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Proteolytic enzymes

Mariola A Dietrich, Piotr Hliwa, Mikołaj Adamek, Dieter Steinhagen, Halina Karol, Andrzej Ciereszko
The environmental temperature affects plasma biochemical indicators, antioxidant status and hematological and immunological parameters in fish. So far, only single blood proteins have been identified in response to temperature changes. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of carp blood plasma from males acclimated to warm (30 °C) and cold (10 °C) temperatures by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 47 spots were found to be differentially regulated by temperature (>1...
March 12, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
Sun-Ju Yi, Kyunghwan Kim
Chromatin is an intelligent building block that can express either external or internal needs through structural changes. To date, three methods to change chromatin structure and regulate gene expression have been well-documented: histone modification, histone exchange, and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. Recently, a growing body of literature has suggested that histone tail cleavage is related to various cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, osteoclast differentiation, granulocyte differentiation, mammary gland differentiation, viral infection, aging, and yeast sporulation...
March 15, 2018: BMB Reports
Itay Cohen, Si Naftaly, Efrat Ben-Zeev, Alexandra Hockla, Evette S Radisky, Niv Papo
High structural and sequence similarity within protein families can pose significant challenges to the development of selective inhibitors, especially towards proteolytic enzymes. Such enzymes usually belong to large families of closely similar proteases and may also hydrolyze, with different rates, protein or peptide-based inhibitors. To address this challenge, we employed a combinatorial yeast surface display library approach complemented with a novel pre-equilibrium, competitive screening strategy for facile assessment of the effects of multiple mutations on inhibitor association rates and binding specificity...
March 13, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Zlatka Georgieva Dobreva, Boncho Grigorov Grigorov, Spaska Angelova Stanilova
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) are proinflammatory cytokines that increased the development of Th1 immune response, but have a different type of regulation of the gene expression. Whereas TNF-α has an inducible expression, IL-18 is translated as an inactive protein and required proteolytic cleavage by Casp-1 in inflammasome complexes. AIM: To investigate the effect of the histone deacetylases inhibitor Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) on the gene expression and secretion of both cytokines, IL-18 and TNF-α, according to their contribution to the cancer development and anticancer immunity...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
María Jesús García-Murria, Hemanth P K Sudhani, Julia Marín-Navarro, Manuel M Sánchez Del Pino, Joaquín Moreno
Oxidation of the cysteines from ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) leads to inactivation and promotes structural changes that increase the proteolytic sensitivity and membrane association propensity related to its catabolism. To uncover the individual role of the different cysteines, the sequential order of modification under increasing oxidative conditions was determined using chemical labeling and mass spectrometry. Besides, site-directed RubisCO mutants were obtained in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii replacing single conserved cysteines (Cys84, Cys172, Cys192, Cys247, Cys284, Cys427, Cys459 from the large and sCys41, sCys83 from the small subunit) and the redox properties of the mutant enzymes were determined...
March 10, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Miriam Moreno-Montoro, Paula Jauregi, Miguel Navarro-Alarcón, Manuel Olalla-Herrera, Rafael Giménez-Martínez, Lourdes Amigo, Beatriz Miralles
In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed...
March 10, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Jung Gi Lee, Jae Ha Ryu, Seon-Myung Kim, Moon-Young Park, San-Ho Kim, Young G Shin, Jong-Woo Sohn, Ha Hyung Kim, Zee-Yong Park, Jae Young Seong, Jae Il Kim
Exendin-4, a 39 amino acid peptide isolated from the saliva of the Gila monster, plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis, and is used clinically for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Exendin-4 shares 53% sequence identity with the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) but, unlike GLP-1, is highly resistant to proteolytic enzymes such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP 24.11). Herein, we focused on the structure and function of the C-terminal Trp-cage of exendin-4, and suggest that it may be structurally required for resistance to proteolysis by NEP 24...
March 6, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Joel D Leal-Gutiérrez, Mauricio A Elzo, Dwain D Johnson, Tracy L Scheffler, Jason M Scheffler, Raluca G Mateescu
Autogenous proteolytic enzymes of the calpain family are implicated in myofibrillar protein degradation. As a result, the μ-calpain gene and its specific inhibitor, calpastatin, have been repeatedly investigated for their association with meat quality traits in cattle; however, no functional mutation has been identified for these two genes. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess breed composition effect on tenderness; (2) to perform a linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in μ-calpain and calpastatin genes as well as an association analyses with tenderness; and (3) to analyze putative functional SNPs inside the significant LD block for an effect on tenderness...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
S Bersini, M Gilardi, M Mora, S Krol, C Arrigoni, C Candrian, S Zanotti, M Moretti
Muscle fibrosis represents the end stage consequence of different diseases, among which muscular dystrophies, leading to severe impairment of muscle functions. Muscle fibrosis involves the production of several growth factors, cytokines and proteolytic enzymes and is strictly associated to inflammatory processes. Moreover, fibrosis causes profound changes in tissue properties, including increased stiffness and density, lower pH and oxygenation. Up to now, there is no therapeutic approach able to counteract the fibrotic process and treatments directed against muscle pathologies are severely impaired by the harsh conditions of the fibrotic environment...
