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entomopathogenic fungi gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215355/differential-dna-methylation-may-contribute-to-temporal-and-spatial-regulation-of-gene-expression-and-the-development-of-mycelia-and-conidia-in-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#1
Wanzhen Li, Yulong Wang, Jianyu Zhu, Zhangxun Wang, Guiliang Tang, Bo Huang
Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages...
March 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130299/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-dicer-and-argonaute-genes-involved-in-rna-interference-in-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-robertsii
#2
Huimin Meng, Zhangxun Wang, Yulong Wang, Hong Zhu, Bo Huang
RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that plays an important role in gene regulation in a number of eukaryotic organisms. Two core components, Dicer and Argonaute, are central in the RNAi machinery. However, the physiological roles of Dicer and Argonaute in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii remained unclear. Here, the roles of genes encoding Dicers (Mrdcl1 and Mrdcl2) and Argonautes (Mrago1 and Mrago2) in M.robertsii were investigated. The results showed that the Dicer protein MrDCL2 and Argonaute protein MrAGO1 are the major components of the RNAi process occurring in M...
January 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124726/species-diversity-and-population-dynamics-of-entomopathogenic-fungal-species-in-the-genus-metarhizium-a-spatiotemporal-study
#3
Carmela Hernández-Domínguez, Ariel W Guzmán-Franco
We studied the species diversity and population genetic structure of isolates of fungi from the entomopathogenic genus Metarhizium that had been isolated from sugarcane crops and surrounding grass. Soil and leaf samples were taken on four sampling occasions over 13 months (October 2014-October 2015). Isolations were made using the Galleria mellonella baiting method and selective media. Phylogenetic placement of isolates was done by sequencing a fragment of the 5' of the elongation factor 1-α gene (EF1-α)...
January 26, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094453/down-regulation-of-a-chitin-synthase-a-gene-by-rna-interference-enhances-pathogenicity-of-beauveria-bassiana-anu1-against-spodoptera-exigua-h%C3%A3-bner
#4
Jung-Bok Lee, Hyun Soo Kim, Youngjin Park
Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A)...
January 17, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089049/variation-in-virulence-of-beauveria-bassiana-and-b-pseudobassiana-to-the-pine-weevil-pissodes-nemorensis-in-relation-to-mycelium-characteristics-and-virulence-genes
#5
Pedro Romón, Hardus Hatting, Arturo Goldarazena, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia
Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria spp. have potential applications in the biocontrol of insect pests but little is known regarding their infectivity to the pine weevil Pissodes nemorensis. In this study, five isolates of Beauveria pseudobassiana and five isolates of Beauveria bassiana were tested for characteristics correlating with virulence on P. nemorensis. Isolate UAMH301 had the lowest mean lethal concentration value whereas the highest value was obtained with isolate LRC137. Growth rate was negatively correlated with virulence in B...
February 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065703/molecular-identification-of-entomopathogenic-fusarium-species-associated-with-tribolium-species-in-stored-grains
#6
Khosrow Chehri
Fusarium species are common pathogens of plants, animals and insects worldwide, including Iran. The occurrence of entomopathogenic Fusarium species isolated from Tribolium species as one of the most important insect pests of stored grains were sampled from various provinces in western Iran. In total, 15 Tribolium species belonging to T. castaneum (Herbst) and T. confusum (Du Val) (Col: Tenebrionidae) were detected and 8 isolates from Fusarium spp. were collected from them. Based on morphological features, the Fusarium isolates were classified into F...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018335/metabolic-conservation-and-diversification-of-metarhizium-species-correlate-with-fungal-host-specificity
#7
Yong-Jiang Xu, Feifei Luo, Bing Li, Yanfang Shang, Chengshu Wang
The ascomycete genus Metarhizium contains several species of insect pathogenic fungi ranging from specialists with narrow host ranges to generalists that can infect diverse invertebrates. Genetic and metabolic conservations and diversifications of Metarhizium species are not well understood. In this study, using the genome information of seven Metarhizium species, we performed a comparative analysis of gene clusters involved in secondary metabolisms (SMs) in these species. The results revealed that the generalist species contain more SM gene clusters than the specialists, and that both conserved and divergent evolutions may have occurred in SM genes during fungal speciation...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905873/comparative-genomics-of-beauveria-bassiana-uncovering-signatures-of-virulence-against-mosquitoes
