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eating disorder hypermetabolism

Verena Haas, Michael Boschmann
Several studies provide evidence for the existence of a hypermetabolic state of biological origin in recently weight recovered patients with anorexia nervosa. It remains unclear if current nutritional rehabilitation strategies are consistent with the resulting high energy requirements. Further insight into specific pathophysiological characteristics of energetic efficiency in patients with anorexia nervosa will help us to provide evidence based nutritional guidance. Basic nutritional research in this field is urgently required...
January 2015: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Giuseppe Sergi, Marina De Rui, Alessandra Coin, Emine Meral Inelmen, Enzo Manzato
The intermediate and advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are frequently associated with weight loss (WL), but WL may even precede the onset of cognitive symptoms. This review focuses on the possible aetiologic and temporal relationships between AD and WL. When WL occurs some years before any signs of cognitive impairment, it may be a risk factor for dementia due to deficiency of several micronutrients, such as vitamins and essential fatty acids, and consequent oxidative tissue damage. The leptin reduction associated with WL may also facilitate cognitive decline...
February 2013: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Lori Asarian, Wolfgang Langhans
Here we review our current understanding of the integration of immune, neural, metabolic and endocrine signals involved in the generation of anorexia during acute infection, with the focus on anorexia elicited by peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We chose to limit this review to peripheral LPS-anorexia because the mechanisms underlying this response may also be valid for anorexia during other types of acute or chronic infections, with slight differences in the duration of anorexia, levels of circulating concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and hypermetabolism...
December 2005: International Review of Psychiatry
Bryan S Judge, Bernard H Eisenga
Disorders of fuel metabolism as they relate to abnormal fuel intake,abnormal fuel expenditure, and dietary supplements are the focus of this article. The emergency physician should be aware of the medical complications that can occur as a result of starvation states,eating disorders, fad diets, hypermetabolic states, and ergogenic aids. Knowledge and understanding of the complications associated with these disorders will facilitate the diagnosis and management of patients who present to the emergency department with any of the disorders reviewed...
August 2005: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Blake McKibbin, Gail Cresci, Michael Hawkins
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition support in the severely injured trauma patient is crucial to minimize the hypermetabolic stress response. Even though enteral nutrition is the preferred method of feeding, it is not always feasible after multiple trauma. We present a complex nutritional case in a patient who sustained severe abdominal trauma with a severe liver injury, rib fractures, and pulmonary contusion. METHODS: The patient required several repeat laparotomies, abdominal packing, and temporary abdominal closure...
June 2003: Nutrition
V Delvenne, S Goldman, V De Maertelaer, F Lotstra
OBJECTIVE: As anorectic and bulimic patients present similar clinical and neurobiological symptoms, the purpose of this study was to compare brain glucose metabolism at rest in these patients. METHODS: Positron emission tomography with (18-F)-fluorodeoxyglucose was used to evaluate cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglu) in 10 normal-weight bulimic women, in 10 underweight anorectic patients, and in 10 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Absolute global cortical glucose activity was significantly lower in anorectic patients compared with bulimic and control subjects...
January 1999: International Journal of Eating Disorders
D Arsenijevic, L Girardier, J Seydoux, H R Chang, A G Dulloo
The temporal pattern of changes in energy balance and cytokine mRNA expression in spleen and brain were examined in a mouse model of infection with Toxoplasma gondii. During days 1-7 postinfection, food intake was unaltered, but energy expenditure was significantly increased, and this was associated with elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-5, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The hypermetabolic state persisted during subsequent anorexia, whose onset coincided with elevated IL-2, and at the end of the acute phase of cachexia, the dual anorexic and hypermetabolic states were associated with the cytokines examined: TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IFN-gamma...
May 1997: American Journal of Physiology
S Bobek, A Sechman, E Wieczorek, D Wrońska-Fortuna, K Koziec, J Niezgoda
Heat stress is accompanied by a decrease in basal metabolic rate and plasma thyroid hormones. Unlike 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) displays hypometabolic properties and antagonizes the hypermetabolic effect of T3. This study analyses the role of rT3 in heat (38-39 degrees C) stressed immature chickens. Two experiments which differed in frequency of rT3 injections (one or two times a day), duration of heat stress (72 or 48 h) and blood sampling were performed...
November 1996: Zentralblatt Für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A
D Rigaud, M Cerf, L Angel Alberto, I Sobhani, M J Carduner, M Mignon
Crohn's disease is an inflammatory process commonly characterized by phases of flare-up. Weight loss and malnutrition are prominent features in the course of the disease, especially during acute episodes. It is therefore important to define energy needs. Curiously, resting energy expenditure (REE) has rarely been studied in Crohn's disease, and never in relation with the activity of the disease. We therefore determined REE together with body composition (fat free mass, FFM), Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and plasma acute phase proteins in 70 patients: during flare-up in 41 and during clinical remission (CDAI < 150) in 29...
1993: Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique
H R Michie, M L Sherman, D R Spriggs, J Rounds, M Christie, D W Wilmore
It has been proposed that many of the physiologic and metabolic changes that occur during critical illness and malignancy are mediated by the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF). To test this hypothesis, a study of the metabolic responses that occurred during 5 days of continuous intravenous (I.V.) infusion of TNF both in rats and tumor-bearing humans was conducted. TNF administration was associated with anorexia, fluid retention, acute phase responses, and negative nitrogen balance. In both species, changes in nitrogen balance were related to the onset of anorexia and not to the development of hypermetabolism and accelerated net tissue breakdown...
January 1989: Annals of Surgery
G V Sawle, N F Hymas, A J Lees, R S Frackowiak
Patients with Obsessional Slowness (OS) exhibit extreme slowness in the execution of some everyday tasks, such as washing and eating. This may be due to time-consuming rituals, checking behaviour and compulsions. On examination some have neurological signs such as a glabellar tap reflex, cogwheel rigidity or abnormal postures. The purpose of this study was to establish a functional explanation for slowness in this patient group. We have studied 6 OS patients using positron emission tomography (PET) with (15)Oxygen to measure regional cerebral oxygen metabolism and [18F]-6-Fluorodopoa (18F-dopa) to assess the integrity of the presynaptic nigrostriatal system...
October 1991: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
R Luft
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1992: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
C M Braun, M J Chouinard
Evidence for central nervous system, and more particularly cortical, etiology of anorexia nervosa is reviewed. Topics covered are neuropsychiatric comorbidity, inheritance patterns, the neurobiology of body-image disturbance and of the eating function, perinatal and alcoholic insult to the brain, neurochemical and neuroelectric disturbance, anatomic and metabolic brain imaging, and neuropsychological impairment. It is concluded that there is indeed an important neuropsychological etiological dimension to anorexia nervosa...
June 1992: Neuropsychology Review
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