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Proteolytic enzymes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812530/feline-herpesvirus-pneumonia-investigations-into-the-pathogenesis
#1
Josep Maria Monne Rodriguez, Gail Leeming, Kernt Köhler, Anja Kipar
Feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1) is one of the etiological agents of feline respiratory disease. FeHV-1 is an epitheliotropic and cytopathic virus that mainly causes rhinitis and conjunctivitis, although pneumonia is also occasionally seen. In this study, the authors investigated the pathogenesis of FeHV-1-associated pneumonia, comparing natural cases with viral infection of tracheal ring and cell cultures in vitro, using histology, immunohistology, double immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy as investigative tools...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809546/staphylococcus-aureus-cidc-is-a-pyruvate-menaquinone-oxidoreductase
#2
Xinyan Zhang, Kenneth W Bayles, Sorin Luca
Recent studies have revealed an important role for the Staphylococcus aureus CidC enzyme in cell death during the stationary phase and in biofilm development, and have contributed to our understanding of the metabolic processes important in the induction of bacterial programmed cell death (PCD). To gain more insight into the characteristics of this enzyme, we performed an in-depth biochemical and biophysical analysis of its catalytic properties. In vitro experiments show that this flavoprotein catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetate and carbon dioxide...
August 15, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806983/profiling-of-metalloprotease-activities-in-cerebrospinal-fluids-of-patients-with-neoplastic-meningitis
#3
Catharina Conrad, Kristina Dorzweiler, Miles A Miller, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Herwig Strik, Jörg W Bartsch
BACKGROUND: Neoplastic invasion into leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, resulting in neoplastic meningitis (NM) is a fatal complication of advanced solid and hematological neoplasms. Identification of malignant involvement of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) early in the disease course has crucial prognostic and therapeutic implications, but remains challenging. As indicators of extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and breakdown of the blood-brain-barrier, Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) and A Disintegrin and Metalloproteases (ADAMs) are potential analytes for cerebral pathophysiology and metastatic dissemination of tumor cells into the CSF...
August 14, 2017: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805476/microencapsulate-aspergillus-niger-peptidases-from-agroindustrial-waste-wheat-bran-spray-process-evaluation-and-stability
#4
T P F Cabral, N C Bellini, K R Assis, C C C Teixeira, A D Lanchote, H Cabral, L A P de Freitas
The aim of this work was to obtain microencapsulated stable Aspergillus niger peptidases by post fermentation spray drying. The enzymatic extract was evaluated before and after spray drying microencapsulation to verify the effects of five different process parameters on the extract enzymatic activity, i.e. air flow, extract feed rate, drying temperature, homogenizing time and weight ratio of extract to encapsulation material. The optimal conditions were determined by desirability functions and experimentally confirmed...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805195/-the-plasma-levels-and-diagnostic-utility-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-and-ca-125-in-cervical-cancer-patients
#5
Emilia Lubowicka, Ewa Gacuta, Monika Zajkowska, Edyta Katarzyna Głażewska, Andrzej Przylipiak, Lech Chrostek, Monika Zbucka-Krętowska, Sławomir Ławicki
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components. The physiological function of MMP-9 is associated with regulation of immune processes, embryogenesis, reproduction and wound healing. MMP-9 also plays a critical role in tumor invasion, degrading the basement membrane, what is observed in different types of cancers: breast, gastrointestinal, and gynecological. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the plasma levels and diagnostic utility of MMP-9 and CA 125 in cervical cancer patients...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800544/protease-loaded-permeation-enhancer-liposomes-for-treatment-of-skin-fibrosis-arisen-from-second-degree-burn
#6
Kamini Sahu, Monika Kaurav, Ravi Shankar Pandey
Cysteine protease (papain) is a plant derived enzyme and due to its collagenolytic activity has potential in fibrosis reduction. However, a major hurdle in its use as fibrosis reducing agent is to overcome stratum corneum skin barrier via topical application, owing to its hydrophilic and high molecular weight and protein nature which is prone to degradation. The aim of the present study was to develop a penetration enhancer incorporated drug delivery system, i.e. propylene glycol (PG) liposomes, loaded with papain for application in fibrosis therapy...
August 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799085/dimerization-leads-to-changes-in-app-amyloid-precursor-protein-trafficking-mediated-by-lrp1-and-sorla
#7
Simone Eggert, A C Gonzalez, C Thomas, S Schilling, S M Schwarz, C Tischer, V Adam, P Strecker, V Schmidt, T E Willnow, G Hermey, C U Pietrzik, E H Koo, Stefan Kins
Proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by α-, β- and γ-secretases is a determining factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Imbalances in the activity of all three enzymes can result in alterations towards pathogenic Aβ production. Proteolysis of APP is strongly linked to its subcellular localization as the secretases involved are distributed in different cellular compartments. APP has been shown to dimerize in cis-orientation, affecting Aβ production. This might be explained by different substrate properties defined by the APP oligomerization state or alternatively by altered APP monomer/dimer localization...
