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Proteolytic enzymes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526528/gluten-degrading-bacteria-are-present-in-the-human-small-intestine-of-healthy-volunteers-and-celiac-patients
#1
Alexandra R Herrán, Jénifer Pérez-Andrés, Alberto Caminero, Esther Nistal, Santiago Vivas, José María Ruiz de Morales, Javier Casqueiro
Gluten is the only known environmental factor that triggers celiac disease. Several studies have described an imbalance between the intestinal microbiota of different individuals based on diagnoses. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that human bacteria may play an important role in gluten hydrolysis. However, there has been no research focusing on the small intestine. This study aimed to characterize the adult small intestine microbiota possibly implicated in gluten hydrolysis. Duodenal biopsies from different diagnosed individuals were cultured in a gluten-containing medium, and the grown microbiota was analyzed by culture dependent/independent methods...
May 16, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525266/gliotoxin-biosynthesis-structure-mechanism-and-metal-promiscuity-of-carboxypeptidase-glij
#2
Antoine Marion, Michael Groll, Daniel H Scharf, Kirstin Scherlach, Manuel Glaser, Holger Sievers, Michael Schuster, Christian Hertweck, Axel A Brakhage, Iris Antes, Eva M Huber
The formation of glutathione (GSH) conjugates, best known from the detoxification of xenobiotics, is a widespread strategy to incorporate sulfur into biomolecules. The biosynthesis of gliotoxin, a virulence factor of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, involves attachment of two GSH molecules and their sequential decomposition to yield two reactive thiol groups. The degradation of the GSH moieties requires the activity of the Cys-Gly carboxypeptidase GliJ, for which we describe the X-ray structure here...
May 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522220/surgical-reconstruction-of-ruptured-anterior-cruciate-ligament-prolongs-trauma-induced-increase-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-synovial-fluid-an-exploratory-analysis-in-the-kanon-trial
#3
Staffan Larsson, André Struglics, L Stefan Lohmander, Richard Frobell
OBJECTIVE: Prospectively monitor how treatment of acutely ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) affects biomarkers of inflammation and proteolytic degradation over five years. DESIGN: We studied 119 subjects with acute ACL injury from the randomized controlled KANON-trial (Clinical trial ISRCTN 84752559) who had synovial fluid, serum and urine samples available from at least two out of six visits over five years after acute ACL rupture. All subjects followed a similar rehabilitation protocol where, according to randomization, 60 also had early ACL reconstruction and 59 had the option to undergo a delayed ACL reconstruction if needed...
May 15, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508436/bio-functional-properties-of-sardine-protein-hydrolysates-obtained-by-brewer-s-spent-yeast-and-commercial-proteases
#4
Elsa F Vieira, Olívia Pinho, Isabel Mplvo Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Canned sardine industry generates large amounts of protein rich waste, which demands a useful exploitation. This paper describes the potential use of muscle and viscera proteins from canned sardine by-products as substrate to obtain hydrolysates with biological and functional properties. Three enzymatic approaches, brewer's spent yeast (Bsy) proteases, Alcalase® and Neutrase® were applied to perform protein hydrolysis at the same proteolytic activity (1 U mL(-1) ), using an enzyme/substrate ratio of 20% (v/v), at 50 °C and for 7 h...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508364/a-novel-2-de-based-proteomic-analysis-to-identify-multiple-substrates-for-specific-protease-in-neuronal-cells
#5
Chiho Kim, Young J Oh
Proteolysis is a process where proteins are broken down into smaller polypeptides or amino acids, comprising one of the important posttranslational modifications of proteins. Since this process is exquisitely achieved by specialized enzymes called proteases under physiological conditions, abnormal protease activity and dysregulation of their substrate proteins are closely associated with a progression of several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, stroke, and spinal cord injury...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500605/analysis-of-angiotensin-metabolism-in-the-kidney-using-mass-spectrometry
#6
Nadja Grobe, Khalid M Elased
The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a highly complex enzymatic system consisting of multiple peptide hormones, enzymes, and receptors. A thorough characterization of angiotensin peptide metabolism is crucial for understanding pathological states associated with an imbalanced RAS. Here, we describe two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric (MS) approaches for the assessment of in vitro and in situ RAS enzymatic activities in the kidney using the natural angiotensin peptide substrates...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500345/heterologous-expression-and-characterization-of-functional-mushroom-tyrosinase-abppo4
#7
Matthias Pretzler, Aleksandar Bijelic, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases are an ubiquitous group of copper containing metalloenzymes that hydroxylate and oxidize phenolic molecules. In an application context the term 'tyrosinase' usually refers to 'mushroom tyrosinase' consisting of a mixture of isoenzymes and containing a number of enzymatic side-activities. We describe a protocol for the efficient heterologous production of tyrosinase 4 from Agaricus bisporus in Escherichia coli. Applying this procedure a pure preparation of a single isoform of latent tyrosinase can be achieved at a yield of 140 mg per liter of autoinducing culture medium...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496439/bortezomib-warhead-switch-confers-dual-activity-against-mycobacterial-caseinolytic-protease-and-proteasome-and-selectivity-against-human-proteasome
