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Acute bronchiolitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#1
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#2
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#3
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114728/the-modified-respiratory-index-score-ris-guides-resource-allocation-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#4
Shu-Ling Chong, Oon Hoe Teoh, Nivedita Nadkarni, Joo Guan Yeo, Zaw Lwin, Yong-Kwang Gene Ong, Jan Hau Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiolitis is a common disease in early childhood with increasing healthcare utilization. We aim to study how well a simple and improved respiratory score (the modified Respiratory Index Score [RIS]) would perform when predicting for a warranted admission. METHODS: This is an observational prospective study, from June 2015 to December 2015 in a paediatric emergency department (ED) of a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. We included children aged less than 2 years old, presenting with typical symptoms and signs of bronchiolitis but excluded children with four or more previous wheezes, a gestation of <35 weeks, and known cardiopulmonary disease...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095826/non-invasive-respiratory-support-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-national-survey-of-practice
#5
H Turnham, R S Agbeko, J Furness, J Pappachan, A G Sutcliffe, P Ramnarayan
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory illness of early childhood. For most children it is a mild self-limiting disease but a small number of children develop respiratory failure. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) has traditionally been used to provide non-invasive respiratory support in these children, but there is little clinical trial evidence to support its use. More recently, high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has emerged as a novel respiratory support modality...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#6
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011970/zinc-sulphate-for-acute-bronchiolitis-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Negin Khoshbakht Ahmadi, Sara Talebi Pour Nikoo, Samaneh Hamzehloo, Alireza Taremiha, Zohreh Yazdi, Shiva Esmaeily
The use of adjunctive therapies to achieve rapid recovery from clinical symptoms of acute bronchiolitis would appear necessary. This study was performed to determine the effect of zinc sulphate on treating acute bronchiolitis. In this study, 100 children affected with acute bronchiolitis were investigated. Fifty patients received oral zinc sulphate and 50 patients placebo. Signs and symptoms of the disease were compared between two groups at the time of admission and then 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after the beginning of treatment...
1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892438/comparison-of-initial-response-of-nebulized-salbutamol-and-adrenaline-in-infants-and-young-children-admitted-with-acute-bronchiolitis
#8
S Adhikari, P Thapa, K S Rao, G Bk
Background Acute bronchiolitis is common cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. There are widespread variations in the diagnosis and management. Despite the use of bronchodilators for decades, there is lack of consensus for the benefit of one above another. Objective To compare initial response of nebulized adrenaline and salbutamol. Method Children aged two months to two years admitted with acute bronchiolitis in the department of Paediatrics of Manipal teaching hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1st March 2014 to 28th February 2015 were enrolled...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889372/-non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-do-we-need-more-evidence
#9
G Mortamet, G Emeriaud, P Jouvet, B Fauroux, S Essouri
Respiratory failure is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, preferentially delivered by a non-invasive route (NIV), is currently the first-line treatment for respiratory failure since it is associated with a reduction in the intubation rate. This ventilatory support is increasingly used in the PICU, but its wider use contrasts with the paucity of studies in this field. This review aims to describe the main indications of NIV in acute settings: (i) bronchiolitis; (ii) postextubation respiratory failure; (iii) acute respiratory distress syndrome; (iv) pneumonia; (v) status asthmaticus; (vi) acute chest syndrome; (vii) left heart failure; (viii) exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure; (ix) upper airway obstruction and (x) end-of-life care...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#10
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
November 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865727/-epidemiology-of-patients-hospitalised-due-to-bronchiolitis-in-the-south-of-europe-analysis-of-the-epidemics-2010-2015
#11
José Miguel Ramos-Fernández, Eva Pedrero-Segura, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Beatriz Delgado-Martín, Ana María Cordón-Martínez, David Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Urda-Cardona
INTRODUCTION: The renewal of clinical practice guidelines on acute bronchiolitis (AB) requires the re-assessment of the consequences of their implementation. An update is presented on the main clinical and epidemiological variables in patients hospitalised due to AB in Southern Europe and an analysis made of the causes associated with longer hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on patients admitted to hospital due to AB during 5 epidemics (2010-2015), with an analysis of the major clinical and epidemiological variables...
November 16, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805553/-monoinfection-of-human-metapneumovirus-in-cordoba-first-clinical-and-epidemiological-research-in-children-with-respiratory-infection-in-2011
#12
Pamela Elizabeth Rodriguez, María Pilar Adamo, María Gabriela Paglini, Laura Moreno, Jorge Augusto Camara, Alicia Camara
: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) RNA virus discovered in 2001, is a pathogen associated with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 5 years; its prevalence ranges from 5-15%. In Córdoba, it is not integrated into the viral research in patients with low IRA (LARI). OBJECTIVE: Detect hMPV in children under 5 years hospitalized for LARI in the Children's Hospital "Santísima Trinidad" of Cordoba (HNC) in 2011 and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of monoinfecciones without comorbidity...
