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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201953/acute-hiv-1-infection-presenting-with-fulminant-encephalopathy
#1
Eun J Lee, Young H Kim, Jeong Y Lee, Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Se Y Park, Tae H Kim
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 directly affects the nervous system, causes distinct neurological symptoms, and indirectly results in opportunistic infections, which include herpes virus simplex (HSV)-1, HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, and cytomegalovirus encephalitis caused by immunodeficiency. Early HIV-1 invasion of the central nervous system is also possible, and acute encephalopathy is a potentially lethal complication. We encountered a case of fulminant encephalopathy as a primary presentation of acute HIV-1 infection, in which highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in a full clinical recovery...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180012/seroprevalence-and-co-infection-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-among-pregnant-women-in-lokoja-north-central-nigeria
#2
Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Oluwatomi Olufunke Amuda, Charles Nzurumike, Muhammed Mustapha Suleiman, Jeremiah Ikhevha Ogah
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. OBJECTIVES: To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria...
October 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149483/age-related-ebv-positive-clonal-b-cell-lymphoid-proliferation-ebv-dlbcl
#3
Eleni Georgakopoulou, Marina Doukas-Alexiou, Eleana Stoufi, Christos Kittas, Gerasimos Pangalis, George Laskaris
The Ebstein Barr virus(EBV), herpes virus 5 has been associated with lymphoproliferative disordrers. Age-related EBV+ B-LPD is defined as an EBV+ clonal B-cell lymphoid proliferation or EBV+-DLBCL developing in patients over the age of 40 years in the absence of any known immunodeficiency and without an underlying T-cell lymphoma1. We present a case of EBV+ clonal B-cell lymphoid proliferation. Key words:Oral mucosa ulcer, EBV+-DLBCL, age related.
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108590/human-immunity-against-ebv-lessons-from-the-clinic
#4
REVIEW
Stuart G Tangye, Umaimainthan Palendira, Emily S J Edwards
The mammalian immune system has evolved over many millennia to be best equipped to protect the host from pathogen infection. In many cases, host and pathogen have coevolved, each acquiring sophisticated ways of inducing or protecting from disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus that infects >90% of individuals. Despite its ubiquity, infection by EBV is often subclinical; this invariably reflects the necessity of the virus to preserve its host, balanced with sophisticated host immune mechanisms that maintain viral latency...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095323/pattern-recognitions-receptors-in-immunodeficiency-disorders
#5
Esameil Mortaz, Ian M Adcock, Payam Tabarsi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Masoud Movassaghi, Johan Garssen, Hamidreza Jamaati, Aliakbar Velayati
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize common microbial or host-derived macromolecules and have important roles in early activation and response of the immune system. Initiation of the innate immune response starts with the recognition of microbial structures called pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Recognition of PAMPs is performed by germline-encoded receptors expressed mainly on immune cells termed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074746/oncology-s-trojan-horse-using-viruses-to-battle-cancer
#6
Heena J Mavani, Jeannette Y Wick
: In 2016, the American health care system was faced with more than 1.6 million new cases of cancer, and individuals older than 65 years of age will be affected disproportionately. Many older individuals are poor candidates for traditional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation) because of actual or potential treatment-related adverse events. Researchers continuously look for novel therapeutic strategies, and an exciting new one is on the horizon: virotherapy. Viruses' ability to infect and kill human cells makes them promising cancer treatments...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070732/the-clinical-and-laboratory-spectrum-of-dedicator-of-cytokinesis-8-immunodeficiency-syndrome-in-patients-with-a-unique-mutation
#7
Arnon Broides, Amarilla B Mandola, Jacov Levy, Baruch Yerushalmi, Vered Pinsk, Michal Eldan, George Shubinsky, Nurit Hadad, Rachel Levy, Amit Nahum, Miriam Ben-Harosh, Atar Lev, Amos Simon, Raz Somech
Mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency usually diagnosed as autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome. We sought to reveal the varying manifestations in patients with a unique mutation in DOCK8 gene by a retrospective medical record review. Ten patients from five consanguineous families and three tribes were included. Seven patients were homozygous for the c.C5134A, p.S1711X mutation, and the remaining three patients were their siblings manifesting hyper IgE syndrome features without a genetic diagnosis...
January 10, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043526/hiv-and-tuberculosis-trends-and-survival-of-coinfection-in-a-referral-center-in-tehran-a-12-year-study
#8
Parvaneh Baghaei, Payam Tabarsi, Syna Jabehdari, Majid Marjani, Afshin Moniri, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The risk of mortality and morbidity among tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfected patients is significantly higher than that of patients infected with TB alone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of TB-HIV patients in a TB-referral center during a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: All TB-HIV patients in our referral center were enrolled in the study from 2003 to 2014, and patients were divided into two groups: HIV-TB patients without a history of TB treatment (new cases of TB) and HIV-TB patients with a history of TB treatment...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999698/necrotizing-retinitis-secondary-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-associated-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#9
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Hasan Tolga Celik, Kenan Sonmez, Melda Celik
A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984553/prevalence-and-predictors-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-selected-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-new-focus-to-get-to-zero
#10
Elia John Mmbaga, Kåre Moen, Neema Makyao, Melkizedeck Leshabari
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Tanzania indicated that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) could be as high as 40%. We aim to provide data on the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection among PWIDs to inform national plans to get to zero. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Respondent-driven sampling was used to collect drug use, and sexual practices data among PWIDs aged 15 years and older. Blood samples were examined for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, syphilis, and hepatitis B...