August 10, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794015/the-deubiquitylating-enzyme-ubp12-regulates-rad23-dependent-proteasomal-degradation
#8
Daniela Gödderz, Tatiana Álvarez Giovannucci, Jana Laláková, Victoria Menéndez Benito, Nico P Dantuma
The consecutive actions of the ubiquitin-selective segregase Cdc48 and the ubiquitin shuttle factor Rad23 result in the delivery of ubiquitylated proteins at the proteasome. Here, we show that the deubiquitylating enzyme Ubp12 interacts with Cdc48 and regulates proteasomal degradation of Rad23-dependent substrates. Overexpression of Ubp12 results in stabilization of Rad23-dependent substrates. We show that Ubp12 removes short ubiquitin chains from the N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UbL) of Rad23. Preventing ubiquitylation of Rad23 by substitution of lysine residues within the UbL domain, Rad23(UbLK0), does not affect the non-proteolytic role of Rad23 in DNA repair but causes an increase in ubiquitylated cargo bound to the UBA2 domains of Rad23 and recapitulates the stabilization of Rad23-dependent substrates observed upon overexpression of Ubp12...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789570/an-overview-of-bacillus-proteases-from-production-to-application
#9
Fabiano Jares Contesini, Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo, Hélia Harumi Sato
Proteases have a broad range of applications in industrial processes and products and are representative of most worldwide enzyme sales. The genus Bacillus is probably the most important bacterial source of proteases and is capable of producing high yields of neutral and alkaline proteolytic enzymes with remarkable properties, such as high stability towards extreme temperatures, pH, organic solvents, detergents and oxidizing compounds. Therefore, several strategies have been developed for the cost-effective production of Bacillus proteases, including optimization of the fermentation parameters...
August 8, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782582/development-and-in-vitro-characterization-of-a-papain-loaded-mucolytic-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-system-sedds
#10
Christina Leichner, Claudia Menzel, Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The aim of the study was to create a self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) with mucolytic properties based on incorporated papain for improved mucus permeation. In order to increase the lipophilicity of the enzyme and to dissolve it in SEDDS, hydrophobic ion pairing with sodium deoxycholate in a molar ratio of 20:1 (surfactant: enzyme) was performed. The yield of precipitated papain was 86.8±2.7% and the ion pair was loaded into the formulations to 1% (m/m). Suitable formulations were chosen according to their properties to dissolve the ion pair and characterized regarding droplet size and polydispersity index...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782419/generation-of-amber-force-field-parameters-for-zinc-centres-of-m1-and-m17-family-aminopeptidases
#11
Wei Yang, Blake T Riley, Xiangyun Lei, Benjamin T Porebski, Itamar Kass, Ashley M Buckle, Sheena McGowan
The M1 and M17 aminopeptidases are metallo-exopeptidases that rely on the presence of divalent cations, usually zinc, in their active site for proteolytic activity. They are from separate protease superfamilies, however, members often have overlapping substrate specificity. Inhibitors of one or both enzymes can be used to modulate hypertension, reduce proliferation of certain types of cancers and control malaria parasites. Current inhibitors act to chelate the zinc ions in the active site, locking the enzymes in an inactive transition state...
August 6, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780458/influence-of-an-external-electric-field-on-removal-of-protein-fouling-on-a-stainless-steel-surface-by-proteolytic-enzymes
#12
Ei Ei Htwe, Yuhi Nakama, Hiroyuki Imanaka, Naoyuki Ishida, Koreyoshi Imamura
Enzymatic cleaning is a potentially useful method for removing proteinaceous fouling from solid surfaces under mild conditions. Herein, the influence of an external electric field on the enzymatic cleaning of a metal surface fouled with a protein was investigated. The model fouling protein (BSA; lysozyme) was prepared on a stainless steel (St) surface, and the resulting surface subjected to enzymatic cleaning with an electric potential being applied to the St plate. Trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, and thermolysin were used as model proteases...
July 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780366/transthyretin-neuroprotection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-is-dependent-on-proteolysis
#13
Catarina S Silva, Jessica Eira, Carlos A Ribeiro, Ângela Oliveira, Mónica M Sousa, Isabel Cardoso, Márcia A Liz
The deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in the hippocampus is one of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss and cognitive impairment. The modulation of Aβ levels in the brain results from an equilibrium between its production from the amyloid precursor protein and removal by amyloid clearance proteins, which might occur via enzymatic (Aβ-degrading enzymes) or nonenzymatic (binding/transport proteins) reactions. Transthyretin (TTR) is one of the major Aβ-binding proteins acting as a neuroprotector in AD...
July 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777914/resveratrol-improves-high-fat-diet-induced-fatty-liver-and-insulin-resistance-by-concomitant-inhibiting-proteolytic-cleavage-of-srebps-ffas-oxidation-and-intestinal-tgs-absorption
#14
Eman F Khaleel, Ghada Ahmed Abdel-Aleem, Dalia Gamal Eldin Mostafa
Resveratrol (RES) has the ability to ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the mechanism remains unclear. Hence, using high-fat diet (HFD) obese rat model, we investigated the effect of low dose of RES (20 mg/kg) on hepatic Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs)-lipogenesis pathway, enzymes involved in β-oxidation and activity of pancreatic lipase. 4 groups of rats (n=8) of either control (12 % of calories as fat) or HFD (40 % of calories as fat), both were administered with either normal saline as vehicle or RES as a concomitant treatment for 8 weeks on a daily basis, orally...
