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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329435/face-shield-design-against-blast-induced-head-injuries
#1
Long Bin Tan, Kwong Ming Tse, Yuan Hong Tan, Mohamad Ali Bin Sapingi, Vincent Beng Chye Tan, Heow Pueh Lee
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been on the rise in recent years due to the increasing use of improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in conflict zones. Our study investigates the response of a helmeted human head subjected to a blast of 1 atm peak overpressure, for cases with and without a standard polycarbonate (PC) face shield and for face shields comprising of composite PC and aerogel materials and with lateral edge extension. The novel introduction of aerogel into the laminate face shield is explored and its wave-structure interaction mechanics and performance in blast mitigation is analysed...
March 22, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329183/remote-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-motor-dysfunction-in-older-military-veterans
#2
Raquel C Gardner, Carrie B Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Kenneth E Covinsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor dysfunction among TBI-exposed elders without PD has not been well characterized. We sought to determine whether remote TBI is a risk factor for motor dysfunction on exam and functionally relevant motor dysfunction in day-to-day life among independently living elders without PD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional cohort study of independently living retired military veterans aged 50 or older with (n = 78) and without (n = 85) prior TBI-all without diagnosed PD...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329120/sleep-wake-disturbances-after-traumatic-brain-injury-synthesis-of-human-and-animal-studies
#3
Danielle K Sandsmark, Jonathan E Elliott, Miranda M Lim
Sleep-wake disturbances following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are increasingly recognized as a serious consequence following injury and as a barrier to recovery. Injury-induced sleep-wake disturbances can persist for years, often impairing quality of life. Recently, there has been a nearly exponential increase in the number of primary research articles published on the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying sleep-wake disturbances after TBI, both in animal models and human subjects, including in the pediatric population...
March 17, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326890/functional-and-molecular-correlates-following-single-and-repeated-rat-closed-head-concussion-indices-of-vulnerability-following-brain-injury
#4
Andrea Mountney, Angela Boutte, Casandra M Cartagena, William J Flerlage, David Johnson, Chanyang Rho, Xi-Chun M Lu, Angela M Yarnell, Sean R Marcsisin, Jason Sousa, Chau Vuong, Victor E Zottig, Lai Yee Leung, Ying Deng-Bryant, Janice Gilsdorf, Frank C Tortella, Deborah A Shear
Closed-head concussive injury is one of the most common causes of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Isolated concussions frequently produce acute neurological impairments; however, individuals typically recover spontaneously within a short time frame. In contrast, brain injuries resulting from multiple concussions can result in cumulative damage and elevated risk of developing chronic brain pathologies, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Increased attention has focused on identification of diagnostic markers that can prognostically serve as indices of brain health after injury, revealing the temporal profile of vulnerability to a second insult...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326858/lifetime-prevalence-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-demographically-diverse-community-sample
#5
Jason Kisser, Shari R Waldstein, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman
BACKGROUND: Although incidence rates are well documented for traumatic brain injury, lifetime prevalence in a demographically diverse sample is unknown. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a demographically diverse sample. METHODS: History of TBI was examined in 2881 African-Americans and Whites in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study-a community-based, epidemiological investigation of urban-dwelling adults...
March 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326856/suicidal-behaviour-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Xiulu Ruan, Hong Wu, Dian Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326852/sleep-outcomes-following-sleep-hygiene-related-interventions-for-individuals-with-traumatic-brain-injury-a-systematic-review
#7
Stefan Bogdanov, Sharon Naismith, Suncica Lah
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is commonly reported following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can adversely impact health and wellbeing and interfere with the rehabilitation process. As such, effective treatment of sleep disturbance is critical for overall recovery. Sleep hygiene, which is non-invasive, low cost, and low risk, could serve as a suitable first line of treatment for individuals experiencing sleep disturbance post-TBI. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of sleep hygiene on sleep outcomes post-TBI...
