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injury traumatic brain

Xiang Li, Handong Wang, Yongyue Gao, Liwen Li, Chao Tang, Guodao Wen, Yuan Zhou, Mengliang Zhou, Lei Mao, Youwu Fan
The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, quercetin has been proved to have a protective effect against mitochondria damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, its precise role and underlying mechanisms in traumatic brain injury are not yet fully understood...
2016: PloS One
Marco Franceschini, Maria Pia Massimiani, Stefano Paravati, Maurizio Agosti
Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients...
2016: PloS One
Alexander C Schwed, Monica M Boggs, Drew Watanabe, David S Plurad, Brant A Putnam, Dennis Y Kim
Consensus is lacking for ideal management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Patients are often monitored in the intensive care unit (ICU) without additional interventions. We sought to identify admission variables associated with a favorable outcome (ICU admission for 24 hours, no neurosurgical interventions, no complications or mortality) to divert these patients to a non-ICU setting in the future. We reviewed all patients with mTBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) = 13-15] and concomitant ICH between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Joseph J Ryan, David S Kreiner, Laura Glass Umfleet, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Allison Myers-Fabian
We examined relationships between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in two clinical samples. The mean pattern produced by 42 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 47 with traumatic brain injury (TBI) was the same, GAI > CPI. This pattern occurred in 61.9% and 78.7% of the protocols of patients with MS or TBI, respectively. The MS sample earned a significantly larger CPI mean than did patients with TBI...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Seenu Haridas, Kailash Manda, Subash Khushu
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats...
October 25, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Margaret Mealings, Jacinta Douglas, John Olver
PURPOSE: Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) have a key role in supporting educational participation for secondary and tertiary students with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This article aims to (i) explore issues identified by students with TBI that affect educational participation beyond their academic performance, (ii) offer a framework based on research evidence to guide the practice of SLPs and (iii) explore strategies that may expand the traditional roles of SLPs to support students beyond academic performance...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Lutz Menzel, Lisa Kleber, Carina Friedrich, Regina Hummel, Larissa Dangel, Jennifer Winter, Katja Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder, Michael K E Schäfer
In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) microglia/macrophages and astrocytes release inflammatory mediators with dual effects on secondary brain damage progression. The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we studied histopathology, neurology and gene expression of inflammatory markers in PGRN-deficient mice (Grn(-/-) ) 24 h and 5 days after experimental TBI...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Iliana Michailidou, Daphne M P Naessens, Simon Hametner, Willemijn Guldenaar, Evert-Jan Kooi, Jeroen J G Geurts, Frank Baas, Hans Lassmann, Valeria Ramaglia
Microglial clusters with C3d deposits are observed in the periplaque of multiple sclerosis (MS) brains and were proposed as early stage of lesion formation. As such they should appear in the brain of MS donors with acute disease but thus far this has not been shown. Using postmortem brain tissue from acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 15) MS cases we investigated whether C3d+ microglial clusters are part of an acute attack against myelinated axons, which could have implications for disease pathogenesis...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Jenni Kyyriäinen, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkänen
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated after brain injury and its depletion results in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. We investigated the time-window and localization of PDGFRβ expression in mice with intrahippocampal kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (SE) and in rats with lateral fluid-percussion-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tissue immunohistochemistry was evaluated at several time-points after SE and TBI. The distribution of PDGFRβ was analyzed, and its cell type-specific expression was verified with double/triple-labeling of astrocytes (GFAP), NG2 cells, and endothelial cells (RECA-1)...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Mary P Galea, Roman Gonzenbach, Jürg Kesselring
The prevalence of disability due to neurological conditions is escalating worldwide. Neurological disorders have significant disability-burden with long-term functional and psychosocial issues, requiring specialized rehabilitation services for comprehensive management, especially treatments tapping into brain recovery 'neuroplastic' processes. Neurorehabilitation is interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial, requiring coordinated effort of diverse sectors, professions, patients and community to manage complex condition-related disability...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Petr Handlos, Marek Dokoupil, Marie Staňková, Marek Joukal, Igor Dvořáček, Matěj Uvíra, Margita Smatanová
PURPOSE: In this paper we present a case report of two people who were found dead in a holiday cottage after a fire. The cause of death in these cases was clarified by the presence of blood in the left pleural cavity in both bodies. METHODS: An inspection of the bodies at the scene of the fire and subsequent examination by a medical examiner suggested the deaths were accidental. RESULTS: An autopsy showed that the bodies were those of a man and a woman with severe carbonization of the skin, soft tissues, brain, and some organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities...