#8
Wilfried Moreira, Sridhar Santhanakrishnan, Brian W Dymock, Thomas Dick
Mycobacteria harbor two main degradative proteolytic machineries, the caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 and a proteasome. We recently showed that Bortezomib inhibits ClpP1P2 and exhibits whole cell activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bortezomib, a dipeptide with a boronic acid warhead, is a human proteasome inhibitor approved for cancer therapy. The boronic acid warhead of the compound has been shown to drive potency against both the human proteasome and ClpP1P2 protease. Selectivity for the bacterial ClpP1P2 protease over the human proteasome is lacking but needs to be achieved to move this new anti-tuberculosis lead forward...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490091/physico-chemical-characterization-of-dairy-gel-obtained-by-a-proteolytic-extract-from-calotropis-procera-a-comparison-with-chymosin
#9
Issa Ado Rayanatou, ElHadji Gounga Mahamadou, Gilles Garric, Marielle Harel-Oger, Arlette Leduc, Julien Jardin, Valérie Briard-Bion, Chantal Cauty, Hassane Adakal, Jean François Grongnet, Frédéric Gaucheron
Chymosin is the major enzyme used in cheesemaking but latex enzymes are also used. The aim of this work was to characterize the composition and the structure of dairy gel obtained by an extract of Calotropis procera leaves in comparison with those obtained by chymosin. The biochemical and mineral compositions of the curds and the cheese yields obtained by using Calotropis procera extract or chymosin were relatively similar. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations of proteolysis after milk coagulation, determined by the non-protein nitrogen content and chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, indicated that Calotropis procera extract was more proteolytic than chymosin and that κ-casein was proteolyzed...
October 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487913/recent-developments-in-protease-activity-assays-and-sensors
#10
REVIEW
Irvine Lian Hao Ong, Kun-Lin Yang
Proteases play a pivotal role in regulating important physiological processes from food digestion to blood clotting. They are also important biomarkers for many diseases such as cancers. The importance of proteases has led to extensive efforts in the screening of proteases and their inhibitors as potential drug molecules. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients have been treated with HIV-1 protease inhibitors to prolong the life expectancy of patients. Such a close relationship between diseases and proteases provides a strong motivation for developing sensitive, selective, and robust protease assays and sensors, which can be exploited to discover new proteases and inhibitors...
May 10, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486148/adaptive-release-of-heparin-from-anticoagulant-hydrogels-triggered-by-different-blood-coagulation-factors
#11
Manfred F Maitz, Jan Zitzmann, Jasmin Hanke, Claudia Renneberg, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Claudia Sperling, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner
Feedback-controlled anticoagulant hydrogels were formed by crosslinking the anticoagulant heparin with star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol) using peptide linkers, which are selectively cleaved by different activated blood coagulation factors acting as proteolytic enzymes. Various cleavable peptide units, differing either in their thrombin turnover rates or in their responsiveness to factors activated earlier in the course of blood coagulation, were used for the formation of the biohybrid materials. Release triggered by the early coagulation factors Xa (FXa) or FXIIa/kallikrein was shown to enhance the efficiency of the released anticoagulant...
April 26, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485268/biochemical-studies-of-amylase-lipase-and-protease-in-callosobruchus-maculatus-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-populations-fed-with-vigna-unguiculata-grain-cultivated-with-diazotrophic-bacteria-strains
#12
L B Silva, É B Torres, R A S Nóbrega, G N Lopes, R F Vogado, B E Pavan, P I Fernandes-Junior
The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of homogenates of insects fed on grain of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), cultivars grown with different nitrogen sources. For the experiment we used aliquots of the homogenate of 100 unsexed adult insects, emerged from 10 g of grain obtained from four cowpea cultivars: 'BRS Acauã', 'BRS Carijó', 'BRS Pujante', and 'BRS Tapaihum' grown under different regimes of nitrogen sources: mineral fertilizer, inoculation with strains of diazotrophs (BR 3267, BR 3262, BR 3299; INPA 03-11B, 03-84 UFLA, as well as the control (with soil nitrogen)...
May 9, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482870/effect-of-the-cancer-specific-shorter-form-of-human-6-phosphofructo-1-kinase-on-the-metabolism-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Darjan Andrejc, Alenka Možir, Matic Legiša
BACKGROUND: At first glance, there appears to be a high degree of similarity between the metabolism of yeast (the Crabtree effect) and human cancer cells (the Warburg effect). At the root of both effects is accelerated metabolic flow through glycolysis which leads to overflows of ethanol and lactic acid, respectively. It has been proposed that enhanced glycolytic flow in cancer cells is triggered by the altered kinetic characteristics of the key glycolytic regulatory enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (Pfk)...
