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Proteolytic enzymes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927525/alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-genetic-variations-clinical-manifestations-and-therapeutic-interventions
#1
REVIEW
Younis Mohammad Hazari, Arif Bashir, Mudasir Habib, Samirul Bashir, Huma Habib, M Abul Qasim, Naveed Nazir Shah, Ehtishamul Haq, Jeffrey Teckman, Khalid Majid Fazili
Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase secretory glycoprotein that inhibits neutrophil proteases like elastase and is considered as the archetype of a family of structurally related serine-protease inhibitors termed serpins. Serum AAT predominantly originates from liver and increases three to five fold during host response to tissue injury and inflammation. The AAT deficiency is unique among the protein-misfolding diseases in that it causes target organ injury by both loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic function mechanisms...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927056/membranous-type-matrix-metalloproteinase-16-induces-human-prostate-cancer-metastasis
#2
Chunwa Jiang, Juanjing Wang, Chen Dong, Wei Wei, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, which perform a crucial role in the metastatic spread of cancer. MMP2 and MMP9 are important cancer-associated MMPs in the invasion and metastasis of the majority of carcinomas. As a new member of the membrane-type MMPs, the function of MMP16 associated with invasion and metastasis of cancer remains unclear. In the present study, MMP16 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and cells was examined, and the high expression of MMP16 was revealed to be associated with advanced prostate tumor stage and PCa cell metastasis...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921406/genome-annotation-and-validation-of-keratin-hydrolyzing-proteolytic-enzymes-from-serratia-marcescens-egd-hp20
#3
Priya Fuke, Vaibhav V Gujar, Anshuman A Khardenavis
Stabilization and utilization of poultry waste demand efficient biodegradation either by mixture of enzymes or by microbial system that can produce different types of protein-hydrolyzing enzymes. For utilization of this keratinous biomass, in the present study, genome was sequenced and annotated for a bacterium having multiple enzymatic options for hydrolysis of different soluble and insoluble protein fractions of poultry waste. Among the soluble protein substrates, optimum production of enzyme and soluble protein was observed in case of casein, whereas among the insoluble protein substrates, maximum production of enzyme was achieved when broken nails were used...
September 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918742/a-new-concept-of-action-of-hemostatic-proteases-on-inflammation-neurotoxicity-and-tissue-regeneration
#4
REVIEW
L R Gorbacheva, E V Kiseleva, I G Savinkova, S M Strukova
Key hemostatic serine proteases such as thrombin and activated protein C (APC) are signaling molecules controlling blood coagulation and inflammation, tissue regeneration, neurodegeneration, and some other processes. By interacting with protease-activated receptors (PARs), these enzymes cleave a receptor exodomain and liberate new amino acid sequence known as a tethered ligand, which then activates the initial receptor and induces multiple signaling pathways and cell responses. Among four PAR family members, APC and thrombin mainly act via PAR1, and they trigger divergent effects...
July 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918152/short-communication-influence-of-various-proteolytic-sources-during-fermentation-of-reconstituted-corn-grain-silages
#5
D Junges, G Morais, M H F Spoto, P S Santos, A T Adesogan, L G Nussio, J L P Daniel
The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of corn kernel enzymes, bacteria, fungi, and fermentation end-products (main acids and ethanol) to protein solubilization during fermentation of reconstituted corn grain silage. Flint corn kernels were ground (5-mm sieve), rehydrated to 32% of moisture, and treated with no additives (control), gamma irradiation (32 kGy), gamma irradiation + fermentation end-products (1% of lactic acid, 0.3% of acetic acid, and 0.7% of ethanol, as fed), and natamycin (1% as fed)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917871/inhibition-of-gelatinized-rice-starch-retrogradation-by-rice-bran-protein-hydrolysates
#6
Liya Niu, Leiyan Wu, Jianhui Xiao
The retrogradation of gelatinized rice starch (GRS) during the shelf life of a product is the biggest barrier related to starch-containing foods. The objective of this study was to produce rice bran protein hydrolysate (RBPH) using proteolytic enzymes (alcalase, flavourzyme, protamex, neutrase, bromelain, papain and trypsin) to suppress the retrogradation of GRS and understand the physical phenomena underlying the reduced retrogradation of GRS by RBPH during short- and long-term storage. Mixtures of GRS incorporated with Protamex-hydrolyzed rice bran protein at 1h (PRBPH-1) at a degree of hydrolysis of 15...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915606/proteolytic-cleavages-in-the-extracellular-domain-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-by-membrane-associated-serine-proteases
