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Charles L Briggs
This article analyzes a contradiction facing efforts by left-leaning governments in Latin America to transform health into a fundamental social right. Policies and practices that confront health inequities generally fail to address health/communicative inequities, hierarchical distributions of rights to shape what counts as legitimate knowledge of health. This ethnographic analysis focuses on an epidemic of a mysterious disease - identified clinically as bat-transmitted rabies - in the Delta Amacuro rainforest of Venezuela in 2007-2008, tracing how parents who lost 1-3 children faced acute health/communicative inequities in clinical settings, epidemiological investigations, work with healers, news coverage, health policy, and health communication...
July 2017: Salud Colectiva
Andrew William Robertson, Jeanna M MacLeod, Logan W MacIntyre, Stephanie M Forget, Steven R Hall, Leah G Bennett, Hebelin Correa, Russell G Kerr, Kerry B Goralski, David L Jakeman
Polyketide synthase (PKS) derived natural products are biosynthesized by head-to-tail addition of acetate and malonate extender units resulting in linear extended-polyketide chains. Despite the well documented structural diversity associated with PKS derived natural products, C-C chain branching deviating from the usual linear pattern is relatively rare. Herein, type-II PKS angucyclic natural products containing a hemiaminal functionality were identified and proposed as the parent of a series of C-C branched analogues...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Juan J Llibre Rodriguez, A Matthew Prina, Daisy Acosta, Mariella Guerra, Yueqin Huang, K S Jacob, Ivonne Z Jimenez-Velasquez, Aquiles Salas, Ana Luisa Sosa, Joseph D Williams, A T Jotheeswaran, Isaac Acosta, Zhaorui Liu, Martin J Prince
BACKGROUND: There have been few cross-national studies of the prevalence of the frailty phenotype conducted among low or middle income countries. We aimed to study the variation in prevalence and correlates of frailty in rural and urban sites in Latin America, India, and China. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based catchment area surveys conducted in 8 urban and 4 rural catchment areas in 8 countries; Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Peru, Mexico, China, and India...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Miguel Aguirre, Yajaira Briceño, Roald Gómez-Pérez, Yajaira Zerpa, Nolis Camacho, Mariela Paoli
OBJECTIVE: To determine the behavior of the triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL) as a cardiometabolic risk marker in children and adolescents from Mérida, Venezuela. METHODS: A total of 1292 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years who attended educational institutions in the Libertador Municipality were enrolled into this study. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure values were recorded. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid levels were measured...
December 28, 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
José M Ramos-Rincón, Isabel Belinchón-Romero, Francisco Sánchez-Ferrer, Guillermo Martínez-de la Torre, Meggan Harris, Javier Sánchez-Fernández
To evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos performed by Spanish university students on physical examination. We analyzed performance metrics for four videos on physical examinations in Spanish, created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain) and available on YouTube: on the head and neck (7:30), the cardiovascular system (7:38), the respiratory system (13:54), and the abdomen (11:10). We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform, analyzing the reach of the videos from the date of upload (17 February 2015) to 28 July 2017 (2 years, 5 months and 11 days)...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions
Mohamed Belal Hamed, Spyridoula Karamanou, Solveig Ólafsdottir, Joana Sofia Martins Basílio, Kenneth Simoens, Kostantinos C Tsolis, Lieve Van Mellaert, Eik Elísabet Guðmundsdóttir, Gudmundur Oli Hreggvidsson, Jozef Anné, Kristel Bernaerts, Olafur H Fridjonsson, Anastassios Economou
BACKGROUND: The gene encoding a thermostable cellulase of family 12 was previously isolated from a Rhodothermus marinus through functional screening. CelA is a protein of 260 aminoacyl residues with a 28-residue amino-terminal signal peptide. Mature CelA was poorly synthesized in some Escherichia coli strains and not at all in others. Here we present an alternative approach for its heterologous production as a secreted polypeptide in Streptomyces. RESULTS: CelA was successfully over-expressed as a secreted polypeptide in Streptomyces lividans TK24...