#8
Claudio A Valero-Jiménez, Luigi Faino, Daphne Spring In't Veld, Sandra Smit, Bas J Zwaan, Jan A L van Kan
BACKGROUND: Entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are promising biological agents for control of malaria mosquitoes. Indeed, infection with B. bassiana reduces the lifespan of mosquitoes in the laboratory and in the field. Natural isolates of B. bassiana show up to 10-fold differences in virulence between the most and the least virulent isolate. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of five isolates representing the extremes of low/high virulence and three RNA libraries, and applied a genome comparison approach to uncover genetic mechanisms underpinning virulence...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867018/chitin-synthase-1-gene-is-crucial-to-antifungal-host-defense-of-the-model-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#9
Yuuki Hayakawa, Daiki Kato, Katsumi Kamiya, Chieka Minakuchi, Ken Miura
The importance of the insect cuticle as a primary protective barrier against entomopathogens has long been noted. In the present study, we addressed this issue by utilizing an experimental infection system composed of the model beetle T. castaneum and two entomopathogenic fungal species, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The pupae were relatively susceptible to these fungi by the natural route of infection, with some refractoriness developed with age, while the adults exhibited much higher refractoriness...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860524/insect-pathogenic-fungi-genomics-molecular-interactions-and-genetic-improvements
#10
Chengshu Wang, Sibao Wang
Entomopathogenic fungi play a pivotal role in the regulation of insect populations in nature, and representative species have been developed as promising environmentally friendly mycoinsecticides. Recent advances in the genome biology of insect pathogenic fungi have revealed genomic features associated with fungal adaptation to insect hosts and different host ranges, as well as the evolutionary relationships between insect and noninsect pathogens. By using species in the Beauveria and Metarhizium genera as models, molecular biology studies have revealed the genes that function in fungus-insect interactions and thereby contribute to fungal virulence...
January 31, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801295/secondary-metabolite-gene-clusters-in-the-entomopathogen-fungus-metarhizium-anisopliae-genome-identification-and-patterns-of-expression-in-a-cuticle-infection-model
#11
Nicolau Sbaraini, Rafael Lucas Muniz Guedes, Fábio Carrer Andreis, Ângela Junges, Guilherme Loss de Morais, Marilene Henning Vainstein, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos, Augusto Schrank
BACKGROUND: The described species from the Metarhizium genus are cosmopolitan fungi that infect arthropod hosts. Interestingly, while some species infect a wide range of hosts (host-generalists), other species infect only a few arthropods (host-specialists). This singular evolutionary trait permits unique comparisons to determine how pathogens and virulence determinants emerge. Among the several virulence determinants that have been described, secondary metabolites (SMs) are suggested to play essential roles during fungal infection...
October 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756202/phylogenetic-analyses-reveal-molecular-signatures-associated-with-functional-divergence-among-subtilisin-like-serine-proteases-are-linked-to-lifestyle-transitions-in-hypocreales
#12
Deepti Varshney, Akanksha Jaiswar, Alok Adholeya, Pushplata Prasad
BACKGROUND: Subtilisin-like serine proteases or Subtilases in fungi are important for penetration and colonization of host. In Hypocreales, these proteins share several properties with other fungal, bacterial, plant and mammalian homologs. However, adoption of specific roles in entomopathogenesis may be governed by attainment of unique biochemical and structural features during the evolutionary course. Due to such functional shifts Subtilases coded by different family members of Hypocreales acquire distinct features according to respective hosts and lifestyle...
October 19, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715447/recombinant-fungal-entomopathogen-rnai-target-insect-gene
#13
Qiongbo Hu, Wei Wu
RNA interference (RNAi) technology is considered as an alternative for control of pests. However, RNAi has not been used in field conditions yet, since delivering exogenous ds/siRNA to target pests is very difficult. The laboratory methods of introducing the ds/siRNA into insects through feeding, micro feeding / dripping and injecting cannot be used in fields. Transgenic crop is perhaps the most effective application of RNAi for pest control, but it needs long-time basic researches in order to reduce the cost and evaluate the safety...
