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Acute bronchiolitis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335827/management-of-acute-respiratory-diseases-in-the-pediatric-population-the-role-of-oral-corticosteroids
#1
REVIEW
Renato Cutrera, Eugenio Baraldi, Luciana Indinnimeo, Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Giorgio Piacentini, Francesco Scaglione, Nicola Ullmann, Laura Moschino, Francesca Galdo, Marzia Duse
Respiratory diseases account for about 25% of all pediatric consultations, and 10% of these are for asthma. The other main pediatric respiratory diseases, in terms of incidence, are bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis and respiratory infections. Oral corticosteroids, in particular prednisolone, are often used to treat acute respiratory diseases given their anti-inflammatory effects. However, the efficacy of treatment with oral corticosteroids differs among the various types of pediatric respiratory diseases. Notably, also the adverse effects of corticosteroid treatment can differ depending on dosage, duration of treatment and type of corticosteroid administered - a case in point being growth retardation in long-course treatment...
March 23, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325776/noninvasive-respiratory-support-during-pediatric-ground-transport-implementation-of-a-safe-and-feasible-procedure
#2
Nuria Millán, Carme Alejandre, Aina Martinez-Planas, Josep Caritg, Elisabeth Esteban, Martí Pons-Òdena
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to determine the safety and feasibility of noninvasive support in children with acute respiratory failure (ARF) during interhospital ground transport. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center observational clinical study in the pediatric transport unit of a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. We included all subjects with ARF transported from November 2010 to March 2013. A specific noninvasive support protocol was used for all cases...
March 21, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301570/human-metapnuemovirus-infections-in-hospitalized-children-and-comparison-with-other-respiratory-viruses-2005-2014-prospective-study
#3
María Luz García-García, Cristina Calvo, Cristina Rey, Beatriz Díaz, Maria Del Mar Molinero, Francisco Pozo, Inmaculada Casas
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has an important etiological role in acute lower respiratory infections in children under five years. Our objectives were to estimate the relative contribution of HMPV to hospitalization in children with acute respiratory infection, to define the clinical and epidemiological features of HMPV single and multiple infections, and to compare HMPV infections with respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), rhinovirus (HRV), adenovirus and human bocavirus infections in the same population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284475/morning-salivary-cortisol-in-young-children-reference-values-and-the-effects-of-age-sex-and-acute-bronchiolitis
#4
Leif Bjarte Rolfsjord, Egil Bakkeheim, Teresa Løvold Berents, Johan Alm, Håvard Ove Skjerven, Kai-Håkon Carlsen, Petter Mowinckel, Ann-Christine Sjöbeck, Karin Cecilie Lødrup Carlsen
OBJECTIVE: To identify morning salivary cortisol reference values in infancy and at 2 years of age and to investigate the influence of age, sex and acute bronchiolitis. STUDY DESIGN: In this South-East Norwegian cohort study, 308 children hospitalized with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis in infancy in 2010-2011 were compared with 223 healthy controls included in 2012 by measuring morning salivary cortisol levels at inclusion and at 2 years of age. Samples were collected shortly after awakening after 6 am...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267276/hyponatremia-in-children-with-acute-respiratory-infections-a-reappraisal
#5
REVIEW
Camilla Lavagno, Gregorio P Milani, Peter Uestuener, Giacomo D Simonetti, Carmen Casaulta, Mario G Bianchetti, Pietro B Fare, Sebastiano A G Lava
Hyponatremia (<135 mmol/L), typically associated with an elevated anti-diuretic hormone level, is common among children admitted with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, or pulmonary exacerbation of cystic fibrosis. The main consequences of acute hyponatremia include cerebral edema and Ayus-Arieff pulmonary edema. A widespread belief is that, in children with pneumonia or bronchiolitis, hyponatremia results from inappropriate anti-diuresis. By contrast, the pathogenic role of extracellular fluid volume depletion or decreased effective circulating blood volume is underscored...
March 7, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257313/factors-predicting-asthma-in-children-with-acute-bronchiolitis
#6
Muhammad Waseem, Seleipiri Iboroma Akobo, Faizan Shaikh, Anyelina DelaCruz, Wendy Henriquez, Mark Leber
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if there is an association between bronchiolitis and future development of asthma in children younger than 2 years. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 1991 patients younger than 2 years presenting to the emergency department from January 2000 to December 2010 who received a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis. Their demographic information, the number of bronchiolitis episodes, and family history of asthma were recorded...
March 2, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253869/reduced-prf1-enhancer-methylation-in-children-with-a-history-of-severe-rsv-bronchiolitis-in-infancy-an-association-study
#7
Magdeldin Elgizouli, Chad Logan, Ruth Grychtol, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Alexandra Nieters, Andrea Heinzmann
BACKGROUND: Acute lower respiratory tract infection is the commonest disease affecting children under five worldwide. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causative pathogens. Epidemiological data suggest an association between severe viral respiratory infections in infancy and increased incidence of childhood wheeze and asthma. DNA methylation is involved in immune cell differentiation and identity. It provides an avenue for environmental influences on the genome and therefore has potential as a marker for sustained effects of infectious insults...
