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Acute bronchiolitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992427/effects-of-cannabinoid-receptor-type-2-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-human-subjects-and-mice
#1
Alireza Tahamtan, Yazdan Samieipoor, Fatemeh Sadat Nayeri, Ali Akbar Rahbarimanesh, Anahita Izadi, Ali Rashidi-Nezhad, Masoumeh Tavakoli-Yaraki, Mohammad Farahmand, Louis Bont, Fazel Shokri, Talat Mokhatri-Azad, Vahid Salimi
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system plays a significant role in pathophysiological processes and impacts disease severity. Here we investigate the possible role of a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) functional variant in determining disease severity and the potential pharmacological therapeutic effects of CB2 activation in viral respiratory infection. The common missense variant (CAA/CGG; Q63R) of the gene-encoding CB2 receptor (CNR2) was evaluated in 90 inpatient and 90 outpatient children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI)...
October 9, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948867/prevalence-and-genetic-characterisation-of-respiratory-syncytial-viruses-circulating-in-bulgaria-during-the-2014-15-and-2015-16-winter-seasons
#2
Neli Korsun, Svetla Angelova, Iren Tzotcheva, Irina Georgieva, Snezhina Lazova, Snezhana Parina, Ivaylo Alexiev, Penka Perenovska
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in infants and young children. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RSV circulation among children aged <5 years in Bulgaria, to identify the RSV-A and RSV-B genotypes and to perform an amino acid sequence analysis of second hypervariable region (HVR2) of the G gene. During the 2014/15 and 2015/16 winter seasons, nasopharyngeal specimens of 610 children aged <5 years with ARI were tested using Real Time RT-PCR for influenza viruses, RSV, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, rhinoviruses and adenoviruses...
September 26, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886185/clinical-features-and-seasonality-of-parechovirus-infection-in-an-asian-subtropical-city-hong-kong
#3
Grace P K Chiang, Zigui Chen, Martin C W Chan, Simon H M Lee, Angela K Kwok, Apple C M Yeung, E Anthony S Nelson, Kam Lun Hon, Ting Fan Leung, Paul K S Chan
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of human parechovirus (HPeV) in Asia remains obscure. We elucidated the prevalence, seasonality, type distribution and clinical presentation of HPeV among children in Hong Kong. METHODS: A 24-month prospective study to detect HPeV in children ≤36 months hospitalized for acute viral illnesses. RESULTS: 2.3% of the 3911 children examined had HPeV infection, with most (87.5%) concentrated in September-January (autumn-winter)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861397/modulation-of-host-immunity-by-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-virulence-factors-a-synergic-inhibition-of-both-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#4
REVIEW
Gisela Canedo-Marroquín, Orlando Acevedo-Acevedo, Emma Rey-Jurado, Juan M Saavedra, Margarita K Lay, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Alexis M Kalergis
The Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (hRSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and high rates of hospitalizations in children and in the elderly worldwide. Symptoms of hRSV infection include bronchiolitis and pneumonia. The lung pathology observed during hRSV infection is due in part to an exacerbated host immune response, characterized by immune cell infiltration to the lungs. HRSV is an enveloped virus, a member of the Pneumoviridae family, with a non-segmented genome and negative polarity-single RNA that contains 10 genes encoding for 11 proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860332/negative-pressure-ventilation-in-pediatric-acute-respiratory-failure
#5
Amanda B Hassinger, Ryan K Breuer, Kirsten Nutty, Chang-Xing Ma, Omar S Al Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: The objective of this work was to describe the use of negative-pressure ventilation (NPV) in a heterogeneous critically ill, pediatric population. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients admitted to a pediatric ICU with acute respiratory failure supported with NPV from January 1, 2012 to May 15, 2015. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-three subjects at a median age of 15.5 months were supported with NPV for various etiologies, most commonly bronchiolitis (70%)...
August 31, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859019/age-specific-antibiotic-prescribing-and-adherence-to-guidelines-in-pediatric-patients-in-primary-care
#6
Verica Ivanovska, Karin Hek, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse, Hubert G M Leufkens, Liset van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Most antibiotics in children are used to treat viral and self-limiting conditions. This study aims to compare physicians' adherence to guidelines on antibiotic prescribing in fever and in ear and respiratory infections to children in different age groups in the Netherlands. METHODS: Data were used from the NIVEL Primary Care Database. For all pediatric episodes of fever, acute otitis media (AOM), streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis and pneumonia in 2012, we determined whether national guidelines were followed in regard to whether an antibiotic was prescribed, and the type of antibiotic...
