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Acute bronchiolitis in children

Pei-Qiong Wu, Xing Li, Wen-Hui Jiang, Gen-Quan Yin, Ai-Hua Lei, Qiang Xiao, Jian-Jun Huang, Zhi-Wei Xie, Li Deng
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an uncommon and severe sequela of chronic obstructive lung disease in children that results from an insult to the lower respiratory tract. Few prognostic factors achieved worldwide acknowledgment. In the present study, we retrospectively collected the children with respiratory adenoviral infection and identified the predictive factors of BO. In the period between Jan 2011 and December 2014, the consecutive in-hospital acute respiratory infection children with positive result for adenovirus were enrolled into the present study...
2016: SpringerPlus
Joanna S Cohen, Naomi Hughes, Sonny Tat, James M Chamberlain, Stephen J Teach, Keith Boniface
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests that bedside lung ultrasound may have a role in the evaluation of infants with bronchiolitis. B lines, which are multiple and diffuse vertical artifacts spreading from the lung pleural interface to the edge of the ultrasound screen, have been associated with thickened interlobular septa, extravascular lung water, and diffuse parenchymal disease. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the prevalence of B lines in children younger than 24 months presenting to the emergency department with wheezing, (2) to determine the interrater reliability of lung ultrasound findings in this setting, and (3) to determine the association of B lines with atopy and other clinical findings...
September 23, 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Heli V Brandão, Graciete O Vieira, Tatiana O Vieira, Álvaro A Cruz, Armênio C Guimarães, Carlos Teles, Paulo Camargos, Constança M S Cruz
OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis in the first year of life constitutes a risk factor for asthma at age 6 considering a parental history of asthma. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in a cohort of live births. A standardized questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was applied to the mothers to identify asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Acute viral bronchiolitis diagnosis was performed by maternal report of a medical diagnosis and/or presence of symptoms of coryza accompanied by cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea when participants were 3, 6, 9, and 12 months...
September 22, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Firas Rinawi, Imad Kassis, Rina Tamir, Amir Kugelman, Isaac Srugo, Dan Miron
BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis in infancy is considered a risk factor for recurrent wheezing episodes in childhood. The present study assessed prevalence, clinical manifestations and risk factors for recurrent wheezing events during the first 3 years of life and persistent wheezing events beyond this age in children hospitalized as young infants with acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: Two groups of children aged 6 years were included. The study group comprised 150 children with a history of hospitalization for bronchiolitis, with the first event at <6 months of age...
September 20, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Xiao-Li Yan, Yu-Ning Li, Yi-Jie Tang, Zhi-Ping Xie, Han-Chun Gao, Xue-Mei Yang, Yu-Mei Li, Li-Jun Liu, Zhao-Jun Duan
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. 387 children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV and twelve additional respiratory viruses...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Veronica Mardegan, Elena Priante, Elisabetta Lolli, Paola Lago, Eugenio Baraldi
Heated, humidified high-flow delivered by nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) is increasingly used for noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants and critically ill children due to its perceived effectiveness and ease of use. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that HHHFNC and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are equally effective as postextubation support in preterm infants. HHHFNC is also used for weaning preterm infants from CPAP. Data on HHHFNC used as the primary support for treating respiratory distress syndrome are conflicting...
September 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Bo Liang, Joan O Ngwuta, Richard Herbert, Joanna Swerczek, David W Dorward, Emerito Amaro-Carambot, Natalie Mackow, Barbora Kabatova, Matthias Lingemann, Sonja Surman, Lijuan Yang, Man Chen, Syed M Moin, Azad Kumar, Jason S McLellan, Peter D Kwong, Barney S Graham, Anne Schaap-Nutt, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
: Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are major pediatric respiratory pathogens that lack vaccines. A chimeric bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3) virus expressing the unmodified, wild-type (wt) RSV fusion (F) protein from an added gene was previously evaluated in seronegative children as a bivalent intranasal RSV/HPIV3 vaccine, and it was well tolerated but insufficiently immunogenic for RSV F. We recently showed that rB/HPIV3 expressing a partially stabilized prefusion form (pre-F) of RSV F efficiently induced "high-quality" RSV-neutralizing antibodies, defined as antibodies that neutralize RSV in vitro without added complement (B...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Giacomo Pongiglione, Alessandro Possidoni, Umberto di Luzio Paparatti, Anna Maria Costanzo, Giuliana Gualberti, Marco Bonvicini, Alessandro Rimini, Gabriella Agnoletti, Maria Pia Calabrò, Marco Pozzi, Roberto Tumbarello, Patrizia Salice, Patrizio Fiorini, Maria Giovanna Russo, Ornella Milanesi
Children affected by hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease (HSCHD) experience severe respiratory complications that can increase the frequency of hospitalizations. The aim of the SINERGY study was to describe the incidence of respiratory diseases and to collect information on active and passive immunoprophylaxis in the first 2 years of life. In this retrospective, multicenter, and epidemiologic study, children with HSCHD were enrolled across 11 Italian sites. Children born between December 31, 2007, and December 31, 2012, were observed during their first 2 years of life...
August 29, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Gabriela R Gomes, Fernanda Pg Calvete, Gabriela F Rosito, Márcio Vf Donadio
BACKGROUND: Acute viral bronchiolitis is an inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract. This study aimed to compare the immediate effects of retrograde rhinopharyngeal clearance with nasopharyngeal aspiration in children admitted with acute viral bronchiolitis. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial with children admitted for acute viral bronchiolitis up to 12 months old. Subjects were divided into a nasopharyngeal aspiration group and a clearance group, submitted to retrograde rhinopharyngeal clearance with physiological solution (0...