March 3, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193180/viral-aetiology-of-bronchiolitis-in-hospitalised-children-in-qatar
#8
Ibrahim Janahi, Anas Abdulkayoum, Fawziya Almeshwesh, Mohamed Alkuwari, Ahmed Al Hammadi, Marwah Alameri
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is considered one of the earliest and most common causes of hospitalisation in young children. Development of molecular technologies allowed a better understanding of bronchiolitis aetiology. Results from cohort studies evaluating the association between single, multiple viral infections and clinical outcomes are conflicting. Data on viral bronchiolitis in children were found to be limited in Qatar. This study aimed to determine frequency and seasonal trends of viral pathogens causing acute bronchiolitis, and to explore association between viral pathogens, disease severity and length of stay (LOS)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192893/non-invasive-ventilation-improves-respiratory-distress-in-children-with-acute-viral-bronchiolitis-a-systematic-review
#9
Yann Combret, Guillaume Prieur, Pascal LE Roux, Clément Médrinal
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a common treatment for bronchiolitis. However, consensus concerning its efficacy is lacking. The aim of this systematic review was to assess NIV effectiveness to reduce respiratory distress. Secondary objectives were to summarize the effects of NIV, identify predictive factors for failure and describe settings and applications. METHODS: Searches were conducted in MEDLINE Pubmed, PEDro, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Up-todate and Sudoc from 1990 to April 2015...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124966/-a-case-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans-secondary-to-human-metapneumovirus-bronchiolitis
#10
Osman Yeşilbaş, Esra Şevketoğlu, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Elif Bato, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Mert Ahmet Kuşkucu, Figen Palabıyık, Erkan Çakır
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV), formerly classified in Paramyxoviridae family is now moved into Pneumoviridae, which was described as a novel family. It causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) usually in children younger than five years old. The recent epidemiological studies indicated that hMPV is the second most frequently detected virus in LRTIs of young children, following the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a chronic obstructive lung disease characterized by fibrosis of the distal respiratory airways...
October 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114728/the-modified-respiratory-index-score-ris-guides-resource-allocation-in-acute-bronchiolitis
#11
Shu-Ling Chong, Oon Hoe Teoh, Nivedita Nadkarni, Joo Guan Yeo, Zaw Lwin, Yong-Kwang Gene Ong, Jan Hau Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchiolitis is a common disease in early childhood with increasing healthcare utilization. We aim to study how well a simple and improved respiratory score (the modified Respiratory Index Score [RIS]) would perform when predicting for a warranted admission. METHODS: This is an observational prospective study, from June 2015 to December 2015 in a paediatric emergency department (ED) of a large tertiary hospital in Singapore. We included children aged less than 2 years old, presenting with typical symptoms and signs of bronchiolitis but excluded children with four or more previous wheezes, a gestation of <35 weeks, and known cardiopulmonary disease...
January 23, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095826/non-invasive-respiratory-support-for-infants-with-bronchiolitis-a-national-survey-of-practice
#12
H Turnham, R S Agbeko, J Furness, J Pappachan, A G Sutcliffe, P Ramnarayan
BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common respiratory illness of early childhood. For most children it is a mild self-limiting disease but a small number of children develop respiratory failure. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) has traditionally been used to provide non-invasive respiratory support in these children, but there is little clinical trial evidence to support its use. More recently, high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HFNC) has emerged as a novel respiratory support modality...
January 17, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092107/rsv-associated-hospitalizations-in-children-in-karachi-pakistan-implications-for-vaccine-prevention-strategies
#13
Asad Ali, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Rabbia Waris, Fatima Jafri, Fatima Aziz, Imran Naeem Abbasi, Anita Zaidi
Major progress is being made in vaccines against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), with multiple vaccine candidates currently in the clinical phase of development. Making an investment case for public sector financing of RSV vaccine will require estimation of burden, cost-effectiveness, and impact. The aim of this study is to determine the proportion, age distribution and clinical spectrum of RSV associated hospitalizations in children in Karachi, Pakistan. A three years prospective study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, a city of 20 million in south Pakistan, from August 2009 to June 2012...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011970/zinc-sulphate-for-acute-bronchiolitis-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Negin Khoshbakht Ahmadi, Sara Talebi Pour Nikoo, Samaneh Hamzehloo, Alireza Taremiha, Zohreh Yazdi, Shiva Esmaeily
The use of adjunctive therapies to achieve rapid recovery from clinical symptoms of acute bronchiolitis would appear necessary. This study was performed to determine the effect of zinc sulphate on treating acute bronchiolitis. In this study, 100 children affected with acute bronchiolitis were investigated. Fifty patients received oral zinc sulphate and 50 patients placebo. Signs and symptoms of the disease were compared between two groups at the time of admission and then 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours after the beginning of treatment...