November 2016: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678168/a-natural-anopheles-associated-penicillium-chrysogenum-enhances-mosquito-susceptibility-to-plasmodium-infection
#14
Yesseinia I Angleró-Rodríguez, Benjamin J Blumberg, Yuemei Dong, Simone L Sandiford, Andrew Pike, April M Clayton, George Dimopoulos
Whereas studies have extensively examined the ability of bacteria to influence Plasmodium infection in the mosquito, the tripartite interactions between non-entomopathogenic fungi, mosquitoes, and Plasmodium parasites remain largely uncharacterized. Here we report the isolation of a common mosquito-associated ascomycete fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum, from the midgut of field-caught Anopheles mosquitoes. Although the presence of Pe. chrysogenum in the Anopheles gambiae midgut does not affect mosquito survival, it renders the mosquito significantly more susceptible to Plasmodium infection through a secreted heat-stable factor...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618036/susceptibility-and-immune-defence-mechanisms-of-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-olivier-coleoptera-curculionidae-against-entomopathogenic-fungal-infections
#15
Abid Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Hassan Al-Ayedh, Ahmed Mohammed AlJabr
Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent)...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27506833/transcriptional-analysis-of-the-conidiation-pattern-shift-of-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-metarhizium-acridum-in-response-to-different-nutrients
#16
Zhenglong Wang, Kai Jin, Yuxian Xia
BACKGROUND: Most fungi, including entomopathogenic fungi, have two different conidiation patterns, normal and microcycle conidiation, under different culture conditions, eg, in media containing different nutrients. However, the mechanisms underlying the conidiation pattern shift are poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, Metarhizium acridum undergoing microcycle conidiation on sucrose yeast extract agar (SYA) medium shifted to normal conidiation when the medium was supplemented with sucrose, nitrate, or phosphate...
2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470140/characterization-of-t-dna-insertion-mutants-with-decreased-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-fungus-beauveria-bassiana-jef-007
#17
Sihyeon Kim, Se Jin Lee, Yu-Shin Nai, Jeong Seon Yu, Mi Rong Lee, Yi-Ting Yang, Jae Su Kim
The bean bug, Riptortus pedestris, is a major agricultural pest that reduces crop quality and value. Chemical pesticides have contributed to pest management, but resistance to these chemicals has significantly limited their use. Alternative strategies with different modes of action, such as entomopathogenic fungi, are therefore of great interest. Herein, we explored how entomopathogenic fungi can potentially be used to control the bean bug and focused on identifying virulence-related genes. Beauveria bassiana (JEF isolates) were assayed against bean bugs under laboratory conditions...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449678/beauveria-medogensis-sp-nov-a-new-fungus-of-the-entomopathogenic-genus-from-china
#18
Abdessamad Imoulan, Hai-Jun Wu, Wei-Lai Lu, Yi Li, Bin-Bin Li, Rei-Heng Yang, Wen-Jing Wang, Xiao-Liang Wang, Paul M Kirk, Yi-Jian Yao
Beauveria is among the most ubiquitous genera of entomopathogenic fungi throughout the world. A previously unknown species of the genus was recently discovered from a soil sample collected from Tibetan Plateau, China and is here described as new to science, B. medogensis sp. nov. The new species is distinguished from its closest relatives based on both morphological characterization and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Beauveria medogensis is characterized by globose to subglobose conidia, morphologically similar to some other species of in the genus, but was conclusively separated from those species in the phylogenetic analyses including sequences of four nuclear genes (RPB1, RPB2, TEF1 and Bloc)...
September 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389584/metarhizium-brunneum-blastospore-pathogenesis-in-aedes-aegypti-larvae-attack-on-several-fronts-accelerates-mortality
#19
Abeer M Alkhaibari, Aline T Carolino, Sare I Yavasoglu, Thierry Maffeis, Thalles C Mattoso, James C Bull, Richard I Samuels, Tariq M Butt
Aedes aegypti is the vector of a wide range of diseases (e.g. yellow fever, dengue, Chikungunya and Zika) which impact on over half the world's population. Entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have been found to be highly efficacious in killing mosquito larvae but only now are the underlying mechanisms for pathogenesis being elucidated. Recently it was shown that conidia of M. anisopliae caused stress induced mortality in Ae. aegypti larvae, a different mode of pathogenicity to that normally seen in terrestrial hosts...
July 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189621/genome-sequence-and-comparative-analysis-of-clavicipitaceous-insect-pathogenic-fungus-aschersonia-badia-with-metarhizium-spp
#20
Yamini Agrawal, Tarun Narwani, Srikrishna Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Aschersonia badia [(Ab) Teleomorph: Hypocrella siamensis] is an entomopathogenic fungus that specifically infects scale insects and whiteflies. We present the whole genome sequence of Ab and its comparison with two clavicipitaceous fungi Metarhizium robertsii (MR: generalist entomopathogen) and M. acridum (MAC: acridid-specific entomopathogen) that exhibit variable host preferences. Here, through comparative analysis of pathogen-host interacting genes, carbohydrate active enzymes, secondary metabolite biosynthesis genes, and sexuality genes, we explore the proteins with possible virulence functions in clavicipitaceous fungi...
2016: BMC Genomics
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