#7
Li-Mei Chen, Karl X Chai
The epithelial extracellular membrane-associated serine proteases matriptase, hepsin, and prostasin are proteolytic modifying enzymes of the extracellular domain (ECD) of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Matriptase also cleaves the ECD of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and the angiopoietin receptor Tie2. In this study we tested the hypothesis that these serine proteases may cleave the ECD of additional receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We co-expressed the proteases in an epithelial cell line with Her2, Her3, Her4, insulin receptor (INSR), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R), the platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) α and β, or nerve growth factor receptor A (TrkA)...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915418/purification-identification-and-molecular-mechanism-of-two-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibitory-peptides-from-antarctic-krill-euphausia-superba-protein-hydrolysate
#8
Wei Ji, Chaohua Zhang, Hongwu Ji
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) played an important role in blood glucose regulation. Inhibition of DPP-IV may improve glycemic control in diabetics by preventing the rapid breakdown of incretin hormones and prolonging their physiological action. In this study, Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) protein was hydrolyzed using animal proteolytic enzymes. The hydrolysate was purified sequentially by ultrafiltration, gel filtration chromatography and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915348/activation-of-factor-xiii-is-accompanied-by-a-change-in-oligomerization-state
#9
Boris A Anokhin, Vilius Stribinskis, William L Dean, Muriel C Maurer
Factor XIII A (FXIIIA) is a member of the transglutaminase enzyme family that cross-links both intra- and extracellular protein substrates. To prevent undesired cross-linking, FXIIIA is expressed as an inactive zymogen and exists intracellularly as an A2 homodimer. In plasma, FXIII A2 is complexed with two protective factor XIII B subunits (A2 B2 ) that dissociate upon activation of the zymogen. Based on limited experimental data, activated FXIII was considered a dimer of two catalytically active A subunits...
September 15, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912721/physical-and-chemical-processes-and-the-morphofunctional-characteristics-of-human-erythrocytes-in-hyperglycaemia
#10
Victor V Revin, Natalia A Klenova, Natalia V Gromova, Igor P Grunyushkin, Ilia N Solomadin, Alexander Y Tychkov, Anastasia A Pestryakova, Anna V Sadykhova, Elvira S Revina, Ksenia V Prosnikova, Jean-Christophe Bourdon, Nikolai Zhelev
Background: This study examines the effect of graduated hyperglycaemia on the state and oxygen-binding ability of hemoglobin, the correlation of phospholipid fractions and their metabolites in the membrane, the activity of proteolytic enzymes and the morphofunctional state of erythrocytes. Methods: Conformational changes in the molecule of hemoglobin were determined by Raman spectroscopy. The structure of the erythrocytes was analyzed using laser interference microscopy (LIM). To determine the activity of NADN-methemoglobinreductase, we used the P...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904973/effects-of-bacillus-serine-proteases-on-the-bacterial-biofilms
#11
Olga Mitrofanova, Ayslu Mardanova, Vladimir Evtugyn, Lydia Bogomolnaya, Margarita Sharipova
Serratia marcescens is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for many hospital-acquired infections including catheter-associated bacteremia and urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. Biofilm formation is one of the mechanisms employed by S. marcescens to increase its virulence and pathogenicity. Here, we have investigated the main steps of the biofilm formation by S. marcescens SR 41-8000. It was found that the biofilm growth is stimulated by the nutrient-rich environment. The time-course experiments showed that S...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900700/auxiliary-activation-of-the-complement-system-and-its-importance-for-the-pathophysiology-of-clinical-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Markus Huber-Lang, Kristina N Ekdahl, Rebecca Wiegner, Karin Fromell, Bo Nilsson
Activation and regulation of the cascade systems of the blood (the complement system, the coagulation/contact activation/kallikrein system, and the fibrinolytic system) occurs via activation of zymogen molecules to specific active proteolytic enzymes. Despite the fact that the generated proteases are all present together in the blood, under physiological conditions, the activity of the generated proteases is controlled by endogenous protease inhibitors. Consequently, there is remarkable little crosstalk between the different systems in the fluid phase...