December 23, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
P Clark, E Denova-Gutiérrez, C Zerbini, A Sanchez, O Messina, J J Jaller, C Campusano, C H Orces, G Riera, H Johansson, J A Kanis
Age-specific intervention and assessment thresholds were developed for seven Latin American countries. The intervention threshold ranged from 1.2% (Ecuador) to 27.5% (Argentina) at the age of 50 and 90 years, respectively. In the Latin American countries, FRAX offers a substantial advance for the detection of subjects at high fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: Intervention thresholds are proposed using the Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool. We recommended their use to calculate the ten-year probability of fragility fracture (FF) in both, men and women with or without the inclusion of bone mineral density (BMD)...
December 23, 2017: Osteoporosis International
Jorge Federico Elgart, Mariana Prestes, Lorena Gonzalez, Enzo Rucci, Juan Jose Gagliardino
AIMS: Despite the frequent association of obesity with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the effect of the former on the cost of drug treatment of the latest has not been specifically addressed. We studied the association of overweight/obesity on the cost of drug treatment of hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia in a population with T2D. METHODS: This observational study utilized data from the QUALIDIAB database on 3,099 T2D patients seen in Diabetes Centers in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela...
2017: PloS One
Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Imperia Brajkovich, Eunice Ugel, Alejandro Risques, Hermes Florez, Juan Pablo González-Rivas
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of diabetes in multiple regions of Venezuela is unknown. To determine the prevalence of diabetes in five populations from three regions of Venezuela. METHODS: During 2006-2010, 1334 subjects ≥20years were selected by multistage stratified random sampling from all households from 3 regions of Venezuela. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical analysis were obtained. Statistical methods were calculated using SPSS 20 software. FINDINGS: Mean (SE) age was 44...
December 14, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
Greta Carioli, Matteo Malvezzi, Teresa Rodriguez, Paola Bertuccio, Eva Negri, Carlo La Vecchia
OBJECTIVES: We considered trends in breast cancer mortality for 12 American and 8 Australasian countries during 1970-2014, and predicted rates for 2020. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained official death certification data for breast cancer and population figures from the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization and United Nations databases. We derived age-standardized rates (world standard population), and predictions for 2020 using joinpoint regression...
December 12, 2017: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Victor M Q Hernández, José G N Barreat
The genus Racekiela Bass & Volkmer-Ribeiro, 1998 comprises six species of freshwater sponges distributed along the Palaearctic, Nearctic and Neotropical regions (Van Soest et al. 2017). They are characterized by an isodictyal skeleton solely of acanthoxeas, sparse spongin fibers, and tri-layered gemmules with radially embedded gemmoscleres of two types, short birotules and long pseudobirotules (Manconi & Pronzato 2002; Volkmer-Ribeiro & Machado 2007). Four species occur in the Northern Hemisphere: R. biceps (Lindenschmidt, 1950) from Michigan (Lindenschmidt 1950), R...
October 31, 2017: Zootaxa
Juan Pablo Botero
The genus Eburodacrys White, 1853 is redescribed. Four new species are proposed: Eburodacrys yolandae, from Colombia; E. eduardoi and E. bezarki, from Brazil, and E. santossilvai, from Venezuela. Eburodacrys curialis Gounelle, 1909; and Eburodacrys hesperidis Chemsak & Linsley, 1970 are proposed as synonyms of Eburodacrys nemorivaga Gounelle, 1909; and Eburodacrys amabilis Galileo & Martins, 2009 as synonym of Eburodacrys sulfurifera Gounelle, 1909. The genus is now composed of 89 species. The geographical distribution of 26 species is expanded and the specific locality in Colombia for E...
November 8, 2017: Zootaxa
Valeria Juliete DA Silva, David A Rider, Jose Antonio Marin Fernandes
In accordance with the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the type species for the genus Edessa Fabricius, 1803 is now recognized to be Cimex antilope Fabricius, 1798 rather than the previously recognized Cimex cervus Fabricius, 1787. Edessa antilope is redescribed, as well as the following four species that have in the past been related or compared to E. antilope: E. arabs (Linnaeus, 1758) from French Guiana, Costa Rica and Panama (new record), E. helix Erichson, 1848 from Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Suriname (new record), Guyana, Brazil (new record), Bolivia (new record) and Argentina (new record), E...