December 14, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974554/thymidine-kinase-negative-herpes-simplex-virus-1-can-efficiently-establish-persistent-infection-in-neural-tissues-of-nude-mice
#11
Chih-Yu Huang, Hui-Wen Yao, Li-Chiu Wang, Fang-Hsiu Shen, Sheng-Min Hsu, Shun-Hua Chen
: Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neural tissues of immunocompetent mice but persists in both peripheral and neural tissues of lymphocyte-deficient mice. Thymidine kinase (TK) is believed to be essential for HSV-1 to persist in neural tissues of immunocompromised mice, because infectious virus of a mutant with defects in both TK and UL24 is detected only in peripheral tissues, but not in neural tissues, of severe combined immunodeficiency mice (T. Valyi-Nagy, R. M...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929270/sexually-transmitted-infections-recommendations-from-the-u-s-preventive-services-task-force
#12
Karen C Lee, Quyen Ngo-Metzger, Tracy Wolff, Joya Chowdhury, Michael L LeFevre, David S Meyers
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has issued recommendations on behavioral counseling to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and recommendations about screening for individual STIs. Clinicians should obtain a sexual history to assess for behaviors that increase a patient's risk. Community and population risk factors should also be considered. The USPSTF recommends intensive behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults whose history indicates an increased risk of STIs...
December 1, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921058/celiac-crisis-associated-with-herpes-simplex-virus-esophagitis
#13
Alan Chen, Christopher M Linz, Julie L Tsay, Ming Jin, Samer S El-Dika
Celiac crisis is a rare presentation of celiac disease that is characterized by life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, and diarrhea. Triggers for celiac crisis include major surgeries, pancreatitis, and infections of cytomegalovirus, and salmonella. A 24-year-old woman presented with celiac crisis associated with severe herpes simplex virus (HSV) esophagitis. This case demonstrates that nutritional deficiencies seen in celiac disease can result in a relative immunodeficiency, which may lead to other infectious complications...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898577/decline-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-among-non-injecting-heroin-and-cocaine-users-in-new-york-city-2005-to-2014-prospects-for-avoiding-a-resurgence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#14
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Holly Hagan, Hannah L F Cooper
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. METHODS: Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs...
February 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890943/recapitulation-of-acquired-immuno-deficiency-syndrome-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma
#15
REVIEW
Balaji Govindan
Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the clinical forms of KS. KS is caused by human herpes viruses 8 or KS associated herpes virus (KSHV). In India, till now, only 16 cases of AIDS associated KS was reported. Of all the clinical forms of KS, AIDS associated KS is distinct in many ways viz.; cutaneous manifestations commonly affects face and trunk rather than lower limbs, more mucosal lesions, rapidly progressive, and early systemic involvement. When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-infected with KSHV, in addition to the other pathogenic factors for the development of KS, HIV Tat protein promotes the proliferation of cytokine-activated endothelial cells and stimulates KS...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883971/2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-and-the-viral-infection
#16
REVIEW
Filomena Fiorito, Rita Santamaria, Carlo Irace, Luisa De Martino, Giuseppe Iovane
Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a widespread highly toxic environmental contaminant, suppresses immune response and leads to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents. In particular, several studies have provided evidence that TCDD decreases resistance to numerous viruses. Indeed, in vivo and in vitro investigations showed that the presence of TCDD is able to interfere with the replication of both human and animal viruses, such as influenza A viruses, coxsackie virus B3, immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex II, and bovine herpesvirus 1...
February 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867656/erratum-to-cardiac-obstruction-secondary-to-metastatic-invasion-a-rare-complication-of-human-herpes-virus-8-positive-plasmablastic-lymphoma-in-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#17
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 425 in vol. 4, PMID: 22934146.].
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859428/low-p16-ink4a-expression-in-early-passage-human-prostate-basal-epithelial-cells-enables-immortalization-by-telomerase-expression-alone
#18
Mindy Kim Graham, Lorenzo Principessa, Lizamma Antony, Alan K Meeker, John T Isaacs
BACKGROUND: There are two principal senescence barriers that must be overcome to successfully immortalize primary human epithelial cells in culture, stress-induced senescence, and replicative senescence. The p16(INK4a) /retinoblastoma protein (p16/Rb) pathway mediates stress-induced senescence, and is generally upregulated by primary epithelial cells in response to the artificial conditions from tissue culture. Replicative senescence is associated with telomere loss. Following each round of cell division, telomeres progressively shorten...
November 8, 2016: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832025/herpes-simplex-virus-suppressive-therapy-in-herpes-simplex-virus-2-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-coinfected-women-is-associated-with-reduced-systemic-cxcl10-but-not-genital-cytokines
#19
Erica Andersen-Nissen, Joanne T Chang, Katherine K Thomas, Devin Adams, Connie Celum, Jorge Sanchez, Robert W Coombs, M Juliana McElrath, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) may heighten immune activation and increase human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication, resulting in greater infectivity and faster HIV-1 disease progression. An 18-week randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 500 mg valacyclovir twice daily in 20 antiretroviral-naive women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted and HSV-2 suppression was found to significantly reduce both HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral loads both systemically and the endocervical compartment...
December 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830031/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-is-highly-associated-with-giant-idiopathic-esophageal-ulcers-in-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome-aids-patients
#20
Bei Lv, Xin Cheng, Jackson Gao, Hong Zhao, Liping Chen, Liwei Wang, Shaoping Huang, Zhenyu Fan, Renfang Zhang, Yinzhong Shen, Lei Li, Baochi Liu, Tangkai Qi, Jing Wang, Jilin Cheng
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHODS: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
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