August 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776699/poly-n-acryloxysuccinimide-co-ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate-precursor-monolith-and-its-post-polymerization-modification-with-alkyl-ligands-trypsin-and-lectins-for-reversed-phase-chromatography-miniaturized-enzyme-reactors-and-lectin-affinity-chromatography
#15
Murthy Jonnada, Ziad El Rassi
This investigation was aimed at introducing a monolithic precursor that can be conveniently grafted with the desired chromatographic ligand via the process of post polymerization modification (PPM). The precursor was obtained by the in-situ polymerization of N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a narrow bore stainless steel column of 1 mm i.d. yielding a poly(NAS-co-EDMA) monolithic column designated as the NASM column. In a first PPM, the NASM column was bonded with octadecyl (OD) ligands yielding a nonpolar NASM-OD column that proved useful for RPC of proteins in gradient elution at increasing %ACN in the mobile phase...
August 4, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775117/endotoxemia-shifts-neutrophils-with-timp-free-gelatinase-b-mmp-9-from-bone-marrow-to-periphery-and-induces-systematic-upregulation-of-timp-1
#16
Jennifer Vandooren, Wannes Swinnen, Estefania Ugarte-Berzal, Lise Boon, Daphne Dorst, Erik Martens, Ghislain Opdenakker
Lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins elicit an excessive host inflammatory response and lead to life-threatening conditions such as endotoxemia and septic shock. Lipopolysaccharides trigger mobilization and stimulation of leukocytes and exaggerated production of pro-inflammatory molecules including cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) or gelatinase B, a protease stored in the tertiary granules of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, has been implicated in such inflammatory reactions. Moreover, several studies even pinpointed MMP-9 as a potential target molecule to counter excessive inflammation in endotoxemia...
August 3, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774751/bacterial-lipases-a-review-on-purification-and-characterization
#17
REVIEW
Saira Javed, Farrukh Azeem, Sabir Hussain, Ijaz Rasul, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique, Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Afzal, Ambreen Kouser, Habibullah Nadeem
Lipase (E.C.3.1.1.3) belongs to the hydrolases and is also known as fat splitting, glycerol ester hydrolase or triacylglycerol acylhydrolase. Lipase catalyzes the hydrolysis of triglycerides converting them to glycerol and fatty acids in an oil-water interface. These are widely used in food, dairy, flavor, pharmaceuticals, biofuels, leather, cosmetics, detergent, and chemical industries. Lipases are of plant, animal, and microbial origin, but microbial lipases are produced at industrial level and represent the most widely used class of enzymes in biotechnological applications and organic chemistry...
July 31, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770447/the-effect-of-primary-hyperparathyroidism-on-pancreatic-exocrine-function
#18
P Sisman, M Avci, A Akkurt, A B Sahin, O O Gul, C Ersoy, E Erturk
BACKGROUND: Elastase-1 is a proteolytic enzyme secreted by pancreatic acinar cells, and measurements of the concentration this enzyme are used to evaluate pancreatic exocrine function. We aimed to determine whether pancreatic exocrine function declines due to chronic hypercalcemia by measuring fecal elastase levels. METHODS: 75 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (18 men and 47 women) and 30 healthy subjects (11 men and 19 women) participated in this study...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769914/isolation-characterization-and-selection-of-molds-associated-to-fermented-black-table-olives
#19
Simona L Bavaro, Antonia Susca, Jens C Frisvad, Maria Tufariello, Agathi Chytiri, Giancarlo Perrone, Giovanni Mita, Antonio F Logrieco, Gianluca Bleve
Table olives are one of the most important fermented food in the Mediterranean countries. Apart from lactic acid bacteria and yeasts that mainly conduct the olive fermentation, molds can develop on the brine surface, and can have either deleterious or useful effects on this process. From the food safety point of view, occurring molds could also produce mycotoxins, so, it is important to monitor and control them. In this respect, identification of molds associated to two Italian and two Greek fermented black table olives cultivars, was carried out...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767072/insights-into-the-mechanisms-involved-in-strong-hemorrhage-and-dermonecrosis-induced-by-atroxlysin-ia-a-pi-class-snake-venom-metalloproteinase
#20
Luciana Aparecida Freitas-de-Sousa, Mônica Colombini, Mônica Lopes-Ferreira, Solange M T Serrano, Ana Maria Moura-da-Silva
Hemorrhage is the most prominent effect of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in human envenomation. The capillary injury is a multifactorial effect caused by hydrolysis of the components of the basement membrane (BM). The PI and PIII classes of SVMPs are abundant in viperid venoms and hydrolyze BM components. However, hemorrhage is associated mostly with PIII-class SVMPs that contain non-catalytic domains responsible for the binding of SVMPs to BM proteins, facilitating enzyme accumulation in the tissue and enhancing its catalytic efficiency...
August 2, 2017: Toxins
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