March 22, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326199/predictors-of-recovery-from-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-prolonged-consciousness-disorder
#8
Hiroaki Abe, Keigo Shimoji, Yoshihide Nagamine, Satoru Fujiwara, Shin-Ichi Izumi
We investigated the clinical predictors of the degree of recovery in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDC) caused by traumatic brain injury. Fourteen patients with PDC underwent two diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies; the first and second scans were performed at 345.6 ± 192.6 and 689.1 ± 272.2 days after the injury, respectively. In addition to the temporal changes in each of these diffusion parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity were assessed over a 1-year period...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325648/role-of-bromocriptine-in-multi-spectral-manifestations-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Sunil Munakomi, Binod Bhattarai, Bijoy Mohan Kumar
PURPOSE: Despite the prevalence and cost of traumatic brain injury related disabilities, there is paucity in the literature on modern approaches to pharmacotherapy. Medications may promote recovery by enhancing some neurological functions without impacting others. Herein we discussed the role of bromocriptine in neurorehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A cohort comprising of 36 selective nonsurgical cases of traumatic brain injury in minimally conscious state were enrolled in the study...
February 21, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325461/neurocritical-care-of-acute-subdural-hemorrhage
#10
REVIEW
Fawaz Al-Mufti, Stephan A Mayer
Although urgent surgical hematoma evacuation is necessary for most patients with subdural hematoma (SDH), well-orchestrated, evidenced-based, multidisciplinary, postoperative critical care is essential to achieve the best possible outcome. Acute SDH complicates approximately 11% of mild to moderate traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) that require hospitalization, and approximately 20% of severe TBIs. Acute SDH usually is related to a clear traumatic event, but in some cases can occur spontaneously. Management of SDH in the setting of TBI typically conforms to the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol with airway taking priority, and management breathing and circulation occurring in parallel rather than sequence...
April 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325100/lateral-ventricle-attenuates-underlying-traumatic-axonal-injury-after-closed-head-injury-in-the-mouse
#11
James Bouley, Nils Henninger
Using model systems it has been suggested that the lateral ventricles could act as strain relievers and thereby mitigate traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in adjacent tissues by absorbing energy. We describe attenuated TAI at 48 hours after traumatic brain injury within the corpus callosum overlying the lateral ventricle of wild-type C57BL/6 mice subjected to weight-drop closed head injury. Specifically, there was a conspicuous attenuation of TAI beneath the lateral ventricle under the impact center as assessed by beta amyloid precursor protein staining...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324787/interactive-ebooks-in-educating-patients-and-their-families-about-head-injury-regardless-of-age
#12
Ronald Sahyouni, Amin Mahmoodi, Amir Mahmoodi, Melissa Huang, Diem Kieu Tran, Jefferson W Chen
OBJECTIVES: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common and debilitating injury that is particularly prevalent in patients over 60. Given the influence of head injury on dementia (and vice versa), and the increased likelihood of ground-level falls, elderly patients are vulnerable to TBI. Educational interventions can increase knowledge and influence preventative activity to decrease the likelihood of further TBI. We sought to determine the efficacy of interactive tablet-based educational interventions in elderly patients on self-reported knowledge...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324201/potential-roles-of-mitochondria-associated-er-membranes-mams-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Dongdong Sun, Xin Chen, Gang Gu, Jianhao Wang, Jianning Zhang
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria have both been shown to be critical in cellular homeostasis. The functions of the ER and mitochondria are independent but interrelated. These two organelles could form physical interactions, known as MAMs, to regulate physiological functions between ER and mitochondria to maintain Ca(2+), lipid, and metabolite exchange. Several proteins are located in MAMs, including RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR)-like ER kinase, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors, phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein-2 and sigma-1 receptor to ensure regulation...
