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Herpes immunodeficiency

Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Y Wang, L Yang, Z L Zhang
Here we reported two patients who presented with panuveitis and were transferred from ophthalmologists to rheumatologists, for both the patients had oral and genital ulcers. They were misdiagnosed with Behcet's disease at first glance. Two young males presented with acute uveitis with history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. They initially presented with symptoms and signs resembling Behcet's disease and were treated with systemic steroids with suboptimal responses. Routine laboratory test revealed syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
A Sadiq Sani, Charles Abraham, Sarah Denford, Susan Ball
BACKGROUND: School-based sexual health education has the potential to provide an inclusive and comprehensive approach to promoting sexual health among young people. We reviewed evaluations of school-based sexual health education interventions in sub-Saharan Africa to assess effectiveness in reducing sexually transmitted infections and promoting condom use. METHODS: We searched ten electronic databases, hand-searched key journals, and reference lists of included articles for potential studies...
October 10, 2016: BMC Public Health
Bhumesh Kumar Katakam, Geeta Kiran, Udaya Kumar
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a dermatomal viral infection, caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus (VZV) that persists in the posterior root ganglion. HZ is uncommonly reported in immunocompetent children. It may be due to intrauterine VZV infection or secondary to postnatal exposure to VZV at an early age. AIMS: Our study was to review clinico-epidemiological data for HZ in children for early diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2014...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
William J Muller
Viral infections in the fetus or newborn often involve the central nervous system (CNS) and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Substantial progress has been made in identifying interventions decreasing adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. This review highlights progress in treatment of important viruses affecting the CNS in these susceptible hosts, focusing on herpes simplex (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and enteroviruses. The observation that high-dose acyclovir improves mortality in neonatal HSV disease culminated decades of antiviral research for this disease...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Pasquale Pagliano, Tiziana Ascione, Maria Aurora Carleo, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Fabio Tortora
Incidence of brain infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive patients is reduced after the availability of current high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is an infrequent cause of encephalitis in HIV patients despite it is frequently involved in sexual transmitted infections. Here, we report a case of HSV-2 encephalitis occurring in a patient without full suppression of HIV replication within the brain. A 38 year-old HIV infected man was admitted to our department because of recurrent generalized seizure and fever during the previous 24 hours...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Tamara V Teplyakova, Tatiana A Kosogova
This review presents data on the studied antiviral activities of Agaricomycetes mushrooms against the herpes, West Nile, influenza, human immunodeficiency, and hepatitis viruses, as well as orthopoxviruses, including the variola virus. Polysaccharides and other compounds (e.g., proteins, glycoproteins, terpenoids, melanins, nucleosides) exhibit antiviral activity against many viruses that are pathogenic in humans. Effective strains isolated from wild mushrooms in culture represent promising objects for the development of biotechnological drugs, including ones possessing antiviral activity...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Iwona Bukowska-Ośko, Karol Perlejewski, Shota Nakamura, Daisuke Motooka, Tomasz Stokowy, Joanna Kosińska, Marta Popiel, Rafał Płoski, Andrzej Horban, Dariusz Lipowski, Kamila Caraballo Cortés, Agnieszka Pawełczyk, Urszula Demkow, Adam Stępień, Marek Radkowski, Tomasz Laskus
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) followed by metagenomic enables the detection and identification of known as well as novel pathogens. It could be potentially useful in the diagnosis of encephalitis, caused by a variety of microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of isothermal RNA amplification (Ribo-SPIA) followed by NGS metagenomic analysis in the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Moreover, we analyzed the contamination background...
September 20, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Nicolò Mauro, Paolo Ferruti, Elisabetta Ranucci, Amedea Manfredi, Angela Berzi, Mario Clerici, Valeria Cagno, David Lembo, Alessandro Palmioli, Sara Sattin
The initial steps of viral infections are mediated by interactions between viral proteins and cellular receptors. Blocking the latter with high-affinity ligands may inhibit infection. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin receptor expressed by immature dendritic cells and macrophages, mediates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by recognizing mannose clusters on the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein. Mannosylated glycodendrimers act as HIV entry inhibitors thanks to their ability to block this receptor. Previously, an amphoteric, but prevailingly cationic polyamidoamine named AGMA1 proved effective as infection inhibitor for several heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent viruses, such as human papilloma virus HPV-16 and herpes simplex virus HSV-2...
2016: Scientific Reports
Rezvan Zabihollahi1, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri, Zohreh Keshavarz, Fatemeh Motevalli, Golnaz Bahramali, Seyed Davar Siadat, Seyed Bahman Momen, Delavar Shahbazzadeh, Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi
BACKGROUND: During the recent years, significant progress has been achieved on development of novel anti-viral drugs. Natural products are assumed as the potential sources of novel anti-viral drugs; therefore, there are some previous studies reporting the anti-viral compounds from venomous animals. Based on the significant value for tracing of non-toxic anti-viral agents from natural resources, this study was aimed to investigate the anti-viral activity of some HPLC purified fractions derived from the venom of Iranian scorpion, Hemiscorpius lepturus, against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)...