August 28, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839157/acute-respiratory-infections-in-hospitalized-children-in-vientiane-lao-pdr-the-importance-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#7
Van Hoan Nguyen, Audrey Dubot-Pérès, Fiona M Russell, David A B Dance, Keoudomphone Vilivong, Souphatsone Phommachan, Chanthaphone Syladeth, Jana Lai, Ruth Lim, Melinda Morpeth, Mayfong Mayxay, Paul N Newton, Hervé Richet, Xavier De Lamballerie
The Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens, causing epidemics of acute respiratory infection (ARI), especially bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in children worldwide. To investigate the RSV burden in Laos, we conducted a one-year study in children <5 years old admitted to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane Capital, to describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics and predictive factors for severity of RSV-associated ARI. Pooled nasal and throat swabs were tested using multiplex real-time PCR for 33 respiratory pathogens (FTD(®) kit)...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834426/detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-at-birth-in-a-newborn-with-respiratory-distress
#8
Sara Manti, Caterina Cuppari, Angela Lanzafame, Carmelo Salpietro, Pasqua Betta, Salvatore Leonardi, Miriam K Perez, Giovanni Piedimonte
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children. From the nasopharyngeal or conjunctival mucosa of infected individuals, RSV spreads to the lower respiratory tract causing acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia after an incubation period of 4-6 days. In addition to its well-documented tropism for the airway epithelium, it has been shown previously that RSV can also spread hematogenously and efficiently infect extrapulmonary tissues of human hosts. Furthermore, it has been shown in animal models that RSV can spread transplacentally from the respiratory tract of a pregnant mother to the lungs of the fetus...
October 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831577/chest-radiographic-features-of-human-metapneumovirus-infection-in-pediatric-patients
#9
Melissa A Hilmes, F Daniel Dunnavant, Sudha P Singh, Wendy D Ellis, Daniel C Payne, Yuwei Zhu, Marie R Griffin, Kathryn M Edwards, John V Williams
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was identified in 2001 and is a common cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. The radiologic characteristics of laboratory-confirmed HMPV acute respiratory illness in young children have not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: We systematically evaluated the radiographic characteristics of acute respiratory illness associated with HMPV in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included chest radiographs from children <5 years old with acute respiratory illness who were enrolled in the prospective New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) study from 2003 to 2009 and were diagnosed with HMPV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
August 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829494/pneumopericardium-pneumomediastinum-and-pneumorrachis-complicating-acute-respiratory-syncytial-virus-bronchiolitis-in-children
#10
C Fantacci, P Ferrara, F Franceschi, A Chiaretti
OBJECTIVE: We report 2 children with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection complicated with spontaneous pneumopericardium (PP) and pneumomediastinum (PM), one also associated with pneumorrhachis (PR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two previously healthy children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea, and tachypnea. Chest X-ray and CT scans showed sizeable PP and PM in both patients. One of them also presented PR. Children were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics, antipyretics, and a cough sedative...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828759/antibiotics-for-persistent-cough-or-wheeze-following-acute-bronchiolitis-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Gabrielle B McCallum, Erin J Plumb, Peter S Morris, Anne B Chang
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common acute respiratory condition with high prevalence worldwide. This clinically diagnosed syndrome is manifested by tachypnoea (rapid breathing), with crackles or wheeze in young children. In the acute phase of bronchiolitis (≤ 14 days), antibiotics are not routinely prescribed unless the illness is severe or a secondary bacterial infection is suspected. Although bronchiolitis is usually self-limiting, some young children continue to have protracted symptoms (e...
August 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812472/modifiable-risk-factors-associated-with-bronchiolitis
#12
Raffaella Nenna, Renato Cutrera, Antonella Frassanito, Claudia Alessandroni, Ambra Nicolai, Giulia Cangiano, Laura Petrarca, Serena Arima, Serena Caggiano, Nicola Ullman, Paola Papoff, Enea Bonci, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify possibly modifiable risk factors related to pollution responsible for acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants. METHODS: For this observational study, we recruited 213 consecutive infants with bronchiolitis (cases: median age: 2 months; age range: 0.5-12 months; boys: 55.4%) and 213 children aged <3 years (controls: median age: 12 months; age range: 0.5-36 months; boys: 54.5%) with a negative medical history for lower respiratory tract diseases hospitalized at 'Sapienza' University Rome and IRCCS Bambino Gesù Hospital...