March 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323659/stimulus-induced-rhythmic-periodic-or-ictal-discharges-in-coma-incidence-and-interrater-reliability-of-continuous-eeg-after-a-standard-stimulation-protocol-a-prospective-study
#14
Khalid A Alsherbini, Joao Mc-OʼNeil Plancher, David M Ficker, Brandon P Foreman, Opeolu M Adeoye, Jun Ying, Michael D Privitera
PURPOSE: Stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs) are often seen during continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring in coma. Given their uncertain clinical significance, our prospective study evaluated incidence of SIRPIDs in comatose patients in the neuroscience intensive care unit (NSICU) who underwent a standard stimulation protocol and defined interreader reliability for cEEG. METHODS: Of 146 patients prospectively screened who underwent cEEG during a 6-month period, 53 patients were included and 93 patients were excluded...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323555/influence-of-dopamine-related-genes-on-neurobehavioral-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury-during-early-childhood
#15
Amery Treble-Barna, Shari L Wade, Lisa J Martin, Valentina Pilipenko, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Brad G Kurowski
The present study examined the association of dopamine-related genes with short- and long-term neurobehavioral recovery, as well as neurobehavioral recovery trajectories over time, in children who had sustained early childhood traumatic brain injuries (TBI) relative to children who had sustained orthopedic injuries (OI). Participants were recruited from a prospective, longitudinal study evaluating outcomes of children who sustained a TBI (n = 68) or OI (n = 72) between the ages of 3 and 7 years. Parents completed ratings of child executive function and behavior at the immediate post-acute period (0-3 months after injury); 6, 12, and 18 months after injury; and an average of 3...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323524/comparison-of-two-predictive-models-for-short-term-mortality-in-patients-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Klara Julia Kesmarky, Cécile Delhumeau, Marie Zenobi, Bernhard Walder
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the abbreviated injury score of the head region (HAIS) are validated prognostic factors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to compare the prognostic performance of an alternative predictive model including motor GCS, pupillary reactivity, age, HAIS, and presence of multi-trauma for short term mortality with a reference predictive model including motor GCS, pupil reaction and age (IMPACT core model). A secondary analysis of a prospective epidemiological cohort study in Switzerland including patients after severe TBI (HAIS >3) with the outcome death at 14 days was performed...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323516/does-normobaric-hyperoxia-cause-oxidative-stress-in-the-injured-brain-a-microdialysis-study-using-8-iso-pgf2%C3%AE-as-a-biomarker
#17
Marian Vidal-Jorge, Angela Sánchez-Guerrero, Gemma Mur-Bonet, Lidia Castro, Andreea Rădoi, Marilyn Riveiro, Natividad Fernández-Prado, Jacinto Baena, Maria A Poca, Juan Sahuquillo
Significant controversy exists regarding the potential clinical benefit of normobaric hyperoxia therapy (NBO) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study consisted of two aims: 1) to assess whether NBO improves brain oxygenation and metabolism and 2) to determine whether this therapy may increase the risk of oxidative stress (OxS), using 8-iso-PGF2α as a biomarker. Thirty-one patients with a median admission Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4 (min: 3, max: 12) were monitored with cerebral microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen sensors and treated with FiO2 of 1...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323180/early-and-severe-symptomatic-cerebral-vasospasm-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-case-report
#18
Kyle Ogami, Melissa Dofredo, Asma M Moheet, Shouri Lahiri
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm has been reported in a low percentage of patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury as defined by Glasgow Coma Score (GCS). Here, we present case of mild traumatic brain injury (GCS 14) complicated by early and severe symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 63-year-old female was admitted following mild traumatic brain injury with a Glasgow Coma Score of 14. Concurrent with the onset of sonographic vasospasm, the patient developed severe neurological symptoms consistent with ischemia of the left middle cerebral artery territory...
March 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323088/localization-of-the-corticospinal-tract-within-the-porcine-spinal-cord-implications-for-experimental-modeling-of-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#19
Anna Victoria Leonard, Joshua York Menendez, Betty Maki Pat, Mark N Hadley, Candace Lorraine Floyd
Spinal cord injury (SCI) researchers have predominately utilized rodents for SCI modeling and experimentation. Unfortunately, a large number of novel therapies developed in rodent models have failed to demonstrate efficacy in human clinical trials which suggests that improved animal models are an important translational tool. Recently, porcine models of SCI have been identified as a valuable intermediary model for preclinical evaluation of promising therapies to aid clinical translation. However, the localization of the major spinal tracts in pigs has not yet been described...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322622/central-nervous-system-changes-induced-by-underbody-blast-induced-hyperacceleration-an-in-vivo-diffusion-tensor-imaging-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#20
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, William L Fourney, Ulrich H Leiste, Julie L Proctor, Gary Fiskum, Rao P Gullapalli
Blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) resulting from improvised explosive devices is the hallmark injury of recent wars, and affects many returning veterans who experienced either direct or indirect exposure. Many of these veterans have long-term neurocognitive symptoms. However, there is very little evidence to show whether blast-induced acceleration alone, in the absence of secondary impacts, can cause mild TBI. In this study, we examine the effect of under-vehicle blast-induced hyperacceleration (uBIH) of ∼1700 g on the biochemical and microstrucutral changes in the brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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