November 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Ziad A Memish, Sanaa M Filemban, Raafat F Al-Hakeem, Majdy H Hassan, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq
INTRODUCTION: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health concerns around the world. This study describes the epidemiology of reported STI cases from 2005 to 2012 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODOLOGY: The annual registry was the main source of data as reported by healthcare providers. Case definitions were based on positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by western blot test for HIV cases...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Sarah C Sasson, Sarah Davies, Raymond Chan, Leo Davies, Roger Garsia
BACKGROUND: Patients with thymoma with immunodeficiency (TWI)/Good's syndrome characteristically have evidence of combined immunodeficiency including low or absent B-cells, hypogammaglobulinemia and defects in T-cell mediated immunity. These patients can present with common or opportunistic infections. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female was diagnosed with cerebral toxoplasmosis. This occurred on a background of metastatic thymoma previously treated with chemotherapy and myasthenia gravis (MG) treated with mycophenolate mofetil, monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and pyridostigmine...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Deepak Shukla
Nanotechnology is increasingly playing important roles in various fields including virology. The emerging use of metal or metal oxide nanoparticles in virus targeting formulations shows the promise of improved diagnostic or therapeutic ability of the agents while uniquely enhancing the prospects of targeted drug delivery. Although a number of nanoparticles varying in composition, size, shape, and surface properties have been approved for human use, the candidates being tested or approved for clinical diagnosis and treatment of viral infections are relatively less in number...
August 26, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Sven Grützmeier, Anna Porwit, Corinna Schmitt, Eric Sandström, Börje Åkerlund, Ingemar Ernberg
BACKGROUND: Most malignant lymphomas in HIV-patients are caused by reactivation of EBV-infection. Some lymphomas have a very rapid fulminant course. HHV-8 has also been reported to be a cause of lymphoma. The role of CMV in the development of lymphoma is not clear, though both CMV and HHV-8 have been reported in tissues adjacent to the tumour in Burkitt lymphoma patients. Here we present a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection, that contracted a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Viswanath Ragupathy, Wang Xue, Ji Tan, Krishnakumar Devadas, Yamei Gao, Indira Hewlett
In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected women, oral or injectable progesterone containing contraceptive pills may enhance HIV-1 acquisition in vivo, and the mechanism by which this occurs is not fully understood. In developing countries, Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) co-infection has been shown to be a risk for increase of HIV-1 acquisition and, if co-infected women use progesterone pills, infections may increase several fold. In this study, we used an in vitro cell culture system to study the effects of progesterone on HIV-1 replication and to explore the molecular mechanism of progesterone effects on infected cells...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
John W Gnann, Richard J Whitley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Daniel Sepúlveda-Crespo, Rafael Ceña-Díez, José Luis Jiménez, Ma Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández
This review provides an overview of the development of different dendrimers, mainly polyanionic, against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and genital herpes (HSV-2) as topical microbicides targeting the viral entry process. Vaginal topical microbicides to prevent sexually transmitted infections such as HIV and HSV-2 are urgently needed. To inhibit HIV/HSV-2 entry processes, new preventive targets have been established to maximize the current therapies against wild-type and drug-resistant viruses. The entry of HIV/HSV-2 into target cells is a multistep process that triggers a cascade of molecular interactions between viral envelope proteins and cell surface receptors...
August 12, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
Kentaro Sakashita, Kengo Murata, Yuji Inagaki, Souichi Oota, Mikio Takamori
Thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), myelofibrosis (F), renal dysfunction (R), and organomegaly (O) (TAFRO) syndrome is a variant of multicentric Castleman's disease. We describe here a 57-year-old man who presented with persistent fever, pleural effusion, and ascites. He was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and human herpes virus-8. A computed tomography scan showed an anterior mediastinal mass and small inguinal lymphadenopathy. Although a biopsy of the anterior mediastinum showed fatty tissue infiltrated with CD20 (+) and CD45RO (+) lymphocytes, a biopsy of the left inguinal lymph node revealed a hyaline vascular type of Castleman's disease...
September 2016: Respirology Case Reports
Takenori Inomata, Miki Honda, Akira Murakami
PURPOSE: To describe atypical varicella zoster virus (VZV) retinitis in a patient with Good syndrome. METHODS: A 63-year-old patient with Good syndrome presented with bilateral necrotizing retinitis starting from the posterior pole. He had a history of thymoma status post thymectomy 4 years previously, left-sided sinusitis, and recent pulmonary aspergillosis. Qualitative PCR was performed on aqueous fluid. RESULTS: Immunological investigations revealed reduced levels of CD4(+) T cells and immunoglobulins...
August 5, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
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