August 23, 2016: Respiratory Care
Pierre-Louis Hervé, Charlotte Deloizy, Delphyne Descamps, Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti, Jenna Fix, Jason S McLellan, Jean-François Eléouët, Sabine Riffault
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory infections in children, yet no vaccine is available. The sole licensed preventive treatment against RSV is composed of a monoclonal neutralizing antibody (palivizumab), which targets a conformational epitope located on the fusion protein (F). Palivizumab reduces the burden of bronchiolitis but does not prevent infection. Thus, the development of RSV vaccines remains a priority. We previously evaluated nanorings formed by RSV nucleoprotein (N) as an RSV vaccine, as well as an immunostimulatory carrier for heterologous antigens...
August 20, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Roopa Bhandary, Rekha Boloor
INTRODUCTION: Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) pulmonary disease manifesting as bronchiolitis and pneumonia continues to play a major role in the childhood mortality and morbidity. Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized children presenting with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI) and its correlation with risk factors. AIM: To determine the occurrence of RSV related respiratory tract infection in paediatric patients and to access the risk factors and clinical features associated...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Bo Lund Krogsgaard Chawes
Asthma and allergies are today the most common chronic diseases in children and the leading causes of school absences, chronic medication usage, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, which affect all members of the family and represent a significant societal and scientific challenge. These highly prevalent disorders are thought to originate from immune distortion in early childhood, but the etiology and heterogeneity of the disease mechanisms are not understood, which hampers preventive initiatives and makes treatment inadequate...
August 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Shawn L Ralston, Emily Carson Atwood, Matthew D Garber, Alison Volpe Holmes
OBJECTIVES: Unnecessary care is well-established as a quality problem affecting acute viral bronchiolitis, one of the most common pediatric illnesses. While there is an extensive quality improvement literature on the disease, published work primarily reflects the experience of freestanding children's hospitals. We sought to better understand the specific barriers and drivers for successful quality improvement in community and non-freestanding children's facilities. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods study to identify correlates of success in a bronchiolitis quality improvement collaborative of community hospitals and children's hospitals within adult hospitals...
July 8, 2016: Academic Pediatrics
Francois Marie Ngako Kadji, Michiko Okamoto, Yuki Furuse, Raita Tamaki, Akira Suzuki, Irene Lirio, Clyde Dapat, Rungnapa Malasao, Mariko Saito, Gay Anne Granada Pedrera-Rico, Veronica Tallo, Socorro Lupisan, Mayuko Saito, Hitoshi Oshitani
BACKGROUND: Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B...
2016: Virology Journal
Swati Saxena, Dharamveer Singh, Amreen Zia, Jyoti Umrao, Naveen Srivastava, Ankita Pandey, Sushma Singh, Piyali Bhattacharya, Reema Kumari, Ramawadh Kushwaha, T N Dhole
BACKGROUND: Influenza A and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) has been recognized as a major cause of acute respiratory tract infection. H1N1 is one of the subtypes of influenza A, pandemic worldwide in July2009, causing 18,449 deaths globally. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestation of the influenza A, H1N1pdm09 and RSV. METHOD: Throat/nasal swab collected from the patients of all age group either outpatients/inpatients having respiratory illness from 2 to 5 days...
June 22, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Antonio José Justicia-Grande, Jacobo Pardo-Seco, Miriam Cebey-López, Lucía Vilanova-Trillo, Alberto Gómez-Carballa, Irene Rivero-Calle, María Puente-Puig, Carmen Curros-Novo, José Gómez-Rial, Antonio Salas, José María Martinón-Sánchez, Lorenzo Redondo-Collazo, Carmen Rodríguez-Tenreiro, Federico Martinón-Torres
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A properly validated scoring system allowing objective categorization of infants with acute respiratory infections (ARIs), avoiding the need for in-person assessment and that could also be used by non-health professionals is currently not available. We aimed to develop a new clinical assessment scale meeting these specifications. METHODS: We designed a clinical scale (ReSVinet scale) based on seven parameters (feeding intolerance, medical intervention, respiratory difficulty, respiratory frequency, apnoea, general condition, fever) that were assigned different values (from 0 to 3) for a total of 20 points...
2016: PloS One
Alicia A Annamalay, Salome Abbott, Chisha Sikazwe, Siew-Kim Khoo, Joelene Bizzintino, Guicheng Zhang, Ingrid Laing, Glenys R Chidlow, David W Smith, James Gern, Jack Goldblatt, Deborah Lehmann, Robin J Green, Peter N Le Souëf
BACKGROUND: Human rhinovirus (RV) is the most common respiratory virus and has been associated with frequent and severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). The prevalence of RV species among HIV-infected children in South Africa is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence of respiratory viruses, including RV species, associated with HIV status and other clinical symptoms in children less than two years of age with and without ALRI in Pretoria, South Africa...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
H J Zar, S A Madhi, D A White, R Masekela, S Risenga, H Lewis, C Feldman, B Morrow, P Jeena
Management of acute viral bronchiolitis is largely supportive. There is currently no proven effective therapy other than oxygen for hypoxic children. The evidence indicates that there is no routine benefit from inhaled, rapid short-acting bronchodilators, adrenaline or ipratropium bromide for children with acute viral bronchiolitis. Likewise, there is no demonstrated benefit from routine use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled hypertonic saline nebulisation, montelukast or antibiotics. The last should be reserved for children with severe disease, when bacterial co-infection is suspected...
April 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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