May 8, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470584/myelin-basic-protein-citrullination-a-hallmark-of-central-nervous-system-demyelination-assessed-by-novel-monoclonal-antibodies-in-prion-diseases
#14
Byungki Jang, Yong-Chul Jeon, Hae-Young Shin, Yun-Jung Lee, Hyunji Kim, Yoshitaka Kondo, Akihito Ishigami, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Myelin basic protein (MBP) citrullination by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes leads to incomplete protein-lipid bilayer interactions and vulnerability to proteolytic enzymes, resulting in disorganization of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system. Therefore, citrullinated MBP (citMBP) has been suggested as a hallmark of demyelination, but how citMBP is implicated in prion diseases remains unknown. For the first time, we developed mouse monoclonal anti-citMBP IgG1 (clones 1B8, 1H1, and 3C6) and IgM (clone 3G5) antibodies that recognize human citMBP at its R25, R122, and R130 residues and at its C-terminal region (or the corresponding sites in mouse MBP), respectively...
May 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469554/physiological-functions-of-the-%C3%AE-site-amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving-enzyme-1-and-2
#15
REVIEW
Riqiang Yan
BACE1 was discovered as the β-secretase for initiating the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at the β-secretase site, while its close homology BACE2 cleaves APP within the β-amyloid (Aβ) domain region and shows distinct cleavage preferences in vivo. Inhibition of BACE1 proteolytic activity has been confirmed to decrease Aβ generation and amyloid deposition, and thus specific inhibition of BACE1 by small molecules is a current focus for Alzheimer's disease therapy. While BACE1 inhibitors are being tested in advanced clinical trials, knowledge regarding the properties and physiological functions of BACE is highly important and this review summarizes advancements in BACE1 research over the past several years...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463752/relationship-between-proteolysis-and-water-holding-of-myofibrils
#16
Zhen Zeng, Cheng Li, Per Ertbjerg
The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge on the relationship between proteolysis of myofibrillar proteins and the water-holding of meat. Myofibrils isolated from porcine longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle were used as a model system. Myofibrils were incubated with either calpain-2, the proteasome or a lysosomal extract at 25°C for 2h. All three proteolytic systems improved the relative water-holding and generally there was a larger effect with increasing amount of enzymes in the incubation...
April 25, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462210/the-expression-of-proline-specific-enzymes-in-the-human-lung
#17
REVIEW
Gwendolyn Vliegen, Tom K Raju, Dirk Adriaensen, Anne-Marie Lambeir, Ingrid De Meester
The pathophysiology of lung diseases is very complex and proteolytic enzymes may play a role or could be used as biomarkers. In this review, the literature was searched to make an overview of what is known on the expression of the proline-specific peptidases dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4, 8, 9, prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) and fibroblast activation protein α (FAP) in the healthy and diseased lung. Search terms included asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, fibrosis, ischemia reperfusion injury and pneumonia...
March 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461393/crebh-maintains-circadian-glucose-homeostasis-by-regulating-hepatic-glycogenolysis-and-gluconeogenesis
#18
Hyunbae Kim, Ze Zheng, Paul D Walker, Gregory Kapatos, Kezhong Zhang
Cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein, hepatic specific (CREBH) is a liver-enriched, endoplasmic reticulum-tethered transcription factor known to regulate hepatic acute-phase response and lipid homeostasis. In this study, we demonstrated that CREBH functions as a circadian transcriptional regulator that plays major roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis. CREBH proteolytic cleavage and post-translational acetylation modification are regulated under the circadian clock. Functionally, CREBH is required to maintain circadian homeostasis of hepatic glycogen storage and blood glucose levels...
May 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460946/the-quality-of-low-lactose-milk-is-affected-by-the-side-proteolytic-activity-of-the-lactase-used-in-the-production-process
#19
Antonio Dario Troise, Enrica Bandini, Roberta De Donno, Geert Meijer, Marco Trezzi, Vincenzo Fogliano
Lactose intolerance syndrome can be efficiently tackled consuming low lactose products. Lactase is the key tool to manufacture low lactose milk (LLM): its addition during milk processing can be done "in batch", i.e. before thermal treatment, or directly "in pack" after sterilization. In this paper data on sensory properties, Maillard Reaction products (MRPs) and free amino acids formation were obtained on six commercial Italian LLMs over six months storage. They showed that the side proteolytic activity of lactase caused the release of amino acids with a significant higher MRPs and off-flavors formation in four out of five samples produced by adding the enzyme in the pack after thermal treatment...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458052/production-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-development-of-a-quantitative-immuno-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-to-detect-and-quantify-recombinant-glutathione-s-transferase
#20
Abud Je, Luque Eh, Ramos Jg, Rodriguez Ha
GST-tagged proteins are important tools for the production of recombinant proteins. Removal of GST tag from its fusion protein, frequently by harsh chemical treatments or proteolytic methods, is often required. Thus, the monitoring of the proteins in tag-free form requires a significant effort to determine the remnants of GST during purification process. In the present study, we developed both a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immuno-polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) assay, both specific for detection of recombinant GST (rGST)...
April 27, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
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