2016: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799386/association-of-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-profiles-with-bronchiolitis-severity-in-infants-hospitalised-for-bronchiolitis
#13
Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, David M Henke, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Chad A Shaw, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo
Little is known about the relationship between the specific airway microbiota composition and severity of bronchiolitis. We aimed to identify nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles and link these profiles to acute severity in infants hospitalised for bronchiolitis.We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study of 1005 infants (age <1 year) hospitalised for bronchiolitis over three winters, 2011-2014. By applying a 16S rRNA gene sequence and clustering approach to the nasopharyngeal aspirates collected within 24 h of hospitalisation, we determined nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles and their association with bronchiolitis severity...
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798551/risk-factors-for-virus-induced-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-younger-than-3-years-and-recurrent-wheezing-at-36-months-follow-up-after-discharge
#14
Ambra Nicolai, Antonella Frassanito, Raffaella Nenna, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Paola Papoff, Alessandra Pierangeli, Carolina Scagnolari, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to know more about how 14 common respiratory viruses manifest clinically, and to identify risk factors for specific virus-induced acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children younger than 3 years old and for wheezing at 36-month follow-up. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical records for 273 full-term children (median age, 2.9 months; range, 0.26-39; boys, 61.2%) hospitalized for ARTIs, whose nasopharyngeal specimen tested positive for a respiratory virus and 101 children with no history of respiratory diseases (median age, 8 months; range, 0...
February 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790933/nutritional-status-metabolic-state-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-bronchiolitis
#15
V De Cosmi, N M Mehta, A Boccazzi, G P Milani, S Esposito, G Bedogni, C Agostoni
Nutrition has a coadjuvant role in the management of children with acute diseases. We aimed to examine nutritional status, macronutrient requirements and actual macronutrient delivery in bronchiolitis. The nutritional status was classified according to WHO criteria and resting energy expenditure (MREE) was measured using an indirect calorimeter. Bland-Altman analysis was used to examine the agreement between MREE and estimated energy expenditure (EEE) with standard equations. Based on the ratio MREE/EEE in relation to Schofield equation on admission, we defined the subjects' metabolic status...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722041/hypoxemia-is-an-independent-predictor-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-following-respiratory-adenoviral-infection-in-children
#16
Pei-Qiong Wu, Xing Li, Wen-Hui Jiang, Gen-Quan Yin, Ai-Hua Lei, Qiang Xiao, Jian-Jun Huang, Zhi-Wei Xie, Li Deng
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an uncommon and severe sequela of chronic obstructive lung disease in children that results from an insult to the lower respiratory tract. Few prognostic factors achieved worldwide acknowledgment. In the present study, we retrospectively collected the children with respiratory adenoviral infection and identified the predictive factors of BO. In the period between Jan 2011 and December 2014, the consecutive in-hospital acute respiratory infection children with positive result for adenovirus were enrolled into the present study...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668919/the-utility-of-bedside-lung-ultrasound-findings-in-bronchiolitis
#17
Joanna S Cohen, Naomi Hughes, Sonny Tat, James M Chamberlain, Stephen J Teach, Keith Boniface
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests that bedside lung ultrasound may have a role in the evaluation of infants with bronchiolitis. B lines, which are multiple and diffuse vertical artifacts spreading from the lung pleural interface to the edge of the ultrasound screen, have been associated with thickened interlobular septa, extravascular lung water, and diffuse parenchymal disease. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the prevalence of B lines in children younger than 24 months presenting to the emergency department with wheezing, (2) to determine the interrater reliability of lung ultrasound findings in this setting, and (3) to determine the association of B lines with atopy and other clinical findings...
February 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665269/acute-viral-bronchiolitis-and-risk-of-asthma-in-schoolchildren-analysis-of-a-brazilian-newborn-cohort
#18
Heli V Brandão, Graciete O Vieira, Tatiana O Vieira, Álvaro A Cruz, Armênio C Guimarães, Carlos Teles, Paulo Camargos, Constança M S Cruz
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months...
September 22, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650524/bronchiolitis-in-young-infants-is-it-a-risk-factor-for-recurrent-wheezing-in-childhood
#19
Firas Rinawi, Imad Kassis, Rina Tamir, Amir Kugelman, Isaac Srugo, Dan Miron
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis in infancy is considered a risk factor for recurrent wheezing episodes in childhood. The present study assessed prevalence, clinical manifestations and risk factors for recurrent wheezing events during the first 3 years of life and persistent wheezing events beyond this age in children hospitalized as young infants with acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: Two groups of children aged 6 years were included. The study group comprised 150 children with a history of hospitalization for bronchiolitis, with the first event at <6 months of age...
February 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632796/clinical-characteristics-and-viral-load-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-human-metapneumovirus-in-children-hospitaled-for-acute-lower-respiratory-tract-infection
#20
Xiao-Li Yan, Yu-Ning Li, Yi-Jie Tang, Zhi-Ping Xie, Han-Chun Gao, Xue-Mei Yang, Yu-Mei Li, Li-Jun Liu, Zhao-Jun Duan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
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