March 5, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Aslı Turan, Sibel Soycan Önenç
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effects of cumin essential oil on the silage fermentation, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of alfalfa silages. Methods: Alfalfa was harvested at early bloom (5 th cutting) stage in October and wilted for about 3 hours. The research was carried out at three groups which were the control group where no additive control was done (CON), cumin essential oil (CMN3) with 300 mg/kg and CMN5 with 500 mg/kg cumin essential oil addition...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Simona Arena, Andrea Scaloni
Hen egg is a raw material widely used for preparation of food, pharmaceutical and cosmetoceutical products. Dedicated proteomic studies on egg fractions identified most abundant proteins. No similar studies have been performed at the peptidomic level so far. This study fills this gap and provides a comprehensive picture of the peptides present in the yolk plasma of different hen egg types after 24 and 264 h of laying, using a two-step fractionation followed by combined MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS and nanoLC-ESI-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS analysis...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Nan Xie, Nicholas Matigian, Tharindu D Vithanage, Kye Gregory, Zeyad D Nassar, Peter J Cabot, Paul Nicholas Shaw, Carl Mj Kirkpatrick, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, David Sturgess, Marie-Odile Parat
PURPOSE: To investigate the potential interplay between opioid analgesia and tumour metastasis through modulation of μ opioid receptor (MOR), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation, and matrix degradation potential. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Plasma samples were collected from 60 patients undergoing elective lower limb joint replacement pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 24 h after surgery; pain scores were documented at the same time points. Opioid administration was recorded and converted into morphine IV equivalents...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Lucie Jedličková, Hana Dvořáková, Jan Dvořák, Martin Kašný, Lenka Ulrychová, Jiří Vorel, Vojtěch Žárský, Libor Mikeš
BACKGROUND: Cysteine peptidases of clan CA, family C1 account for a major part of proteolytic activity in the haematophagous monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum. The full spectrum of cysteine cathepsins is, however, unknown and their particular biochemical properties, tissue localisation, and involvement in parasite-host relationships are yet to be explored. METHODS: Sequences of cathepsins L and B (EnCL and EnCB) were mined from E. nipponicum transcriptome and analysed bioinformatically...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Djane Clarys Baia-da-Silva, Luis Carlos Salazar Alvarez, Omaira Vera Lizcano, Fabio Trindade Maranhão Costa, Stefanie Costa Pinto Lopes, Alessandra Silva Orfanó, Denner Oliveira Pascoal, Rafael Nacif-Pimenta, Iria Cabral Rodriguez, Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa Guerra, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães Lacerda, Nagila Francinete Costa Secundino, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Paulo Filemon Paolucci Pimenta
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is predominant in the Amazon region, and enhanced knowledge of its development inside a natural vector, Anopheles aquasalis, is critical for future strategies aimed at blocking parasite development. The peritrophic matrix (PM), a chitinous layer produced by the mosquito midgut in response to blood ingestion, is a protective barrier against pathogens. Plasmodium can only complete its life-cycle, and consequently be transmitted to a new host, after successfully passing this barrier...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Stephanie Hartmann, Fang Zheng, Michele Constanze Kyncl, Sandra Karch, Kerstin Voelkl, Benedikt Zott, Carla D'Avanzo, Selene Lomoio, Giuseppina Tesco, Doo Yeon Kim, Christian Alzheimer, Tobias Huth
β-Secretase BACE1 is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through non-proteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K+ channel 3.4 as a new and functionally relevant interaction partner of BACE1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Abid Hussain
Metarhizium species are the leading bio-control agents well characterized regarding pathogenicity to agricultural, forest, public health, stored grains and urban insect pests. They infect the target host through the tight conidial adherence with the insect cuticle. Conidial binding to the insect cuticle drive the systematic integrated disease development events in target host to impart pathogenesis. However, there is growing evidence that virulence of the pathogen is directly related with proteolytic enzymes including metalloproteinases, chymotrypsin-like proteinases and subtilisin-like proteinases...
January 1, 2018: Virulence
Marta Ruiz-Santaquiteria, Sonia de Castro, Miguel A Toro, Héctor de Lucio, Kilian Jesús Gutiérrez, Pedro A Sánchez-Murcia, María Ángeles Jiménez, Federico Gago, Antonio Jiménez-Ruiz, María-José Camarasa, Sonsoles Velázquez
Trypanothione reductase (TryR) is a well-established target in the search for novel antitrypanosomal and antileishmanial agents. We have previously identified linear and lactam-bridged 13-residue peptides derived from an α-helical region making up part of the dimeric interface of Leishmania infantum TryR (Li-TryR) which prevent trypanothione reduction by disrupting enzyme dimerization. We now show that i,i + 4 side-chain cross-linking with an all-hydrocarbon staple stabilizes the helical structure of these peptides and significantly improves their resistance to protease cleavage relative to previous linear and cyclic lactam analogues...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anja Reithmeier, Thomas Lundbäck, Martin Haraldsson, Martin Frank, Barbro Ek-Rylander, Per-Georg Nyholm, Anna-Lena Gustavsson, Göran Andersson
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5) occurs as two isoforms- TRAP 5a with low enzymatic activity due to a loop interacting with the active site and the more active TRAP isoform 5b generated upon proteolytic cleavage of this loop. TRAP has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer. Thus this study set out identifying small molecule inhibitors of TRAP activity. A microplate-based enzymatic assay for TRAP 5b was applied in a screen of 30,315 compounds, resulting in the identification of 90 primary hits...
March 3, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Russell A DeBose-Boyd, Jin Ye
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are a family of membrane-bound transcription factors that activate genes encoding enzymes required for synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids. SREBPs are controlled by multiple mechanisms at the level of mRNA synthesis, proteolytic activation, and transcriptional activity. In this review, we summarize the recent findings that contribute to the current understanding of the regulation of SREBPs and their physiologic roles in maintenance of lipid homeostasis, insulin signaling, innate immunity, and cancer development...
February 27, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
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