-induced hepatotoxicity in Lister hooded rats. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated 3...
June 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639200/treatment-of-liver-cancer-by-c-ebpa-sarna
#11
Xiaoyang Zhao, Jon Voutila, Stephanos Ghobrial, Nagy A Habib, Vikash Reebye
The prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor and has not improved in over two decades. Most patients with advanced HCC who are not eligible for surgery have limited treatment options due to poor liver function or large, unresectable tumors. Although sorafenib is the standard-of-care treatment for these patients, only a small number respond. For the remaining, the outlook remains bleak. A better approach to target "undruggable" molecular pathways that reverse HCC is therefore urgently needed...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635413/the-high-responder-a-review-of-pathophysiology-and-outcomes-during-ivf-treatment
#12
Mariano Mascarenhas, Adam H Balen
This review attempts to summarize the known literature on high responders to ovarian stimulation during assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Response to gonadotrophins is subject to significant interindividual and intercycle variation, thus carrying a risk of high response or poor response to ovarian stimulation regimens. The main risk for high responders is the development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) which is associated with significant morbidity. Hence, the definition of high responders in the literature has primarily focussed on risk factors for OHSS...
September 2017: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632192/coverage-and-influencing-determinants-of-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-patients-in-a-country-with-a-poor-vaccination-implementation
#13
Maria Ganczak, Karolina Gil, Marcin Korzeń, Marta Bażydło
The seasonal influenza vaccination uptake of the elderly in Poland is one of the lowest in Europe. Objective: to assess the vaccination coverage and influencing determinants in patients ≥65 years of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (November 2015-April 2016) among consecutive patients admitted to a municipal hospital located in the city of Szczecin, North-west Poland. Patients completed researcher-administered, anonymous questionnaires on socio- demographic data/factors related to the vaccination...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617616/the-role-of-nrf2-in-the-regulation-of-periodontal-health-and-disease
#14
A V Chiu, M Al Saigh, C A McCulloch, M Glogauer
Immune-related disease tolerance is an important defense strategy that facilitates the maintenance of health in organs and tissues that are commonly colonized by bacteria. Immune tolerance to dysbiotic, tooth-borne biofilms is a poorly understood yet clinically relevant concept in the immunopathological mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, particularly those related to neutrophil and macrophage responses. In periodontal health, neutrophils and macrophages respond to the formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilms by the production of bactericidal reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617432/bst2-confers-cisplatin-resistance-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-nasopharyngeal-cancer
#15
Chun-Mei Kuang, Xiang Fu, Yi-Jun Hua, Wen-di Shuai, Zhi-Hua Ye, Yingchang Li, Qi-Hua Peng, Yi-Zhuo Li, Shuai Chen, Chao-Nan Qian, Wenlin Huang, Ran-Yi Liu
Concurrent/adjuvant cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is regarded as the standard of treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, patients who do not respond to cisplatin suffer, rather than benefit, from chemotherapy treatment. The goal of this study was to identify molecules involved in cisplatin resistance and to clarify their molecular mechanisms, which would help in the discovery of potential therapeutic targets and in developing a personalized and precise treatment approach for NPC patients...
June 15, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610654/periprosthetic-infection-in-joint-replacement
#16
Christina Otto-Lambertz, Ayla Yagdiran, Franziska Wallscheid, Peer Eysel, Norma Jung
BACKGROUND: The volume of joint replacement surgery has risen steadily in recent years, because the population is aging and increasingly wishes to reserve a high functional status onward into old age. Infection is among the more common complications of joint replacement surgery, arising in 0.2% to 2% of patients, or as many as 9% in special situations such as the implantation of megaprostheses. The associated morbidity and mortality are high. It is thus very important to minimize risk factors for infection and to optimize the relevant diagnostic and therapeutic strategies...
May 26, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606174/using-multiclass-classification-to-automate-the-identification-of-patient-safety-incident-reports-by-type-and-severity
#17
Ying Wang, Enrico Coiera, William Runciman, Farah Magrabi
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10% of admissions to acute-care hospitals are associated with an adverse event. Analysis of incident reports helps to understand how and why incidents occur and can inform policy and practice for safer care. Unfortunately our capacity to monitor and respond to incident reports in a timely manner is limited by the sheer volumes of data collected. In this study, we aim to evaluate the feasibility of using multiclass classification to automate the identification of patient safety incidents in hospitals...
June 12, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594714/tailored-treatment-strategy-for-locally-advanced-rectal-carcinoma-based-on-the-tumor-response-to-induction-chemotherapy-preliminary-results-of-the-french-phase-ii-multicenter-greccar4-trial
#18
Philippe Rouanet, Eric Rullier, Bernard Lelong, Philippe Maingon, Jean-Jacques Tuech, Denis Pezet, Florence Castan, Stéphanie Nougaret
BACKGROUND: Preoperative radiochemotherapy and total mesorectal excision are the standard-of-care for locally advanced rectal carcinoma, but some patients could be over- or undertreated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility of radiochemotherapy tailored based on the tumor response to induction chemotherapy (FOLFIRINOX) to obtain a minimum R0 resection rate of 90% in the 4 arms of the study. DESIGN: This study is a multicenter randomized trial (NCT01333709)...
July 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587484/seven-year-follow-up-of-matrix-induced-autologous-implantation-in-talus-articular-defects
#19
Christopher Kreulen, Eric Giza, Judie Walton, Martin Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLT) are difficult to treat because of the poor intrinsic healing capability of articular cartilage. Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) has been shown to be a reliable method for treating cartilage lesions that fail to respond to traditional microfracture and debridement. The purpose of this study was to assess 7-year clinical follow-up data of this technique and demonstrate midterm success of this implant. METHODS: A prospective investigation of MACI was performed on 10 patients with OLTs who had failed previous arthroscopic treatment...
June 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586388/a-prospective-pilot-study-of-genome-wide-exome-and-transcriptome-profiling-in-patients-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-progressing-after-first-line-therapy
#20
Glen J Weiss, Sara A Byron, Jessica Aldrich, Ashish Sangal, Heather Barilla, Jeffrey A Kiefer, John D Carpten, David W Craig, Timothy G Whitsett
BACKGROUND: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that has progressed after first-line therapy is an aggressive disease with few effective therapeutic strategies. In this prospective study, we employed next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify therapeutically actionable alterations to guide treatment for advanced SCLC patients. METHODS: Twelve patients with SCLC were enrolled after failing platinum-based chemotherapy. Following informed consent, genome-wide exome and RNA-sequencing was performed in a CLIA-certified, CAP-accredited environment...
2017: PloS One
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