October 25, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
O Nemes, N Kovacs, Sz Szujo, B Bodis, L Bajnok, A Buki, T Doczi, E Czeiter, E Mezosi
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hypopituitarism is a major complication after severe head trauma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible role of early clinical parameters in the development of endocrine deficits. METHODS: Data on endocrine function, on-admission clinical-, laboratory-, and ICU-monitored parameters were available in 63 patients of the surviving 86 severe head injury patients (post-resuscitation GCS under 8) treated at one neurosurgical center during a 10-year period...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
David B MacManus, Baptiste Pierrat, Jeremiah G Murphy, Michael D Gilchrist
The brain is a complex organ made up of many different functional and structural regions consisting of different types of cells such as neurons and glia, as well as complex anatomical geometries. It is hypothesized that the different regions of the brain exhibit significantly different mechanical properties which may be attributed to the diversity of cells within individual brain regions. The regional viscoelastic properties of P56 mouse brain tissue, up to 70 μm displacement, are presented and discussed in the context of traumatic brain injury, particularly how the different regions of the brain respond to mechanical loads...
October 21, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Ronald Chang, Lindley E Folkerson, Duncan Sloan, Jeffrey S Tomasek, Ryan S Kitagawa, H Alex Choi, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Plasma-based resuscitation improves outcomes in trauma patients with hemorrhagic shock, while large-animal and limited clinical data suggest that it also improves outcomes and is neuroprotective in the setting of combined hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. However, the choice of initial resuscitation fluid, including the role of plasma, is unclear for patients after isolated traumatic brain injury. METHODS: We reviewed adult trauma patients admitted from January 2011 to July 2015 with isolated traumatic brain injury...
October 13, 2016: Surgery
Kerry L Gagnon, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: While the importance of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has gained public attention in recent years, relatively little attention has been paid to head injuries among women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). The present study screened for lifetime exposure to mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) among a sample of women who experienced recent IPV (median days since target incident = 26). METHOD: Participants included ethnically diverse women whose IPV experiences were reported to law enforcement...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Helen John Wilson, Kritis Dasgupta, Kathleen Michael
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to implement an Agitated Behavior Scale through an electronic health record and to evaluate the usability of the scale in a brain injury unit at a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN: A quality improvement project was conducted in the brain injury unit at a large rehabilitation hospital with registered nurses as participants, using convenience sampling. METHODS: The project consisted of three phases and included education, implementation of the scale in the electronic health record, and administration of the survey questionnaire, which utilized the system usability scale...
October 24, 2016: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Katarina Cheng, Ribal Bassil, Raphael Carandang, Wiley Hall, Susanne Muehlschlegel
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) has limited utility in intubated patients due to the inability to assign verbal sub-scores. The verbal sub-score can be derived from the eye and motor sub-scores using a mathematical model, but the advantage of this method and its use in outcome prognostication in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients remains unknown. We compared the validated "Core+CT"-IMPACT-model performance in 251 intubated TBI patients prospectively enrolled in the longitudinal OPTIMISM-study between November 2009 and May 2015 when substituting the original motor GCS with the total estimated GCS (teGCS; with estimated verbal sub-score)...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Daniel M Fountain, Angelos G Kolias, Rodney J Laing, Peter J Hutchinson
OBJECTIVES: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a potentially devastating insult to the brain with high rates of fatality and neurological deficits. TBI can result in substantial costs to the centre providing care. We sought to present the experience of a Major Trauma Centre (MTC) and ascertain the financial implications of this healthcare provision, in particular detailed costs, reimbursement and the surplus or deficit accrued by the centre. DESIGN: All cranial non-elective neurosurgical admissions with a TBI over 4...
October 22, 2016: British Journal of Neurosurgery
Chieh-Hsin Wu, Tai-Hsin Tsai, Yu-Feng Su, Zi-Hao Zhang, Wei Liu, Ming-Kung Wu, Chih-Hui Chang, Keng-Liang Kuo, Ying-Yi Lu, Chih-Lung Lin
Whether traumatic brain injury (TBI) is causally related to substance related disorder (SRD) is still debatable, especially in persons with no history of mental disorders at the time of injury. This study analyzed data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database for 19,109 patients aged ≥18 years who had been diagnosed with TBI during 2000-2010. An additional 19,109 randomly selected age and gender matched patients without TBI (1 : 1 ratio) were enrolled in the control group. The relationship between TBI and SRD was estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Jennifer A Chandler
This article addresses the question of how neuroscientific evidence is currently used in the Canadian criminal justice system, with a view to identifying the main contexts in which this evidence is raised, as well as to discern the impact of this evidence on judgements of responsibility, dangerousness, and treatability. The most general Canadian legal database was searched for cases in the five-year period between 2008 and 2012 in which neuroscientific evidence related to the responsibility and recidivism risk of criminal offenders was considered...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
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