November 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Alexander M Feijoo, George G Brown, Samuel W James
Findings pertinent to 11 earthworm species from Venezuela and Brazil are reported. Six of these species are described as new to science, one is re-described and relocated in the genus Andiorrhinus, and new sites of occurrence are reported for four other species. Eight species of oligochaetes were found in the Andes in the state of Mérida, Venezuela: Andiorrhinus (Turedrilus) duranti sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) timotocuica sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) torondoy sp. nov., Andiorrhinus (Meridrilus) sp...
December 8, 2017: Zootaxa
Ranulfo González-Obando, Nancy Carrejo-Gironza, Alfonso N García Aldrete
Based on a survey of the genus Triplocania (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') in forests of natural areas and Natural Parks in Colombia, 46 species were found, 42 of which are new to science and are here described and illustrated. Added to T. colombiana García Aldrete, the number of species of Triplocania now known in Colombia is raised to 47. To date, 40 species described in this paper are recorded only in Colombia, and seven species are shared with neighboring countries, three with Brazil, one with Venezuela, two with Ecuador, and one with Ecuador and Brazil...
October 15, 2017: Zootaxa
Rafael Puche, Ignacio Ferrés, Lizeth Caraballo, Yaritza Rangel, Mathieu Picardeau, Howard Takiff, Gregorio Iraola
Three strains, CLM-U50T, CLM-R50 and IVIC-Bov1, belonging to the genus Leptospira, were isolated in Venezuela from a patient with leptospirosis, a domestic rat (Rattus norvegicus) and a cow (Bos taurus), respectively. The initial characterisation of these strains based on the rrs gene (16S rRNA) suggested their designation as a novel species within the 'intermediates' group of the genus Leptospira. Further phylogenomic characterisation based on single copy core genes was consistent with their separation into a novel species...
December 14, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Sunil Daryanani
Adequate and modern health care is not available in Venezuela at this moment. A humanitarian crisis of post war dimensions is currently rampant and afflicting all Venezuelans alike. The delivery and availability of cancer care is severely limited and inadequate. No funding is available as populist measures, mismanagement, pillaging, corruption, lack of forethought and expertise have brought the country into severe economic collapse and political turmoil.
2017: Ecancermedicalscience
Ramfis Nieto-Martínez, Juan P González-Rivas, Pablo Aschner, Noël C Barengo, Jeffrey I Mechanick
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a heavy burden in developing countries, requiring effective primary prevention policies. Randomized clinical trials have identified successful strategies in T2D prevention. However, translating these results to real-life scenarios and adapting to ethnocultural differences is a major challenge. Transculturalization allows incorporating cultural factors to diabetes prevention strategies to optimize implementation of clinical trials results. The purpose of this paper is to review the transcultural adaptations developed for T2D prevention in Latin America (LA)...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
Anselme F E Borgeaud, Kenji Kawai, Kensuke Konishi, Robert J Geller
D″ (Dee double prime), the lowermost layer of the Earth's mantle, is the thermal boundary layer (TBL) of mantle convection immediately above the Earth's liquid outer core. As the origin of upwelling of hot material and the destination of paleoslabs (downwelling cold slab remnants), D″ plays a major role in the Earth's evolution. D″ beneath Central America and the Caribbean is of particular geodynamical interest, because the paleo- and present Pacific plates have been subducting beneath the western margin of Pangaea since ~250 million years ago, which implies that paleoslabs could have reached the lowermost mantle...
November 2017: Science Advances
Maria Cristina Lopez
Food allergy is a public health concern almost all over the world. Although most of the countries that regulate the declaration of allergens in prepackaged foods include the list recommended by the Codex Alimentarius, some countries have added other allergens to this list due to prevalence data and regional incidence, whereas others have incorporated exceptions for some products derived from allergenic foods. Within this context, the situation in Latin America regarding these regulations is diverse. Data about prevalence of food hypersensitivity are very limited in the region...
December 5, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
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