September 12, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894249/functional-characterization-of-vip3ab1-and-vip3bc1-two-novel-insecticidal-proteins-with-differential-activity-against-lepidopteran-pests
#13
Marc D Zack, Megan S Sopko, Meghan L Frey, Xiujuan Wang, Sek Yee Tan, Jennifer M Arruda, Ted T Letherer, Kenneth E Narva
In this work, we characterized 2 novel insecticidal proteins; Vip3Ab1 and Vip3Bc1. These proteins display unique insecticidal spectra and have differential rates of processing by lepidopteran digestive enzymes. Furthermore, we have found that both proteins exist as tetramers in their native state before and after proteolysis. In addition, we expressed truncated forms and protein chimeras to gain a deeper understanding of toxin specificity and stability. Our study confirms a role for the C-terminal 65 kDa domain in directing insect specificity...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894159/thrombin-derived-host-defence-peptide-modulates-neutrophil-rolling-and-migration-in-vitro-and-functional-response-in-vivo
#14
Chun Hwee Lim, Manoj Puthia, Marta Butrym, Hui Min Tay, Michelle Zi Yi Lee, Han Wei Hou, Artur Schmidtchen
Host defence peptides (HDPs) derived from the C-terminus of thrombin are proteolytically generated by enzymes released during inflammation and wounding. In this work, we studied the effects of the prototypic peptide GKY25 (GKYGFYTHVFRLKKWIQKVIDQFGE), on neutrophil functions. In vitro, GKY25 was shown to decrease LPS-induced neutrophil activation. In addition, the peptide induced CD62L shedding on neutrophils without inducing their activation. Correspondingly, GKY25-treated neutrophils showed reduced attachment and rolling behaviour on surfaces coated with the CD62L ligand E-selectin...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892258/sitagliptin-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-modulate-insulin-secretion-via-regulation-of-intra-islet-pyy
#15
Claudia Guida, Laura J McCulloch, Mahdieh Godazgar, Sam D Stephen, Charlotte Baker, Davide Basco, Jiawen Dong, Duan Chen, Anne Clark, Reshma D Ramracheya
AIMS: The gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) is critical for maintaining islet integrity and restoring islet function following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The expression of PYY and its receptors (NPYRs) in islets has been documented but not fully characterized. Modulation of islet PYY by the proteolytic enzyme DPP-IV has not been investigated and the impact of DPP-IV inhibition on islet PYY function remains unexplored. Here we have addressed these gaps and their effects on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
September 11, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887034/a-novel-gene-cilia-flagella-associated-protein-44-encoding-an-enzyme-cleaving-ftsz-and-tubulin-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-secretory-pathway
#16
Akiko S Tanaka, Masahiko Tanaka
We identified a novel gene, encoding the central region of the cilia and flagella-associated protein 44 (Cfap44), that regulates trafficking of cellular components and morphology via the cleavage of cellular proteins (particularly β-tubulin). Although Cfap44 is registered in GenBank, the functions of both the central part and full-length protein are unknown except for a polymorphism associated with proprotein convertase 9 activity, the third gene of familiar hyper-cholesterolemia. In mice and humans, both unspliced and spliced RNAs were transcribed, and the spliced form was predominantly transcribed in the brain and embryonic tissues...
September 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886220/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-polyphenols-in-arthritis
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Oliviero, Anna Scanu, Yessica Zamudio-Cuevas, Leonardo Punzi, Paolo Spinella
Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarize how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterize the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis...
September 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878084/human-herpesvirus-8-interleukin-6-interacts-with-calnexin-cycle-components-and-promotes-protein-folding
#18
Daming Chen, Qiwang Xiang, John Nicholas
Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to contribute via mitogenic, survival, and angiogenic activities to HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during latency or productive replication. There is direct evidence that vIL-6 promotes latently infected PEL cell viability and proliferation and also viral productive replication in PEL and endothelial cells. These activities are mediated largely through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized vIL-6, which can induce signal transduction via the gp130 signaling receptor, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling, and interactions of vIL-6 with the ER membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 variant 2 (VKORC1v2)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873704/fractionation-and-identification-of-antioxidant-peptides-from-an-enzymatically-hydrolysed-palmaria-palmata-protein-isolate
#19
Pádraigín A Harnedy, Martina B O'Keeffe, Richard J FitzGerald
Proteins derived from the macroalgal species Palmaria palmata have emerged as potential substrates for the generation of bioactive peptides. The aim of this study was to fractionate, identify and characterize antioxidant peptides from a P. palmata protein hydrolysate. The P. palmata protein hydrolysate generated with the food-grade proteolytic enzyme Corolase PP was sequentially fractionated using solid phase extraction and semi-preparative (SP) RP-HPLC. The most active SP-RP-HPLC peptide fraction (SP-RP-HPLC-30-F26) was analysed by ESI-MS/MS...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873609/in-vitro-investigation-of-anticancer-and-ace-inhibiting-activity-%C3%AE-amylase-and-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibition-and-antioxidant-activity-of-camel-milk-fermented-with-camel-milk-probiotic-a-comparative-study-with-fermented-bovine-milk
#20
Mutamed Ayyash, Amna K Al-Nuaimi, Suheir Al-Mahadin, Shao-Quan Liu
This study aimed to investigate in vitro the health-promoting benefits (anticancer activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibition, antioxidant and proteolytic activity) of camel milk fermented with indigenous probiotic strains of Lactobacillus spp., compared with fermented bovine milk. The three camel milk probiotic strains Lb. reuteri-KX881777, Lb. plantarum-KX881772, Lb. plantarum-KX881779 and a control strain Lb. plantarum DSM2468 were employed to ferment camel and bovine milks separately...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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