December 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892438/comparison-of-initial-response-of-nebulized-salbutamol-and-adrenaline-in-infants-and-young-children-admitted-with-acute-bronchiolitis
#15
S Adhikari, P Thapa, K S Rao, G Bk
Background Acute bronchiolitis is common cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. There are widespread variations in the diagnosis and management. Despite the use of bronchodilators for decades, there is lack of consensus for the benefit of one above another. Objective To compare initial response of nebulized adrenaline and salbutamol. Method Children aged two months to two years admitted with acute bronchiolitis in the department of Paediatrics of Manipal teaching hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, from 1st March 2014 to 28th February 2015 were enrolled...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889372/-non-invasive-ventilation-in-children-do-we-need-more-evidence
#16
G Mortamet, G Emeriaud, P Jouvet, B Fauroux, S Essouri
Respiratory failure is the leading cause of hospital admissions in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, preferentially delivered by a non-invasive route (NIV), is currently the first-line treatment for respiratory failure since it is associated with a reduction in the intubation rate. This ventilatory support is increasingly used in the PICU, but its wider use contrasts with the paucity of studies in this field. This review aims to describe the main indications of NIV in acute settings: (i) bronchiolitis; (ii) postextubation respiratory failure; (iii) acute respiratory distress syndrome; (iv) pneumonia; (v) status asthmaticus; (vi) acute chest syndrome; (vii) left heart failure; (viii) exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure; (ix) upper airway obstruction and (x) end-of-life care...
January 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885562/respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-are-the-key-viral-pathogens-in-children-2%C3%A2-years-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis-and-pneumonia-in-islamabad-pakistan
#17
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Yasir Arshad, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Asiya Ashraf, Hajra Sadia, Birjees Mazher Kazi, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Pneumonia remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Comprehensive surveillance data are needed to review the prevention and control strategies. We conducted active surveillance of acute lower respiratory infections among children aged <2 years hospitalized at two hospitals of Islamabad, Pakistan. Viral etiology was determined using real-time PCR on respiratory specimens collected during March 2011-April 2012. The overall mean age was 7.83 ± 5.25 months while no statistical difference between age or sex distribution of patients with positive and negative viral etiology (p > 0...
March 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865727/-epidemiology-of-patients-hospitalised-due-to-bronchiolitis-in-the-south-of-europe-analysis-of-the-epidemics-2010-2015
#18
José Miguel Ramos-Fernández, Eva Pedrero-Segura, Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Beatriz Delgado-Martín, Ana María Cordón-Martínez, David Moreno-Pérez, Antonio Urda-Cardona
INTRODUCTION: The renewal of clinical practice guidelines on acute bronchiolitis (AB) requires the re-assessment of the consequences of their implementation. An update is presented on the main clinical and epidemiological variables in patients hospitalised due to AB in Southern Europe and an analysis made of the causes associated with longer hospital stay. PATIENTS AND METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted on patients admitted to hospital due to AB during 5 epidemics (2010-2015), with an analysis of the major clinical and epidemiological variables...
November 16, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805553/-monoinfection-of-human-metapneumovirus-in-cordoba-first-clinical-and-epidemiological-research-in-children-with-respiratory-infection-in-2011
#19
Pamela Elizabeth Rodriguez, María Pilar Adamo, María Gabriela Paglini, Laura Moreno, Jorge Augusto Camara, Alicia Camara
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) RNA virus discovered in 2001, is a pathogen associated with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under 5 years; its prevalence ranges from 5-15%. In Córdoba, it is not integrated into the viral research in patients with low IRA (LARI). OBJECTIVE: Detect hMPV in children under 5 years hospitalized for LARI in the Children's Hospital "Santísima Trinidad" of Cordoba (HNC) in 2011 and describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of monoinfecciones without comorbidity...
2016: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799386/association-of-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-profiles-with-bronchiolitis-severity-in-infants-hospitalised-for-bronchiolitis
#20
Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Janice A Espinola, David M Henke, Joseph F Petrosino, Pedro A Piedra, Chad A Shaw, Ashley F Sullivan, Carlos A Camargo
Little is known about the relationship between the specific airway microbiota composition and severity of bronchiolitis. We aimed to identify nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles and link these profiles to acute severity in infants hospitalised for bronchiolitis.We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study of 1005 infants (age <1 year) hospitalised for bronchiolitis over three winters, 2011-2014. By applying a 16S rRNA gene sequence and clustering approach to the nasopharyngeal aspirates collected within 24 h of hospitalisation, we determined nasopharyngeal microbiota profiles and their association with bronchiolitis severity...
November 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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