August 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771627/treatment-of-preschool-children-presenting-to-the-emergency-department-with-wheeze-with-azithromycin-a-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Piush J Mandhane, Patricia Paredes Zambrano de Silbernagel, Yin Nwe Aung, Janie Williamson, Bonita E Lee, Sheldon Spier, Mary Noseworthy, William R Craig, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently used to treat wheezing children. Macrolides may be effective in treating bronchiolitis and asthma. METHOD: We completed a prospective, double-blinded, randomized placebo-control trial of azithromycin among pre-school children (12 to 60 months of age) presenting to the emergency department with wheeze. Patients were randomized to receive either five days of azithromycin or placebo. Primary outcome was time to resolution of respiratory symptoms after treatment initiation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757139/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-of-children-in-southern-taiwan
#14
Kai-Wen Wu, Shih-Min Wang, Ching-Fen Shen, Tzong-Shiann Ho, Jen-Ren Wang, Ching-Chuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) 1-4 had been analyzed as being one of the most frequent causes of hospitalizations for young children with respiratory tract illnesses. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed from children virologically confirmed as HPIV infection through throat swab or nasopharyngeal aspirates at a tertiary care university hospital, between January 2012 and December 2014. HPIV4 was not checked and analyzed, due to not include in the commercial kit...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726607/acute-febrile-illness-and-complications-due-to-murine-typhus-texas-usa1-2
#15
Zeeshan Afzal, Sunand Kallumadanda, Feng Wang, Vagish Hemmige, Daniel Musher
Murine typhus occurs relatively commonly in southern Texas, as well as in California. We reviewed records of 90 adults and children in whom murine typhus was diagnosed during a 3-year period in 2 hospitals in southern Texas, USA. Most patients lacked notable comorbidities; all were immunocompetent. Initial signs and symptoms included fever (99%), malaise (82%), headache (77%), fatigue (70%), myalgias (68%), and rash (39%). Complications, often severe, in 28% of patients included bronchiolitis, pneumonia, meningitis, septic shock, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, myositis, and rhabdomyolysis; the last 3 are previously unreported in murine typhus...
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716387/respiratory-virus-prior-to-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-is-associated-with-allo-immune-mediated-lung-syndromes
#16
Birgitta Versluys, Marc Bierings, Jean Luc Murk, Tom Wolfs, Caroline Lindemans, Kors Vd Ent, Jaap Jan Boelens
BACKGROUND: Allo-immune mediated lung syndromes (allo-LS) are life-threatening complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Respiratory virus (RV) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relation between RV-DNA/RNA detection in upper/lower airway before HCT and the occurrence of allo-LS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all HCT recipients between 2004 and 2014, in whom Real-Time PCR for RV was done from Nasal-Pharyngeal-Aspirates (NPA) and Broncho-Alveolar- Lavage (BAL) before HCT...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695368/an-interaction-of-lps-and-rsv-infection-in-augmenting-the-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#17
Na Zhou, Wei Li, Luo Ren, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria)...
July 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680946/etiology-seasonality-and-clinical-features-of-viral-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-acute-bronchiolitis-a-single-center-study
#18
Şule Gökçe, Zafer Kurugöl, Güldane Koturoğlu, Candan Çiçek, Aslı Aslan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the viral frequency, seasonality, and clinical and demographic features of patients hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed in 316 infants younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized for acute viral bronchiolitis. Respiratory tract infection agents were investigated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 316 infants were included in this study. Of the 316 infants, at least one respiratory tract pathogen was detected in 75% (237/316)...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647745/early-halt-of-a-randomized-controlled-study-with-3-hypertonic-saline-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#19
Ania Carsin, Emilie Sauvaget, Violaine Bresson, Karine Retornaz, Maria Cabrera, Elisabeth Jouve, Romain Truillet, Emmanuelle Bosdure, Jean-Christophe Dubus
BACKGROUND: Albeit not recommended because of contradictory results, nebulized 3% hypertonic saline is widely used for treating acute viral bronchiolitis. Whether clinical differences may be attributed to the type of nebulizer used has never been studied. OBJECTIVES: By modifying the amount of salt deposited into the airways, the nebulizer characteristics might influence clinical response. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial included infants hospitalized in a French university hospital for a first episode of bronchiolitis...
June 24, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639594/viral-aetiology-of-wheezing-in-children-under-five
#20
Prithi Sureka Mummidi, Radha Tripathy, Bhagirathi Dwibedi, Amarendra Mahapatra, Suryakanta Baraha
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Wheezing is a common problem in children under five with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Viruses are known to be responsible for a considerable proportion of ARIs in children. This study was undertaken to know the viral aetiology of wheezing among the children less than five years of age, admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. METHODS: Seventy five children, under the age of five years admitted with wheezing, were included in the study...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
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